• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asthma

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Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014

  • Kim, Deog Kyeom;Park, Yong Bum;Oh, Yeon-Mok;Jung, Ki-Suck;Yoo, Ji Hong;Yoo, Kwang-Ha;Kim, Kwan Hyung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.79 no.3
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2016
  • Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma.

Asthma and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Insight into the Heterogeneity and Phenotypes of Asthma

  • Rolfes, Mary Claire;Juhn, Young Jun;Wi, Chung-Il;Sheen, Youn Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.80 no.2
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    • pp.113-135
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    • 2017
  • Asthma is traditionally regarded as a chronic airway disease, and recent literature proves its heterogeneity, based on distinctive clusters or phenotypes of asthma. In defining such asthma clusters, the nature of comorbidity among patients with asthma is poorly understood, by assuming no causal relationship between asthma and other comorbid conditions, including both communicable and noncommunicable diseases. However, emerging evidence suggests that the status of asthma significantly affects the increased susceptibility of the patient to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Specifically, the impact of asthma on susceptibility to noncommunicable diseases such as chronic systemic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), may provide an important insight into asthma as a disease with systemic inflammatory features, a conceptual understanding between asthma and asthma-related comorbidity, and the potential implications on the therapeutic and preventive interventions for patients with asthma. This review discusses the currently under-recognized clinical and immunological phenotypes of asthma; specifically, a higher risk of developing a systemic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis and their implications, on the conceptual understanding and management of asthma. Our discussion is divided into three parts: literature summary on the relationship between asthma and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis; potential mechanisms underlying the association; and implications on asthma management and research.

A Prediction Model of Asthma Diseases in Teenagers Using Artificial Intelligence Models (인공지능 모델을 이용한 청소년들의 천식 질환 발생 예측 모델)

  • Noh, Mi Jin;Park, Soon Chang
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2020
  • With the recent increase in asthma, asthma has become recognized as one of the diseases. The perception that bronchial asthma is a chronic disease and requires treatment has been strengthened. In addition, asthma is recognized as a dangerous disease due to environmental changes and efforts are made to minimize these risks. However, the environmental impact on asthma is hardly a factor that individuals in asthmatic patients can cope with. Therefore, this study was conducted to see if the asthma disease could be replaced by the individual efforts of asthma patients. In particular, since the management of asthma is important during adolescence, we conducted research on asthma in teenagers. Utilizing support vector machines, artificial neural networks and deep learning techniques that have recently drawn attention, we propose models to predict the asthma of teenagers. The study also provides guidelines to avoid factors that can cause asthma in teenagers.

Knowledge about Asthma, Empathy, and Attitudes to Child with Asthma for Students in a University of Education (교육대학교 학생의 천식에 대한 지식, 공감 및 천식아동에 대한 태도)

  • Moon, So-Hyun;Cho, Hun Ha
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to identify knowledge about asthma, attitude to asthma, and empathy for children with asthma as held by university of education students, and to examine the relation between these variables and factors that influence them. Methods: Participants were 347 third and fourth year students from a national university of education in G city. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients, ANOVA and Tukey test with SPSS/WIN 18.0. Results: The score for participants' knowledge about asthma was 0.53 out of a possible 1, for empathy, 3.63 out of a possible 5, and for attitude towards asthma, 3.33 points of a possible 5. The attitude towards asthma showed significant differences according to year, satisfaction with major, and satisfaction with practice teaching. Knowledge about asthma and empathy showed a positive correlation with attitudes to children with asthma. Year and Knowledge about asthma, and empathy showed a significant influence on attitudes to children with asthma. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that development of appropriate knowledge and empathy in students in a university of education should lead to positive attitudes to children with asthma. This development could be enhanced with structured and on-going education about asthma.

A Study on the Knowledge Level and Educational Demand about Pediatric Asthma of Mothers of Children with Asthma (천식아동 어머니의 지식정도와 교육요구도)

  • Back, Kyoung-Seon;Lee, Ji-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.252-259
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. It's important mother's caring for management of children with asthma. This study was to provide the evidenced data for preparing an educational program by identifying the knowledge level and educational demand about pediatric asthma of mothers of children with asthma. Method: The subjects were 91 mothers of children with asthma who admitted at 3 hospital in Busan. The data were collected through a self-reporting questionnaire from Feburary to May, 2005. The data was analyzed by SPSS 10.0 program. Results: The total mean percentage of correct answer of knowledge about pediatric asthma was 55.6% and the total mean $score{\pm}SD$ of educational demand about pediatric asthma was $4.40{\pm}0.50$. The knowledge level was statistically different by recurrence number(F=3.08, p=.049). There was not correlation between knowledge level and eucational demand. Conclusions: The mothers of children with asthma had a medium knowledge level and a high educational demand. Based on the results, mothers' knowledge is an important part of children with asthma management. Therefore nursing intervention program for mothers of children with asthma should be developed and the mothers should cope with asthma effectively.

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Trends in the Prevalence of Childhood Asthma in Seoul Metropolitan City, Korea: The Seoul Atopy·Asthma-friendly School Project

  • Cho, Yong Min;Kim, Chea-Bong;Yeon, Kyung Nam;Lee, Eun Sun;Kim, KyooSang
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The project Seoul Atopy Asthma-friendly School investigated the current status of childhood asthma to enable formulation of a preventative policy. We evaluated the current prevalence of childhood asthma in Seoul and its trends and related factors. Methods: The project was conducted annually from 2011 to 2016 and involved around 35 000 children aged 1-13 years. Based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood guidelines, the survey involved parents. The associations of the particulate matter ($PM_{10}$) concentration, and the number of days on which the daily air quality guidance level was exceeded in the 25 districts of Seoul, with the prevalence of asthma were assessed. Results: The age-standardized asthma prevalence in 2011 and 2016 was 6.74 and 4.02%, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime asthma treatment and treatment during the last 12 months tended to decrease from 2011 to 2016. Asthma treatment was significantly correlated with the number of days on which the daily air quality guidance level was exceeded, but not with the $PM_{10}$ concentration. Conclusions: This study reports the prevalence of asthma among children in Seoul and confirmed the relationship between childhood asthma and known risk factors in a large-scale survey.

Environmental tobacco smoke and childhood asthma

  • Song, Dae Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2010
  • In recent years, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has become an important worldwide public health issue. Children are particularly vulnerable to ETS because they are still developing. ETS exposure causes a wide range of adverse health effects on childhood asthma. There is convincing evidence that ETS exposure is causally associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, increased severity of asthma and worsening asthma control in children who already have the disease, even though a causal relationship with asthma onset is not yet established for asthma incidence. Mechanisms underlying these adverse effects of ETS are not clearly elucidated but e studies on this issue suggest that genetic susceptibility, impaired lung function, and augmented airway inflammation and remodeling may be involved. Children with asthma are just as likely to be exposed to ETS as children in general and there is no risk-free level of exposure. Therefore, providing a smoke-free environment may be of particular importance to the asthmatic children exposed to ETS who have adverse asthma outcomes, as well as to children with genetic susceptibility who are at increased risk of developing asthma upon exposure to ETS in early childhood.

Relationship between Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Levels of Asthma Control in Asthma Patients Treated with Inhaled Corticosteroid

  • Han, Chang-Hee;Park, You-Il;Kwak, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Sa-Il;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Sohn, Jang-Won;Yoon, Ho-Joo;Shin, Dong-Ho;Park, Sung-Soo;Kim, Sang-Heon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.71 no.2
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    • pp.106-113
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    • 2011
  • Background: While asthma control is defined as the extent to which the various manifestations of asthma are reduced by treatment, current guidelines of asthma recommend assessment of asthma control without consideration of airway inflammation. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a reliable marker of airway inflammation, and levels of asthma control in patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Methods: We enrolled 71 adult patients with asthma who had been treated with ICS for more than four months. FeNO was measured and spirometry was performed at the time of enrollment. Asthma control was assessed (a) by the physician based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, (b) by the patients, and (c) by using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Statistical analyses were done to analyze the relationships between (i) FeNO and (ii) measures of asthma control and clinical indices for asthma manifestations. Results: There was no significant difference in FeNO levels between the three groups according to levels of asthma control (controlled, partly controlled and uncontrolled) as determined by the physician (p=0.81), or by the patients (p=0.81). In addition, FeNO values were not significantly correlated with the ACT scores (r=0.031, p=0.807), while FeNO showed a correlation with peripheral blood eosinophil counts (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that FeNO levels are not associated with measures of asthma control in patients treated with ICS. Information on airway inflammation from FeNO concentrations seems to be unrelated to levels of asthma control

Rhinovirus and childhood asthma: an update

  • Song, Dae Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.11
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    • pp.432-439
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    • 2016
  • Asthma is recognized as a complex disease resulting from interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that respiratory viral infections in early life constitute a major environmental risk factor for the development of childhood asthma. Respiratory viral infections have also been recognized as the most common cause of asthma exacerbation. The advent of molecular diagnostics to detect respiratory viruses has provided new insights into the role of human rhinovirus (HRV) infections in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, it is still unclear whether HRV infections cause asthma or if wheezing with HRV infection is simply a predictor of childhood asthma. Recent clinical and experimental studies have identified plausible pathways by which HRV infection could cause asthma, particularly in a susceptible host, and exacerbate disease. Airway epithelial cells, the primary site of infection and replication of HRV, play a key role in these processes. Details regarding the role of genetic factors, including ORMDL3, are beginning to emerge. This review discusses recent clinical and experimental evidence for the role of HRV infection in the development and exacerbation of childhood asthma and the potential underlying mechanisms that have been proposed.