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Effect of Gamijipaesan Extracts against Mastitis Induced by Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Rat Model through Anti-inflammatory and Antibacterial Effects

가미지패산(加味芷貝散)의 포도상구균 감염 유방염에 대한 항균활성 및 항염 효과

  • Kwon, Ji-Myung (Dept. of Oriental Obstetric & Gynecology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University) ;
  • Kim, Dong-Chul (Dept. of Oriental Obstetric & Gynecology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University)
  • 권지명 (대구한의대학교 한의과대학 부인과 교실) ;
  • 김동철 (대구한의대학교 한의과대학 부인과 교실)
  • Received : 2013.01.23
  • Accepted : 2013.02.08
  • Published : 2013.02.22

Abstract

Objectives: The object of this study was to observe the protective effect of Gamijipaesan aqueous extracts(GJS), which has been traditionally used in Korean medicine in obstetrics & gynecological fields as anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory agents, against mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus infection in a rat model through antibacterial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-oxidant effects. Methods: Antibacterial activities of GJS against S. aureus were detected using standard agar microdilution methods, with the effects on the bacterial invasion and intracellular killing of individual test materials in human mammary gland carcinoma cell(MCF-7) and murine macrophages(Raw 264.7) at MIC1/2, MIC and MIC2 concentration levels. In addition, the effects on the cell viability, nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-${\alpha}$ and interleukin (IL)-6 productions of LPS activated Raw 264.7 cells. The changes on the mammary tissue viable bacterial numbers, myeloperoxidae(MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthetase(iNOS), TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 contents were observed in the S. aureus in vivo intramammary infectious rat model. The anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects were compared with ciprofloxacin and piroxicam, respectively in the present study. Results: MIC of GJS and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus were detected as $0.860{\pm}0.428$ (0.391-1.563) mg/ml and $0.371{\pm}0.262$(0.098-0.782) ${\mu}g/ml$, respectively. In addition, GJS and ciprofloxacin were also showed marked dosage-dependent inhibition of the both bacterial invasion and intracellular killing assays using MCF-7 and Raw 264.7 cells at MIC1/2, MIC and $MIC{\times}2$ concentrations, respectively. $ED_{50}$ against LPS-induced cell viabilities and NO, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 releases of GJS were detected as 0.72, 0.04, 0.08 and 0.11 mg/ml, and as 19.04, 4.18, 5.37 and 4.27 ${\mu}g/ml$ in piroxicam, respectively. 250 and 500 mg/kg of GJS also inhibit the intramammary bacterial growth, MPO, iNOS, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 contents in S. aureus in vivo intramammary infected rats, respectively. GJS 500 mg/kg showed quite similar antibacterial and anti-infectious effects as compared with ciprofloxacin 40 mg/kg and also showed similar anti-inflammatory effects as piroxicam 10 mg/kg, in S. aureus in vivo intramammary infectious models. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that over 250 mg/kg of GJS showed favorable anti-infectious effects against S. aureus infection in a rat model through their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects and therefore expected that GJS can be used as alternative therapies, having both anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious activities. However, more detail mechanism studies should be conducted in future with the efficacy tests of individual herbal composition of GJS and the screening of the biological active compounds in individual herbs. In the present study, GJS 500 mg/kg showed quite similar anti-infectious effects were detected as compared with ciprofloxacin 40 mg/kg treated rats, and also GJS shows quite similar anti-inflammatory effects as compared with piroxicam 10 mg/kg in S. aureus in vivo intramammary infectious rats, but ciprofloxacin did not showed any anti-inflammatory effects, and piroxicam did not showed anti-infectious effects in this study.

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