Spatial effect on the diffusion of discount stores

대형할인점 확산에 대한 공간적 영향

  • Joo, Young-Jin (School of Business, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Mi-Ae (Department of Business Administration, Chungbuk National University Graduate School)
  • Received : 2010.08.03
  • Accepted : 2010.10.15
  • Published : 2010.10.30

Abstract

Introduction: Diffusion is process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channel overtime among the members of a social system(Rogers 1983). Bass(1969) suggested the Bass model describing diffusion process. The Bass model assumes potential adopters of innovation are influenced by mass-media and word-of-mouth from communication with previous adopters. Various expansions of the Bass model have been conducted. Some of them proposed a third factor affecting diffusion. Others proposed multinational diffusion model and it stressed interactive effect on diffusion among several countries. We add a spatial factor in the Bass model as a third communication factor. Because of situation where we can not control the interaction between markets, we need to consider that diffusion within certain market can be influenced by diffusion in contiguous market. The process that certain type of retail extends is a result that particular market can be described by the retail life cycle. Diffusion of retail has pattern following three phases of spatial diffusion: adoption of innovation happens in near the diffusion center first, spreads to the vicinity of the diffusing center and then adoption of innovation is completed in peripheral areas in saturation stage. So we expect spatial effect to be important to describe diffusion of domestic discount store. We define a spatial diffusion model using multinational diffusion model and apply it to the diffusion of discount store. Modeling: In this paper, we define a spatial diffusion model and apply it to the diffusion of discount store. To define a spatial diffusion model, we expand learning model(Kumar and Krishnan 2002) and separate diffusion process in diffusion center(market A) from diffusion process in the vicinity of the diffusing center(market B). The proposed spatial diffusion model is shown in equation (1a) and (1b). Equation (1a) is the diffusion process in diffusion center and equation (1b) is one in the vicinity of the diffusing center. $$\array{{S_{i,t}=(p_i+q_i{\frac{Y_{i,t-1}}{m_i}})(m_i-Y_{i,t-1})\;i{\in}\{1,{\cdots},I\}\;(1a)}\\{S_{j,t}=(p_j+q_j{\frac{Y_{j,t-1}}{m_i}}+{\sum\limits_{i=1}^I}{\gamma}_{ij}{\frac{Y_{i,t-1}}{m_i}})(m_j-Y_{j,t-1})\;i{\in}\{1,{\cdots},I\},\;j{\in}\{I+1,{\cdots},I+J\}\;(1b)}}$$ We rise two research questions. (1) The proposed spatial diffusion model is more effective than the Bass model to describe the diffusion of discount stores. (2) The more similar retail environment of diffusing center with that of the vicinity of the contiguous market is, the larger spatial effect of diffusing center on diffusion of the vicinity of the contiguous market is. To examine above two questions, we adopt the Bass model to estimate diffusion of discount store first. Next spatial diffusion model where spatial factor is added to the Bass model is used to estimate it. Finally by comparing Bass model with spatial diffusion model, we try to find out which model describes diffusion of discount store better. In addition, we investigate the relationship between similarity of retail environment(conceptual distance) and spatial factor impact with correlation analysis. Result and Implication: We suggest spatial diffusion model to describe diffusion of discount stores. To examine the proposed spatial diffusion model, 347 domestic discount stores are used and we divide nation into 5 districts, Seoul-Gyeongin(SG), Busan-Gyeongnam(BG), Daegu-Gyeongbuk(DG), Gwan- gju-Jeonla(GJ), Daejeon-Chungcheong(DC), and the result is shown

. In a result of the Bass model(I), the estimates of innovation coefficient(p) and imitation coefficient(q) are 0.017 and 0.323 respectively. While the estimate of market potential is 384. A result of the Bass model(II) for each district shows the estimates of innovation coefficient(p) in SG is 0.019 and the lowest among 5 areas. This is because SG is the diffusion center. The estimates of imitation coefficient(q) in BG is 0.353 and the highest. The imitation coefficient in the vicinity of the diffusing center such as BG is higher than that in the diffusing center because much information flows through various paths more as diffusion is progressing. A result of the Bass model(II) shows the estimates of innovation coefficient(p) in SG is 0.019 and the lowest among 5 areas. This is because SG is the diffusion center. The estimates of imitation coefficient(q) in BG is 0.353 and the highest. The imitation coefficient in the vicinity of the diffusing center such as BG is higher than that in the diffusing center because much information flows through various paths more as diffusion is progressing. In a result of spatial diffusion model(IV), we can notice the changes between coefficients of the bass model and those of the spatial diffusion model. Except for GJ, the estimates of innovation and imitation coefficients in Model IV are lower than those in Model II. The changes of innovation and imitation coefficients are reflected to spatial coefficient(${\gamma}$). From spatial coefficient(${\gamma}$) we can infer that when the diffusion in the vicinity of the diffusing center occurs, the diffusion is influenced by one in the diffusing center. The difference between the Bass model(II) and the spatial diffusion model(IV) is statistically significant with the ${\chi}^2$-distributed likelihood ratio statistic is 16.598(p=0.0023). Which implies that the spatial diffusion model is more effective than the Bass model to describe diffusion of discount stores. So the research question (1) is supported. In addition, we found that there are statistically significant relationship between similarity of retail environment and spatial effect by using correlation analysis. So the research question (2) is also supported.

본 연구에서는 국내 대형할인점의 확산을 효과적으로 설명하기 위해 기업의 정보와 구매자의 구전으로 확산을 설명하는 Bass모형에 제3의 요소로 공간적 영향력을 고려하였다. 국내 대형할인점의 확산은 확산중심지인 서울경인지역에서 저차중심지인 4개 지역권역으로 확산되는 형태를 보임에 따라 공간적 영향이 중요하게 작용할 것으로 기대된다. 본 연구에서 공간적으로 구분된 시장 A(확산중심지)가 시장 B(저차중심지)에 미치는 영향이 완전히 통제되지 못하는 상황에서 시장 A가 시장 B에 미치는 공간적 영향을 다국가확산모형(multinational diffusion model)을 확장한 공간확산모형(spatial diffusion model)을 이용하여 정의하였다. Bass모형과 공간확산모형의 모수추정을 통해 두 가지 정보전달경로와 관련된 혁신계수와 모방계수로 확산을 설명하는 Bass모형보다 공간확산모형이 국내 대형할인점 확산을 더욱 효과적으로 설명하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 혁신중심지인 서울경인과 4개 지역권역의 소매환경을 나타내는 개념적 거리에 따라 공간확산모형에서 공간적요인의 영향력이 달라질 것이 기대되어 공간확산계수와 소매환경변수간의 상관관계를 살펴보았고, 연구결과 확산중심지에서 저차중심지에 대한 공간적 영향력은 저차중심지의 소매환경이 확산중심지의 소매환경과 유사할수록 크다는 것을 밝혀내었다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 충북대학교