Active and passive surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Bangladesh

  • Halder, Shukla (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Chowdhury, Emdadul Haque (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Parvin, Rokshana (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Rahaman, Mohammad Moshiyour (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Rahman, Seikh Masudur (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Saha, Shib Shankar (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Sultana, Sajeda (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Marium, Nadira (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Islam, Azharul (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Rahman, Md. Siddiqur (Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Song, Hee-Jong (Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, and Korea Zoonoses Research Institute, Chonbuk National University)
  • Published : 2009.12.30

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is present in this country and to analyze the Global BSE Risk (GBR) status in Bangladesh. A total of 2,000 brain samples were collected from cattle older than 30 months of age, slaughtered for human consumption in the district slaughter houses from 2005 to 2006. The brainstem (obex), Pyriform lobe, cerebrum and cerebellum were subjected to histopathological study. Samples that showed some nonspecific lesions were subjected to immunohistochemistry and only brain stem to ELISA for the detection of abnormal prion protein $PrP^{sc}$. In passive surveillance, annual overall diseases of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangladesh were collected from Department of Livestock Services (DLS), Dhaka to investigate the occurrences of neurological diseases. Import related data were collected from "National Export Promotion Bureau" Kawran Bazar, Bangladesh Bank and DLS to analyze the importing products of animal origin (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats) from different countries to find whether or not the imported products posed any risk for the BSE. In an actire surveillance conducted in slaughter house, histopathologically BSE specific lesions were not detected in any of the brain samples, but other nonspecific lesions were observed. No $PrP^{sc}$ was detected from the samples by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. DLS report also supported the absence of BSE in cattle and buffalo and scrapie in sheep and goats in Bangladesh. It was also clearly recorded that Bangladesh imported livestock products from countries in GBR level I and II but not from countries in GBR level III and IV. From this study it apparently seems that BSE is not currently present in the indigenous animals in Bangladesh and poses no or negligible risk to human and animal health.

References

  1. Almond J, Pattison J. 1997. Human BSE. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) publications. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: An Overview. Nature 389(6650): 437-438 https://doi.org/10.1038/38876
  2. Annual Report of Bangladesh Bank, 1999-2006. Live animals, dairy products, products ofanimal origin etc. Annual import payments, statistic Department. pp. 111-119, 120-127, 128-136, 145-154, 159-168
  3. Report of Bangladesh Customs Tariff, Economic law, 2006. pp. 1-6, 13-16, 39-43, 127-133, 160-161
  4. Braun U, Kihm U, Pusterla N, Schomann, M. 1998. Clinical examination of cattle with suspicion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Schweizer Arch Tierheilkd 139: 35-41
  5. Chowdhury EH. 2005. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: old disease with new explosive force. Eleventh BSVER Annual Scientific Conference, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh
  6. Gabizon R, Prusiner SB. 1990. Prion liposomes. Biochem J 266(1): 1-14 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2660001
  7. Ikegami Y, Ito M, Isomura J, Momotani E, Sasak K, Muramatsu Y, Ishiguro N, Shinagawa M. 1991. Preclinical and clinical diagnosis of scrapie by detection of PrP protein in tissue of spleen. Vet Rec 128: 271-275 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.128.12.271
  8. Kimberlin RH. 1992. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Rev Sci Tech 11(2): 347-489 https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.11.2.608
  9. Kubler E, Oesch B,Raeber AJ. 2003. Diagnosis of prion diseases. British Med Bull 66: 45-47
  10. Luna LG. 1968. Manual of Histologic Staining Methods of the Armed Forcesd Institute of Pathology. 3rd edn. Mc-Graw Hill Book Co. New York
  11. Prusiner SB. 1982. Novel proteinaceous infectious particles cause scrapie. Science 216(4542): 136-144 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.6801762
  12. Prusiner SB. 1991. Molecular biology of prion disease. Science 252(5012): 1515-1522 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1675487
  13. Prusiner SB. 2000. Proceedings of the national Academy of Ecience USA 95: 13363-13383. Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) opinion on the geographical risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. pp. 6 -7
  14. Prusiner SB. 2001. Shattuck lecture. neurodegenerative diseases and prions. N Engl J Med 344: 1516-1526 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200105173442006
  15. Vanopdenbosch E, Roels S. 2004. BSE: Diagnosis and control, the consequence for human health and geographical BSE risk. 23rd World Buiatrics Congress, Qu$\'{e}$bec
  16. Weissmann C. 1991a. A unified theory of prion propagation. Nature 352(6337): 679-683 https://doi.org/10.1038/352679a0
  17. Weissmann C. 1991b. Spongiform encephalopathies. The prion's progress. Nature 349(6310): 569-571 https://doi.org/10.1038/349569a0
  18. Wells GAH, Scott AC, Johnson CT, Gunning RF, Hancock RD, Jeffrey M, Dawson M, Bradley R. 1987. A novel progressive spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. Vet Rec 121(18): 419-420 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.121.18.419
  19. Wilesmith JW, Wells GAH, Cranwell MP, Ryan JBM. 1988. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiological studies. Vet Rec 123: 638-644
  20. Wilesmith JW, Ryan JBM, Hueston WD, Hoinville LJ. 1992. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiological studies of the origin. Vet Rec 128: 199-203