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Effect of chloride ions on the catalytic properties of human pancreatic α-amylase isozyme produced in Pichia pastoris

Pichia pastoris에서 생산된 인체 췌장 α-아밀레이스 동질효소의 촉매활성에 대한 염소이온의 영향

  • Kim, Min-Gyu (Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, Young-Wan (Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University)
  • 김민규 (고려대학교 식품생명공학과) ;
  • 김영완 (고려대학교 식품생명공학과)
  • Received : 2016.06.01
  • Accepted : 2016.06.27
  • Published : 2016.08.31

Abstract

The AMY2B gene, encoding human pancreatic ${\alpha}$-amylase isozyme (HPA II), was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the effects of chloride ions on HPA II activity toward starch substrates were investigated. As seen with chloride ion-dependent ${\alpha}$-amylases-including HPA I, the isozyme of HPA II-chloride ions increased enzyme activity and shifted the optimal pH to an alkaline pH. The activity enhancement by chloride was more significant at pH 8 than that at pH 6, suggesting that the protonation state of the general acid/base catalyst of HPA II was important for the hydrolysis of starches at an alkaline pH because of the increase in its $pK_a$ by chloride ions. The turnover values for cereal starches as the substrates markedly increased in the presence of chloride by up to 7.2-fold, whereas that for soluble starch increased by only 1.7-fold. Chloride inhibited substrate hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, with $K_i$ values ranging from 6 to 15 mg/mL.

HPA는 식품으로 섭취되는 녹말을 분해하는데 있어서 매우 중요한 역할을 수행하는 효소이기 때문에 HPA 효소 활성의 억제는 당뇨와 비만과 같은 질환의 예방과 치료에 있어서 의미를 가진다. 따라서 HPA는 당뇨병 치료와 비만 예방을 위한 새로운 식 의약품 소재 개발을 위한 주요 타깃 효소 중 하나이며, 새로운 소재의 개발을 위해서는 HPA의 반응 메커니즘을 비롯하여 천연 기질 분해 특성에 대한 이해가 반드시 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 HPA의 동질효소 중 연구가 거의 진행되지 않은 HPA II에 대한 효소 특성화를 진행하고자 P. pastoris 시스템을 이용하여 재조합 HPA II를 생산하였으며, 녹말 분해와 관련된 효소적 특성을 분석하였다. HPA II는 10 mM NaCl까지 농도 의존적으로 효소활성이 증가하였으며, 최적 활성을 위한 pH는 0 mM NaCl 조건에서 pH 6.5이었으나 10 mM NaCl조건에서 pH 7.5로 이동하는 특성을 보였으며, 이는 HPA I을 포함하는 염소이온 의존형 아밀레이스가 나타내는 전형적인 특징이다. 염소이온 존재 시 최적 pH가 염기성 pH 영역으로 이동하는 것은 염소 이온과 효소의 결합에 의해 HPA II의 산/염기 촉매 잔기의 $pK_a$값이 커진다는 것을 의미하며, 염소이온을 첨가하였을 때 녹말에 대한 가수분해 활성의 증대 정도가 산성 pH 영역보다 염기성 pH 영역에서 두드러지게 나타났다는 점이 이를 뒷받침하였다. 반응속도론적 분석 결과에 따르면 염소이온 존재 시 효소활성의 증대는 대부분 전환수(turnover number)의 증대에 의한 것으로 나타났으며, 가용성 녹말 보다 곡류 녹말에 대한 전환수의 증대가 크게 나타났다. 염소이온은 활성의 증대뿐만 아니라 고농도의 기질 조건에서 기질에 의한 효소 활성 억제 양상을 심화시키는 것으로 나타났다. 결론적으로 HPA II의 특징은 HPA I과 거의 유사한 경향을 나타내었으며, 염소이온 첨가여부에 따른 HPA II의 가수분해활성 결과를 바탕으로 향 후 HPA에 대한 곡류 녹말 가수분해 활성 억제제 개발을 위한 연구를 추진할 계획이다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농촌진흥청, 한국연구재단

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