The Mediating Effects of Maternal Control Strategies on the Relationship between Preschoolers' Temperament and Compliance/Noncompliance

유아의 기질과 순응/불순응 행동 간의 관계에서 어머니의 통제전략의 매개적 효과

  • 신나나 (이화여자대학교 아동학과) ;
  • 도현심 (이화여자대학교 아동학과) ;
  • 김민정 (남서울대학교 아동복지학과) ;
  • 송승민 (수원대학교 아동가족복지학과) ;
  • 김수지 (이화여자대학교 아동학과) ;
  • 윤기봉 (이화여자대학교 아동학과) ;
  • 두정일 (한양대학교 교육대학원)
  • Received : 2014.09.30
  • Accepted : 2014.12.04
  • Published : 2014.12.31


The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of maternal control strategies on the relationship between preschoolers' temperament and compliance/noncompliance. A total of 125 mothers with preschoolers aged 3 and 4 years participated in this study. Preschoolers' temperament was reported by mothers. Maternal control strategies and preschoolers' compliance/noncompliance were observed in the laboratory using a clean-up task. There were four major findings. First, preschoolers with higher levels of activity exhibited less compliance, and preschoolers with higher levels of adaptability and activity displayed more noncompliance. Second, preschoolers whose mothers used fewer commands and more compliments displayed more compliance and less noncompliance. Third, mothers who rated their children higher in activity level used more commands with their children. Finally, the use of maternal commands mediated the association between preschoolers' activity level and compliance/noncompliance. When preschoolers' activity level and maternal control strategies were considered together to predict preschoolers' compliance/noncompliance, the relationship between activity level and compliance/noncompliance became nonsignificant. These findings suggest that the effects of temperament on compliance/noncompliance are indirect through maternal control strategies.



Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2005). The role of parenting styles in children's problem behavior. Child Development, 76(6), 1144-1159.
  2. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
  3. Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (1995). Family and child factors in stability and change in children's aggressiveness in elementary school. In J. McCord (Ed.), Coercion and punishment in long-term perspectives (pp. 124-138). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Blandon, A. Y., & Volling, B. L. (2008). Parental gentle guidance and children's compliance within the family: A replication study. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(3), 355-366.
  5. Braungart-Rieker, J., Garwood, M. M., & Stifter, C. A. (1997). Compliance and noncompliance: The roles of maternal control and child temperament. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 18(3), 411-428.
  6. Buss, D. M., Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). Preschool activity level: Personality correlates and developmental implications. Child Development, 51(2), 401-408.
  7. Campbell, S. B. (1995). Behavior problems in preschool children: A review of recent research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36(1), 113-149.
  8. Chen, X., Rubin, K. H., Liu, M., Chen, H., Wang, L., Li, D., et al. (2003). Compliance in Chinese and Canadian toddlers: A cross-cultural study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(5), 428-436.
  9. Coplan, R. J., Reichel, M., & Rowan, K. (2009). Exploring the associations between maternal personality, child temperament and parenting: A focus on emotions. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 241-246.
  10. Crockenberg, S., & Litman, C. (1990). Autonomy as competence in 2-year-olds: Maternal correlates of child defiance, compliance, and self-assertion. Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 961-971.
  11. Davidov, M., & Grusec, J. E. (2006). Multiple pathways to compliance: Mothers' willingness to cooperate and knowledge of their children's reactions to discipline. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(4), 705-708.
  12. Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998). Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 241-273.
  13. Eyberg, S. M., Nelson, M. M., Duke, M., & Boggs, S. R. (2004). Manual for the Dyadic Parent- Child Interaction Coding System (3rd edition). Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida.
  14. Feldman, R., Greenbaum, C. W., & Yirmiya, N. (1999). Mother-infant affect synchrony as an antecedent of the emergence of self-control. Developmental Psychology, 35(5), 223-231.
  15. Feldman, R., & Klein, P. S. (2003). Toddlers' self-regulated compliance to mothers, caregivers, and fathers: Implications for theories of socialization. Developmental Psychology, 39(4), 680-692.
  16. Forehand, R. (1977). Child noncompliance to parental requests: Behavioral analysis and treatment. Progress in Behavior Modification, 5, 111-147.
  17. Ha, J. Y., & Park, S. Y. (2005). The effect of children's temperament, maternal child-rearing behavior and child-care on children's noncompliance. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 26(2), 55-74.
  18. Hakman, M., & Sullivan, M. (2009). The effect of task and maternal verbosity on compliance in toddlers. Infant and Child Development, 18(2), 195-205.
  19. Hemphill, S., & Sanson, A. (2000, July). Relations between toddler and preschooler temperament and parenting style in an Australian sample. Paper presented at the 16th Biennial Meetings of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Beijing, China.
  20. Hong, K. O. (2001). Relationship among maternal self-perception, parenting behavior, kindergartener's temperament and social competence. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 22(2), 181-194.
  21. Karreman, A., de Haas, S., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A. G., & Dekovic, M. (2010). Relations among temperament, parenting and problem behavior in young children. Infant Behavior and Development, 33(1), 33-49.
  22. Karreman, A., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A. G., & Dekovic, M. (2006). Parenting and self-regulation in preschoolers: A meta-analysis. Infant and Child Development, 15(6), 561-579.
  23. Kim, N. H., Park, B. K., & Doh, H. S. (2012). The relations between maternal personality, preschoolers' temperament, and overprotective and controlling parenting. Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 30(3), 151-163.
  24. Kim, Y. O., & Kim, Y. H. (2002). The effect of children's temperament & parents' personality on parent-child interaction. Journal of Human Ecology, 5, 123-140.
  25. Klein, P. S. (1984). Behavior of Israeli mothers toward infants in relation to infants' perceived temperament. Child Development, 55(4), 1212-1218.
  26. Kochanska, G. (1993). Toward a synthesis of parental socialization and child temperament in early development of conscience. Child Development, 64(2), 325-347.
  27. Kochanska, G. (2002). Committed compliance, moral self, and internalization: A mediational model. Developmental Psychology, 38(3), 339-351.
  28. Kochanska, G., & Aksan, N. (1995). Mother-child mutually positive affect, the quality of child compliance to requests and prohibitions, and maternal control as correlates of early internalization. Child Development, 66(1), 236-254.
  29. Kochanska, G., & Aksan, N. (2006). Children's conscience and self regulation. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1587-1618.
  30. Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., & Koenig, A. L. (1995). A longitudinal study of the roots of preschoolers' conscience: Committed compliance and emerging internalization. Child Development, 66(6), 1752-1769.
  31. Kochanska, G., Forman, D. R., & Coy, K. C. (1999). Implications of the mother-child relationship in infancy for socialization in the second year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 22(2), 249-265.
  32. Kochanska, G., & Kim, S. (2013). Difficult temperament moderates links between maternal responsiveness and children's compliance and behavior problems in low-income families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(3), 323-332.
  33. Kochanska, G., & Murray, K. T. (2000). Mother-child mutually responsive orientation and conscience development: From toddler to early school age. Child Development, 71(2), 417-431.
  34. Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K. C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to early school age. Child Development, 68(2), 263-277.
  35. Kok, R., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Linting, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Tharner, A., Luijk, M. P. C. M., et al. (2013). Attachment insecurity predicts child active resistance to parental requests in a compliance task. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(2), 277-287.
  36. Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 199-214.
  37. Kuczynski, L., & Kochanska, G. (1990). Development of children's noncompliance strategies from toddlerhood to age 5. Developmental Psychology, 26(3), 398-408.
  38. Kuczynski, L., Kochanska, G., Radke-Yarrow, M., & Girnius-Brown, O. (1987). A developmental interpretation of young children's noncompliance. Developmental Psychology, 23(6), 799-806.
  39. Lehman, E. B., Steier, A. J., Guidash, K. M., & Wanna, S. Y. (2002). Predictors of compliance in toddlers: Child temperament, maternal personality, and emotional availability. Early Child Development and Care, 172(3), 301-310.
  40. Lickenbrock, D. M., Braungart-Rieker, J. M., Ekas, N. V., Zentall, S. R., Oshio, T., & Planalp, E. M. (2013). Early temperament and attachment security with mothers and fathers as predictors of toddler compliance and noncompliance. Infant and Child Development, 22(6), 580-602.
  41. Lim, H. S., & Pak, S. Y. (2001). Child's sex, temperament, mother's emotion regulation and parenting as related to child's emotion regulation. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 23(1), 37-53.
  42. Olson, S. L., Bates, J. E., Sandy, J. M., & Lanthier, R. (2000). Early developmental precursors of externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 119-133.
  43. Olson, S. L., Sameroff, A. J., Kerr, D. C. R., Lopez, N. L., & Wellman, H. M. (2005). Developmental foundations of externalizing problems in young children: The role of effortful control. Development and Psychopathology, 17(1), 24-45.
  44. Park, S. Y., Rubin, K. H., Chung, O. B., Yoon, C. H., & Doh, H. S. (2007). Toddler's compliance as a function of gender, temperament, and inhibition of the child, and maternal child-rearing attitudes. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 18(4), 1-17.
  45. Park, S. Y., & Shin, Y. A. (2007). Variables related to toddler's compliance: Child's gender, age, temperament, mother's parenting and the content of demands. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 45(6), 11-20.
  46. Power, T. G., & Chapieski, M. L. (1986). Childrearing and impulse control in toddlers: A naturalistic investigation. Developmental Psychology, 22(2), 271-275.
  47. Putnam, S. P., Sanson, A. V., & Rothbart, M. K. (2002). Child temperament and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Children and parenting (Vol 1.) (pp. 255-277). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  48. Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Silva, K. M., Eggum, N. D., Reiser, M., Edwards, A., et al. (2012). Longitudinal relations among maternal behaviors, effortful control and young children's committed compliance. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 552-566.
  49. Stifter, C. A., Spinrad, T. L., & Braungart-Rieker, J. M. (1999). Toward a developmental model of child compliance: The role of emotion regulation in infancy. Child Development, 70(1), 21-32.
  50. Suh, J. H., & Yi, S. H. (2009). The bioecological variables affecting children's multiple intelligences: With a focus on child's temperament, mother's parenting style and goodness of fit. Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 27(6), 229-242.
  51. van der Mark, I. L., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2002). Development of empathy in girls during the second year of life: Associations with parenting, attachment, and temperament. Social Development, 11(4), 451-468.
  52. Wachs, T. D., Gurkas, P., & Kontos, S. (2004). Predictors of preschool children's compliance behavior in early childhood classroom settings. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(4), 439-457.
  53. Windle, M., & Lerner, R. M. (1986). Reassessing the dimensions of temperamental individuality across the life span: The Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey(DOTS-R). Journal of Adolescent Research, 1(2), 213-229.
  54. Yong, E. S., & Park, S. Y. (2011). Preschoolers' compliance and noncompliance: As a function of maternal behavior, child gender and age and social context. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 32(3), 43-57.