Viscosity and Wettability of Carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) solutions and Artificial Saliva

Carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) 용액과 인공 타액의 점도와 습윤성

  • Park, Moon-Soo (Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnosis & Research Institute of Oral Science, College of Dentistry, Kangnung National University) ;
  • Kim, Young-Jun (Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnosis & Research Institute of Oral Science, College of Dentistry, Kangnung National University)
  • 박문수 (강릉대학교 치과대학 구강내과.진단학 교실 및 구강과학연구소) ;
  • 김영준 (강릉대학교 치과대학 구강내과.진단학 교실 및 구강과학연구소)
  • Published : 2007.12.30

Abstract

Destruction of oral soft and hard tissues and resulting problems seriously affect the life quality of xerostomic patients. Although artificial saliva is the only regimen for xerostomic patients with totally abolished salivary glands, currently available artificial salivas give restricted satisfaction to patients. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the development of ideal artificial saliva through comparing viscosity and wettability between CMC solutions and human saliva. Commercially-available CMC is dissolved in simulated salivary buffer (SSB) and distilled deionized water (DDW). Various properties of human whole saliva, human glandular saliva, and a CMC-based saliva substitutes known as Salivart and Moi-Stir were compared with those of CMC solutions. Viscosity was measured with a cone-and-plate digital viscometer at six different shear rates, while wettability on acrylic resin and Co-Cr alloy was determined by the contact angle. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The viscosity of CMC solutions was proportional to CMC concentration, with 0.5% CMC solution displaying similar viscosity to stimulated whole saliva. Where as a decrease in contact angle was found with increasing CMC concentration. 2. The viscosity of human saliva was found to be inversely proportional to shear rate, a non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic) trait of biological fluids. The mean viscosity values at various shear rates increased as follows: stimulated parotid saliva, stimulated whole saliva, unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated submandibular-sublingual saliva. 3. Contact angles of human saliva on the tested solid phases were inversely correlated with viscosity, namely decreasing in the order stimulated parotid saliva, stimulated whole saliva, unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated submandibular-sublingual saliva. 4. Boiled CMC dissolved in SSB (CMC-SSB) had a lower viscosity than CMC-SSB (P < 0.01 at shear rate of $90s^{-1}$). 5. For human saliva, contact angles on acrylic resin were significantly lower than those on Co-Cr alloy (P < 0.01). 6. Comparing CMC solutions with human saliva, the contact angles between acrylic resin and human saliva solutions were significantly lower than those between acrylic resin and CMC solutions, including Salivart and Moi-Stir (P <0.01). The effectiveness of CMC solutions in terms of their rheological properties was objectively confirmed, indicating a vital role for CMC in the development of effective salivary substitutes.

구강건조증 환자에서 자주 발생하는 구강 연조직과 경조직의 손상은 구강건조증 환자의 삶의 질에 심각한 문제를 일으킨다. 타액선의 기능을 완전히 상실한 구강건조증 환자의 경우 인공타액은 유일한 처치법임에도 불구하고, 현재 통용되고 있는 인공타액은 환자들의 기대치에 비해 많이 부족한 실정이다. 본 연구는 CMC 용액과 인공타액의 점도와 습윤성을 비교함으로써 향후 이상적인 인공타액의 개발에 필요한 정보를 얻고자 시행되었다. CMC를 타액모방완충용액(simulated salivary buffer, SSB)과 증류수에 용해시켜 동물 mucin 용액을 완성한 후, 이를 인체 전타액, 인체 개별 타액선 타액, 그리고 CMC를 주성분으로 하는 인공타액인 Salivart 및 Moi-Stir와 비교 분석하였다. 점도는 cone-and-plate digital viscometer로 검체 당 6개의 전단율에서 측정하였고, 습윤성은 아크릴릭 레진과 Co-Cr alloy 표면 위에서의 접촉각 측정을 통해 평가하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1. CMC 용액의 점도는 CMC 농도에 비례하여 증가하였으며, 0.5% CMC 용액의 점도는 비자극성 전타액의 점도와 유사하였다. 반면에 CMC 용액의 접촉각은 점도와는 반대로 CMC 농도를 증가시킴에 따라 감소하였다. 2. 인체 타액의 점도는 전단율 증가에 따라 감소하는 non-Newtonian fluid의 특성을 나타내었다. 다양한 전단율에서의 평균 점도는 자극성 이하선 타액, 자극성 전타액, 비자극성 전타액, 자극성 악하선-설하선 타액의 순으로 증가하였다. 3. 인체 타액의 접촉각은 점도와는 반대로 자극성 이하선 타액, 자극성 전타액, 비자극성 전타액, 자극성 악하선-설하선 타액의 순으로 감소하였다. 4. 타액모방완충용액에 용해시킨 CMC를 가열하여 변성시킨 경우 점도가 감소하였다 (P < 0.01, 전단율 $90s^{-1}$). 5. 인체 타액의 아크릴릭 레진 표면에서의 접촉각은 인체 타액의 Co-Cr alloy 표면에서의 접촉각보다 유의하게 작은 것으로 나타났다 (P < 0.01). 6. 인체 타액의 아크릴릭 레진 표면에서의 접촉각은 CMC 용액의 아크릴릭 레진 표면에서의 접촉각보다 유의하게 작은 것으로 나타났다 (P < 0.01). 이번 연구에서 CMC 용액의 유동학적 성질을 객관적으로 확인할 수 있었으며, 이상의 결과를 종합하여 보면 CMC는 향후 효과적인 인공타액의 개발에 있어서도 중요한 역할을 수행 할 것으로 기대된다.

Keywords

References

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