Role of Bronchodilator Reversibility Testing in Differentiating Asthma From COPD

만성폐쇄성폐질환과 천식을 감별 진단하는데 기관지확장제 가역성 검사의 역할

  • Oh, Yeon-Mok (Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine) ;
  • Lim, Chae Man (Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine) ;
  • Shim, Tae Sun (Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine) ;
  • Koh, Younsuck (Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Woo Sung (Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Dong-Soon (Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Won Dong (Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Se Kyu (Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Yoo, Jee Hong (Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Lee, Sang Do (Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine)
  • 오연목 (울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과) ;
  • 임채만 (울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과) ;
  • 심태선 (울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과) ;
  • 고윤석 (울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과) ;
  • 김우성 (울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과) ;
  • 김동순 (울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과) ;
  • 김원동 (울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과) ;
  • 김세규 (연세대학교 의과대학 내과학교실) ;
  • 유지홍 (경희대학교 의과대학 내과학교실) ;
  • 이상도 (울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과)
  • Received : 2004.08.18
  • Accepted : 2004.09.20
  • Published : 2004.11.30

Abstract

Background : Although bronchodilator reversibility testing is widely performed to diagnose asthma or COPD, there is debate upon its usefulness and methods to differentiate asthma from COPD. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the role of bronchodilator reversibility testing in differentiating asthma from COPD and to confirm which method is better at evaluating bronchodilator reversibility. Methods : 26 asthma patients and 31 COPD patients were reviewed retrospectively. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator inhalation to get $FEV_1$, FVC. To evaluate bronchodilator reversibility, the increase in $FEV_1$ or FVC was expressed as three methods, 'percentage of the baseline value', 'percentage of the predicted value', or 'absolute value'. Area under the ROC curve was measured to compare the three methods. In addition, the criteria of American Thoracic Society (ATS) for bronchodilator reversibility were compared to those of European Respiratory Society (ERS). Results : 1. In differentiating asthma from COPD, 'percentage of the predicted value', or 'absolute value' method was useful but 'percentage of the baseline value' was not. However, the ability to differentiate was weak because areas under the ROC curves by all methods were less than 0.75. 2. The criteria of ERS were superior to those of ATS for bronchodilator reversibility to differentiate asthma from COPD because likelihood ratio (LR) of a positive test by ERS criteria was greater than ATS criteria and because LR of a negative test by ERS criteria was less than ATS criteria. Conclusion : In differentiating asthma from COPD, bronchodilator reversibility testing has a weak role and should be considered as an adjunctive test.

연구배경 : 기관지확장제 가역성 검사는 천식이나 COPD를 진단하거나 감별 진단할 때에 널리 사용하고 있지만 실제 천식과 COPD를 감별 진단하는데 도움이 되는지에 대해서 이견이 있고 기관지확장제 가역성을 평가하는 방법에 대해서도 일치된 의견이 없다. 기관지확장제 가역성 검사가 천식과 COPD를 감별 진단하는데 역할을 알아보고 기관지확장제 가역성 검사를 어느 방법으로 하는 것이 좋은지 알아 보았다. 방 법 : 천식 환자 26명과 COPD 환자 31명을 후향적으로 연구하였다. 기관지확장제를 흡입한 전후에 폐활량측정법을 시행하여 $FEV_1$, FVC를 얻었다. 기관지확장제 가역성 검사를 평가하는데 '기저치에 대한 백분율'과 '예측치에 대한 백분율' 그리고 '증가 절대값' 방법을 사용하였고 ROC curve의 곡선하 영역을 측정하여 비교하였다. 기관지확장제 가역성을 판단하는 기준 중 미국흉부학회 기준과 유럽호흡기학회 기준을 비교하였다. 결 과 : (1) '기저치에 대한 백분율' 방법으로 기관제확장제 가역성을 평가하였을 때 천식과 COPD를 감별 진단하는데 도움이 되지 않았지만 '예측치에 대한 백분율'이나 '증가 절대값' 방법으로 평가하였을 때는 도움이 되었다. 하지만, ROC curve의 곡선하 영역이 어느 방법을 쓰더라도 0.75 미만이므로 천식과 COPD를 감별 진단하는 능력은 약하였다. (2) 유럽호흡기학회 기준으로 기관지확장제 가역성을 평가하면 미국흉부학회 기준보다 양성 결과 우도비가 더 크고 음성 결과 우도비가 더 작으므로 천식과 COPD를 감별 진단하는데 유럽호흡기학회 기준이 더 좋았다. 결 론 : 기관지확장제 가역성은 천식과 COPD를 감별 진단하는데 도움을 줄 수 있기는 하지만 그 도움 정도가 약하므로 보조적인 검사로 사용하는 것이 좋을 것이다.

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