Alcohol Experience, Alcohol Knowledge, and Alcohol Expectancy in Early Adolescents

초기 청소년의 음주경험, 음주지식, 음주기대에 관한 연구

  • Tak, Young-Ran (Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Yun, E-Hwa (Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention) ;
  • An, Ji-Yeon (Department of Nursing, Graduate School, Hanyang University)
  • 탁영란 (한양대학교 의과대학 간호학과) ;
  • 윤이화 (질병관리본부) ;
  • 안지연 (한양대학교 의과대학 간호학과)
  • Published : 2007.02.28


Purpose: This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. Method: The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Result: Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. Conclusion: The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.


  1. Aas, H. N., Leigh, B. C., Anderssen, N., & Jakobsen, R. (1998). Two-year longitudinal study of alcohol expectancies and drinking among Norwegian adolescents. Addiction, 93(3), 373-384
  2. Brener, N. D., Grunbaum, J. A., Kann, L., McManus T., & Ross, J. (2004). Assessing health risk behaviors among adolescents: the effect of question wording and appeals for honesty. J Adolesc Health, 35, 91-100
  3. Brown, S. A., Goldman, M. S., Inn, A., & Anderson, L. R. (1980). Expectations of reinforcement from alcohol: their domain and relation to drinking patters. J Consult Clin Psycho, 48(4), 419-426
  4. Burke, R. S., & Stephens, R. S. (1999). Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social congnitive theory and analysis. Clin Psychol Rev, 19(5), 513-530
  5. Cameron, C. A., Stritzke, W. G. K., & Durkin, K. (2003). Alcohol expectancies in late childhood: an ambivalence perspective on transitions toward alcohol use. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 44(5), 687-698
  6. Casbon, T. S., Lang, A. R., Curtin, J. J., & Patrick, C. J. (2003). Deleterious effects of alcohol intoxication: Diminished cognitive control and its behavioral consequences. J Abnorm Psychol, 112(3), 476-487
  7. Donovan, J. E. (2004). Adolescent alcohol initiation: A review of psychosocial risk factors. J Adolesc Health, 35(6), 529. e7-18
  8. Ellickson, P., Collins, R., Hambarsoomians, K., & McCaffrey, D. (2005). Does alcohol advertising promote adolescent drinking? Results from a longitudinal assessment. Addiction, 100(2), 235-246
  9. Feldman, L., Harvey, B., Holowaty, P., & Shortt, L. (1999). Alcohol use beliefs and behaviors among high school students. J Adolesc Health, 24(1), 48-58
  10. Gillmore, M. R., Wells, E. A., Simpson, E. E., Morrison, D. M., Hoppe, M.J., & Wilsdon, A. (1998). Children's beliefs about drinking. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 24(1) 131-151
  11. Goldman, M. S. (2002). Expectancy and risk for alcoholism: The unfortunate exploitation of a fundamental characteristic of neurobehavioral adaptation. Alcoholism, 26(5), 737-746
  12. Holyfield, L., Ducharme, L. J., & Martin, J. K. (1995). Drinking contexts, alcohol beliefs, and patterns of alcohol consumption: evidence for a comprehensive model of problem drinking. J Drug Issues, 25, 783-798
  13. Jegal, G. J., Heo, Y. H., Kim, S. H., & Lee, S. M. (2004). Survey on rehabilitation suggestion and characteristics of adolescents with drinking behaviors. National Youth Commission. Publication No.11-1150000-000209-01
  14. John, B. T., Corbin, W., & Fromme, K. (2001). A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption. Addiction, 96(1), 57-72
  15. Kim, Y. S., & Yoon, H. M. (2001). Middle school student' alcohol experiences and related factors. Korea J Soc Welfare, 33, 91-116
  16. Komro, K. A., & Toomey, T. L. (2002). Strategies to prevent underage drinking. Alcohol Res Health, 26(1), 5-14
  17. Martino, S., Collins, R., Ellickson, P., Schell, T., & McCaffrey, D. (2006). Socio-environmental influences on adolescents' alcohol outcome expectancies: a prospective analysis. Addiction, 101(7), 971-983
  18. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism (2003). NIH Curriculum Supplement Series(Grade 7-8): Understanding Alcohol: Investigations into Biology and Behavior. NIH Publication No. 04-4991:P.67
  19. Neighbors, C., Walker, D. D., & Larimer, M. E. (2003). Expectancies and evaluations of alcohol effects among college students: Self-determination as a moderator. J Stud Alcohol, 64(2), 292-299
  20. O'Malley, P. M., Johnson, L. D., & Bachman, J. G. (1998). Alcohol use among adolescents. Alcohol Health Res World, 22(2), 85-93
  21. Park, C. L., & Grant, C. (2005). Determinants of positive and negative consequences of alcohol consumption in college students: alcohol use, gender, and psychological characteristics. Addict behav, 30(4), 755-765
  22. Russell, M., Cooper, M. L., Frone, M. R., & Peirce, R. S. (1999). A longitudinal study of stress, alcohol, and blood pressure in community-based samples of blacks and non-blacks. Epi Bullitin, 40, 299-306
  23. Sigelman, C. K., Silk, A., Goldberg, F., Davies, E. P., Dwyer, K. M., Leach, D., & Mack, K. (2000). Developmental differences in beliefs about how alcohol and cocaine affect behavior. J Appl Dev Psychol, 20, 597-614
  24. Smith, G. T., & Goldman, M. S. (1991, April). Expectancy theory and children's acquisition of knowledge alcohol. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child's Development Symposium: The Socialization of Drinking in Children, Seatle, WA
  25. Swahn, M. H., & Hammig, B. J. (2000). Prevalence of youth access to alcohol, guns, illegal drugs, or cigarettes in the home and association with health risk behaviors. AEP, 10, 449-483
  26. Vinson, D. C., Borges, G., & Cherpitel, C. J. (2003). The risk of intentional injury with acute and chronic alcohol exposures: A case-control and case crossover study. J Stud Alcohol, 64(3), 350-357
  27. Warner, L. A., & White, H. R. (2003). Longitudinal effects of age at onset and first drinking situations on problem drinking. Subst Use Misuse, 38(14), 1938-2016
  28. Warren, C. W., Kann, L., Small, M. L, Santelli, J. S., Collins, J. L., & Kolbe, L. J. (1997). Age of initiating selected health-risk behaviors among high school students in the United States. J Adolesc Health, 21(4), 225-231
  29. Wiers, R. W., Sergeant, J. A., & Gunning, W. B. (2000). The assessment of alcohol expectancies in school children: measurement or modification? Addiction, 95(5), 737-746
  30. Windle, M. (2003). Alcohol use among adolescents and young adults. Alcohol Health Res World, 27(2), 79-85