A Brief Efficiency Measurement Way for the Korean Container Terminals Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis

확률프론티어분석을 통한 국내컨테이너 터미널의 효율성 측정방법 소고

  • 박노경 (조선대학교 경상대학 무역학과)
  • Received : 2010.10.27
  • Accepted : 2010.12.09
  • Published : 2010.12.30

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of Korean container terminals by using SFA(Stochastic Frontier Analysis). Inputs[Number of Employee, Quay Length, Container Terminal Area, Number of Gantry Crane], and output[TEU] are used for 3 years(2002,2003, and 2004) for 8 Korean container terminals by applying both SFA and DEA models. Empirical main results are as follows: First, Null hypothesis that technical inefficiency is not existed is rejected and in the trasnslog model, the estimate is significant. Second, time-series models show the significant results. Third, average technical efficiency of Korean container terminals are 73.49% in Cobb-Douglas model, and 79.04% in translog model. Fourth, to enhance the technical efficiency, Korean container terminals should increase the handling amount of TEUs. Fifth, both SFA and DEA models have the high Spearman ranking of correlation coefficients(84.45%). The main policy implication based on the findings of this study is that the manager of port investment and management of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korea should introduce the SFA with DEA models for measuring the efficiency of Korean ports and terminals.

본 논문에서는, 국내와 외국에서 선행된 항만분야의 SFA분석과 관련된 선행연구들을 간략하게 검토하였으며, 또한 국내 컨테이너터미널 8곳의 3년간(2002년, 2003년, 2004년)자료를 이용하고, 4개의 투입물[종업원수(명), 부두길이(m), 부지면적(평방m), 갠트리크레인 대수(대)])과 1개의 산출물[년간 컨테이너 처리실적(TEU)]을 이용하여 SFA 및 DEA측정방법으로 실증분석하는 방법을 보여주었으며, 양자의 효율성 순위를 스피어만의 상관분석을 통해 검증하여 보았다. 주요한 실증분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 반정규분포를 갖는 기술적 비효율성효과가 존재하지 않는다는 귀무가설을 기각하고 반정규분포를 갖는 기술적 비효율성효과가 존재한다는 대립가설을 채택함으로써 전통적인 평균반응함수(average response function)가 자료를 적절히 표현하지 못한다는 것을 검증하였다. 트랜스로그모형에서는 검정통계량이 19.12로 이 값은 유의수준 0.5%에서 자유도 6을 가진 혼합카이자승분포의 임계치 16.074보다 크므로 유의미하다. 둘째, 시계열자료를 이용한 분석에서는 콥더글러스모형과 트랜스로그모형에서 모두 유의미한 결과를 보였다. 셋째, 우리나라의 컨테이너터미널의 기술적 효율성을 살펴보면 콥더글러스모형에서는 평균 73.49%, 트랜스로그모형에서 평균은 79.04%를 나타냈다. 따라서 국내 컨테이너터미널의 기술적 효율성은 약간 높은 수준임을 알 수 있다. 즉, 한국컨테이너터미널들은 생산요소를 생산변경(production frontier)에 어느정도 근접한 생산량을 산출하도록 약간 높은 효율적으로 투입함으로써 컨테이너터미널을 관리운영하는 과정에서 비효율적인 요소가 어느 정도 존재하지만, 규모에 대한 수익체증(increasing returns to scale)을 나타내고 있다는 것을 시사하고 있다. 넷째, 국내 컨테이너터미널들이 기술적인 효율성을 높이기 위해서는 컨테이너 화물처리량을 높혀야만 되는 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, DEA효율성수치에 의한 순위와 SFA효율성 수치에 의한 순위상관분석에서는 높은(84.45%) 순위상관이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 정책적인 함의는 항만운영에 관여하는 정책입안가들은 본 연구에서 사용한 SFA모형을 항만의 기술적인 효율성 측정에 도입하는 한편, 기술적인 효율성을 높이기 위해서 컨테이너화물의 처리량(TEU)을 높이는 방법을 도입해야만 한다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 조선대학교

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