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Analysis of Achievement Characteristics by Achievement Standard of the Middle School Curriculum Based on the National Assessment of Educational Achievement

학업성취도 평가 결과에 기반한 중학교 교육과정 성취기준별 성취 특성 분석

  • Received : 2020.07.28
  • Accepted : 2020.09.18
  • Published : 2020.10.31

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of students' academic achievement of middle school science curriculum achievement standards in the 2009 revised national curriculum and to generate implications for curriculum improvement. Based on the results of the 2015-2018 National Assessment of Educational Achievement (NAEA), we analyzed middle school students' mastery of 84 curriculum achievement standards. In the analysis, we used representative item information by achievement level and correct answer rate and checked the validity of the determination of mastery. According to the results of the analysis, 15 of the 84 achievement standards could not determine the degree of achievement. In science, many achievement standards could be mastered only by above-average group students. By achievement level, there were six achievement standards that advanced achievement-level students did not achieve, 38 achievement standards judged to represent mastery by advanced achievement-level students, 23 achievement standards judged to represent mastery by proficient achievement-level students, and two achievement standards judged to represent mastery by basic achievement-level students. By content area, the number of achievement standards corresponding to advanced and proficient levels was similar in the areas of motion and energy and earth and space domains. In the material and life domains, there were more achievement standards corresponding to advanced levels. Accordingly, it is necessary to reinforce customized teaching and learning activities in relation to achievement standards that were under-achieved.

본 연구는 2009 개정 교육과정의 과학과 교육과정 성취기준에 대한 학생들의 학업성취 특성을 분석하여 교육과정 개선에 대한 시사점을 마련하는 것이다. 이를 위해서 2009 개정 교육과정에 따라 시행된 2015~2018년 학업성취도 평가 결과를 바탕으로 중학교 과학과 교육과정 성취기준 84개에 대한 숙달여부를 성취수준별(우수학력, 보통학력, 기초학력 등)로 분석하였다. 분석에서는 성취수준별 대표문항 정보, 정답률 등을 활용하고, 포커스 그룹을 이용하여 숙달여부 판정에 대한 타당성을 점검하였다. 분석 결과를 보면 84개의 성취기준 중에 숙달여부를 판정할 수 없는 성취기준은 15개였다. 성취수준별로 보면 우수학력도 숙달하지 못한 성취기준은 6개였으며, 우수학력 학생까지 숙달한 것으로 판단된 성취기준은 38개, 보통학력 학생까지 숙달한 것으로 판단된 성취기준은 23개, 기초학력 학생까지 숙달한 것으로 판단된 성취기준은 2개였다. 우수학력도 숙달하지 못하였거나 우수학력 학생들만 숙달한 성취기준이 전체 성취기준의 절반 이상이므로 과학에 대한 학생들의 전반적인 이해도 향상을 위한 노력이 필요하다. 영역별로 살펴보면, 운동과 에너지, 지구와 우주 영역에서는 우수학력과 보통학력에 해당하는 성취기준의 개수가 비슷하였으나, 물질과 생명 영역에서는 우수학력에 해당하는 성취기준이 가장 많았고 특히 생명 영역에서는 거의 대부분이 우수학력에 해당하였다. 우수학력 학생들도 성취하기 어려운 6개의 성취기준은 대부분의 학생이 교육과정에서 요구하는 수준까지 도달하기 어려운 내용이므로 교육과정에서 관련 내용을 조정하거나 학생의 어려움을 해결할 수 있는 교수·학습 자료를 개발·보급할 필요가 있다.

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