Intestinal helminthiases and schistosomiasis among school children in an urban center and some rural communities in southwest Nigeria

  • Agbolade, Olufemi Moses (Parasitology and Medical Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Agu, Ndubuisi Chinweike (Parasitology and Medical Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Adesanya, Oluseyi Olusegun (Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Odejayi, Adedayo Olugbenga (Parasitology and Medical Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Adigun, Aliu Adekunle (Parasitology and Medical Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Adesanlu, Emmanuel Babatunde (Parasitology and Medical Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Ogunleye, Flourish George (Parasitology and Medical Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Sodimu, Adetoun Omolayo (Parasitology and Medical Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Adeshina, Stella Ajoke (Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Bisiriyu, Ganiyat Olusola (Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Omotoso, Oluwatosin Ibiyemi (Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University) ;
  • Udia, Karen Mfon (Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University)
  • Published : 2007.09.30

Abstract

Intestinal helminths and schistosomiasis among school children were investigated in an urban and some rural communities of Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Fecal samples of 1,059 subjects (524 males, 535 females) aged 3-18 years were examined using direct smear and brine concentration methods between June 2005 and November 2006. The pooled prevalence of infection was 66.2%. Ascaris lumbricoides showed the highest prevalence (53.4%) (P < 0.001) followed by hookworms (17.8%), Trichuris trichiura (10.4%), Taenia sp. (9.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%), Schistosoma haematobium (0.6%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.3%). The prevalences of A. lumbricoides, hookworms, Taenia sp., S. mansoni, and S. stercoralis in the urban centre were similar (P > 0.05) to those in the rural communities. The fertile and infertile egg ratios of A. lumbricoides in the urban centre and the rural communities were 13: 1 and 3.7: 1, respectively. Each helminth had similar prevalences among both genders (P > 0.05). The prevalence of A. lumbricoides increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). The commonest double infections were Ascaris and hookworms, while the commonest triple infections were Ascaris, hookworms, and Trichuris. The study demonstrates the need for urgent intervention programmes against intestinal helminthiases and schistosomiasis in the study area.

References

  1. Agbolade OM, Akinboye DO, Fajebe OT, Abolade OM, Adebambo AA (2004) Human urinary schistosomiasis transmission foci and period in an endemic town of Ijebu North, Southwest Nigeria. Trop Biomed 21: 15-22
  2. Ahmed SG, Ibrahim UA, Ekemu ED (2004) Prevalence of intestinal parasites in anaemic and non-anaemic Nigerian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Nigerian J Parasitol 25: 15-20
  3. Bassey SE, Umar Z (2004) A re-assessment of schistosomiasis infection in Garun-Babba, Kadawa and Kura in Kano State, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol 25: 107-109
  4. Anosike JC, Nwoke BE, Njoku AJ (2001) The validity of haematuria in the community diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis infection. J Helminthol 75: 223-225
  5. Chhakda T, Muth S, Socheat D, Odermatt P (2006) Intestinal parasites in school-aged children in villages bordering Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37: 859-864
  6. Clennon JA, King CH, Muchiri EM, Kariuki HC, Ouma JH, Mungai P, Kitron U (2004) Spatial pattern of urinary schistosomiasis infection in a highly endemic area of coastal Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 443-448
  7. Ekpo UF, Mafiana CF (2004) Epidemiological studies of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria: Identification of high-risk communities. Nigerian J Parasitol 25: 111-119
  8. Gillespie SH (2001) Intestinal nematodes. In Principles and Practice of Clinical Parasitology, Gillespie SH, Pearson RD (eds.). p 561-583, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, England
  9. Gundiri MA, Okwuosa VN (2005) Prevalence of urinary and intestinal parasites in Kwampe, Langtang North, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol 26: 19-22
  10. Idowu OA, Rowland SA (2006) Oral fecal parasites and personal hygiene of food handlers in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci 6: 160-164
  11. Mafiana CF, Omotayo AB (1998) Urinary schistosomiasis: An evaluation of microscopic egg count and chemical reagent strip in children in south-west Nigeria. Helminthologia 35: 31-36
  12. Nokes C, Cooper ES, Robinson BA, Bundy DA (1991) Goehelminth infection and academic assessment in Jamaican children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85: 272- 273 https://doi.org/10.1016/0035-9203(91)90052-Z
  13. Nwaorgu OC, Okeibunor J, Madu E, Amazigo U, Onyegegbu N, Evans D (1998) A school-based schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis control programme in Nigeria: acceptability to community members. Trop Med Int Health 3: 842-849 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3156.1998.00313.x
  14. Ogbe MG, Edet EE, Isichei MN (2002) Intestinal helminth infection in primary school children in areas of operation of Shell Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC), western division in Delta State. Nigerain J Parasitol 23: 3- 10
  15. Poggensee G, Krantz I, Nordin P, Mtweve S, Ahlberg B, Mosha G, Freudenthal S (2005) A six-year follow-up of schoolchildren for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Northern Tanzania. Acta Trop 93: 131-140 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2004.10.003
  16. Shoup B (2001) Diagnosis and management of pinworm infection. Prim Care Update Ob Gyns 8: 240-243 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1068-607X(01)00088-9
  17. Smyth JD (1996) Animal Parasitology. pp 236-246, 397-422, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
  18. Taiwo AK, Agbolade OM (2000) Intestinal helminthiasis among school children in Oru, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nigerian J Sci 34: 283-286
  19. Ukoli FMA (1984) Introduction to parasitology in tropical Africa. pp 227-267, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, UK
  20. Utzinger J, Vounatsou P, N'Goran EK, Tanner M, Booth M (2002) Reduction in the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections after praziquantel treatment for schistosomiasis infection. Int J Parasitol 32: 759-765 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(02)00012-7
  21. WHO (1993) The control of schistosomiasis: second report of the WHO Expert Committee. p1-4, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland