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Tumor-suppressor Protein p53 Sensitizes Human Colorectal Carcinoma HCT116 Cells to 17α-estradiol-induced Apoptosis via Augmentation of Bak/Bax Activation

17α-Estradiol에 의한 인체 대장암 세포주 HCT116의 에폽토시스에 수반되는 Bak/Bax의 활성화에 미치는 종양억제단백질 p53의 강화효과

  • Han, Cho Rong (Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lee, Ji Young (Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Dongki (Daegu Science High School) ;
  • Kim, Hyo Young (Daegu Science High School) ;
  • Kim, Se Jin (Daegu Science High School) ;
  • Jang, Seokjoon (Daegu Science High School) ;
  • Kim, Yoon Hee (Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Jun, Do Youn (Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Young Ho (Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University)
  • 한초롱 (경북대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학부) ;
  • 이지영 (경북대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학부) ;
  • 김동기 (대구과학고등학교) ;
  • 김효영 (대구과학고등학교) ;
  • 김세진 (대구과학고등학교) ;
  • 장석준 (대구과학고등학교) ;
  • 김윤희 (경북대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학부) ;
  • 전도연 (경북대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학부) ;
  • 김영호 (경북대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학부)
  • Received : 2013.09.23
  • Accepted : 2013.10.24
  • Published : 2013.10.30

Abstract

The regulatory effect of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 on the apoptogenic activity of $17{\alpha}$-estradiol ($17{\alpha}-E_2$) was compared between HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) and HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells. When the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) and HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells were treated with $2.5{\sim}10{\mu}M$ $17{\alpha}-E_2$ for 48 h or with $10{\mu}M$for various time periods, cytotoxicity and an apoptotic sub-$G_1$ peak were induced in the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells were much less sensitive to the apoptotic effect of $17{\alpha}-E_2$. Although $17{\alpha}-E_2$ induced aberrant mitotic spindle organization and incomplete chromosome congregation at the equatorial plate, $G_2/M$ arrest was induced to a similar extent in both cell types. In addition, $17{\alpha}-E_2$-induced activation of Bak and Bax, ${\Delta}{\Psi}m$ loss, and PARP degradation were more dominant in the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) than in the HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells. In accordance with enhancement of p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15) and p53 levels, p21 and Bax levels were elevated in the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) cells treated with $17{\alpha}-E_2$. The HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells exhibited barely or undetectable levels of p21 and Bax, regardless of $17{\alpha}-E_2$ treatment. On the other hand, although the level of Bcl-2 was slightly lower in the HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) than in the HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) cells, it remained relatively constant after the $17{\alpha}-E_2$ treatment. Together, these results show that among the components of the $17{\alpha}-E_2$-induced apoptotic-signaling pathway, which proceeds through mitotic spindle defects causing mitotic arrest, subsequent activation of Bak and Bax and the mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade, leading to PARP degradation, $17{\alpha}-E_2$-induced activation of Bak and Bax is the upstream target of proapoptotic action of p53.

$17{\alpha}$-estradiol ($17{\alpha}-E_2$)의 에폽토시스 유도활성에 미치는 종양억제단백질 p53의 조절효과를 조사하고자, $17{\alpha}-E_2$에 의해 유도되는 에폽토시스 현상들을 인체 대장암 세포주 유래 클론인 HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) 및 HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) 세포에서 비교하였다. HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) 및 HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) 세포를 $17{\alpha}-E_2$ ($2.5{\sim}10{\mu}M$)로 처리하거나 혹은 HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) 및 HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) 세포를 $10{\mu}M$ $17{\alpha}-E_2$로 시간 별로 처리한 결과, HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$)에 있어서는 세포독성과 에폽토시스-관련 sub-G1 peak의 비율은 처리농도와 시간에 의존적으로 나타났다. 그러나 HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) 세포의 경우는 이러한 현상이 미약하게 나타났다. $17{\alpha}-E_2$에 의해 유도되는 비정상적 유사분열방추사 형성, 중기판 염색체 배열의 미완성, 이에 따른 유사분열정지($G_2/M$ arrest) 등의 현상은 HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) 및 HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) 세포에서 유사한 수준으로 나타났다. 이에 반해, $17{\alpha}-E_2$에 의해 유도되는 Bak과 Bax의 활성화, 미토콘드리아의 막전위 상실(${\Delta}{\Psi}m$ loss), 그리고 PARP 분해 등의 현상은 HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) 세포에 비해 HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) 세포에서 훨씬 높은 수준으로 확인되었다. 아울러 $17{\alpha}-E_2$로 처리된 HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) 세포에서 확인되는 p53 (Ser-15)의 인산화 및 p53 수준의 증가와 일치하여, 세포 내의 p21및 Bax 수준도 현저히 증가하였다. 이때 $17{\alpha}-E_2$로 처리된 HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) 세포에서는 p21 및 Bax의 발현수준이 매우 낮았다. 한편, 에폽토시스 억제단백질인 Bcl-2 단백질 수준은 HCT116 ($p53^{-/-}$) 세포에 비해 HCT116 ($p53^{+/+}$) 세포에서 다소 낮았으나, 이러한 Bcl-2 단백질 수준은 $17{\alpha}-E_2$ 처리 후에도 크게 변화하지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과들은 $17{\alpha}-E_2$ 처리에 의해 유도되는 에폽토시스 유도 경로의 구성원들의 변화, 즉 비정상적 유사분열방추사 형성 및 이에 따른 유사분열정지($G_2/M$ arrest), 뒤이은 Bak 및 Bax의 활성화, 미토콘드리아의 막전위 상실, 그리고 이에 수반되는 caspase cascade 활성화 및 PARP 분해로 진행되는 에폽토시스 현상들 중에서, Bak 및 Bax의 활성화 단계가 종양억제단백질 p53의 에폽토시스 증진 활성에 의해 양성적으로 조절되는 작용 타켓임을 보여준다.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Kyungpook National University

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