• Title/Summary/Keyword: weighting factor

### Formation Flight and Collision Avoidance for Multiple UAVs using Concept of Elastic Weighting Factor

• Kang, Seunghoon;Choi, Hyunjin;Kim, Youdan
• International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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• v.14 no.1
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• pp.75-84
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• 2013
• In this paper, the guidance law for formation flight and collision avoidance of multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)s is proposed. To construct the physically comprehensible guidance law for formation flight, the virtual structure approach is used. To develop a guidance law for collision avoidance considering both other UAVs and unknown static obstacles, a geometric approach using information such as a relative position vector is utilized. Through the Lyapunov theorem, the stability of the proposed guidance law is proved. To combine guidance commands, the concept of the elastic weighting factor inspired by the elastic behavior of shape memory polymer, which tends to regain its original shape after deformation, is introduced. By using the concept of elastic weighting factor, multiple UAVs are able to cope actively with the situation of a collision between both UAVs and static obstacles during the formation flight. To verify the performance of the proposed method, numerical simulations are performed.

### Calculation of the Absorption Coefficient and Weighting Factor Expressing the Total Emissivity of Flame (화염의 총괄폭사 계수를 나타내는 급수계수 및 가중치의 계산)

• 하만영;허병기
• Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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• v.10 no.1
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• pp.121-130
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• 1986
• Using the sbsorption coefficients and the weighting factors of the gray gas, the total emissivities of C $O_{2}$- $H_{2}$O and C $O_{2}$- $H_{2}$O- transient species-soot gas mixtures can be expressed by the following equation, [a numerical formula] Where, $a_{i}$ and $K_{i}$ represent the weighting factor and the absorption coeffient of i-gray gas respectively; L is the pathlength of the gas. This equation is widely used for the analyses of the radiation heat transfer in the combustors of internal combustion engines and in the furnace of external combustion engines. In this work, a simple calculation model of the weighting factor and the absorption coeffient of the above equation was developed. The weighting factors and the absorption coefficients of combustion products were calculated by applying the model to various kinds of fossil fuels such as coal and heavy oil. Then, the computed total emissivities for each fuel and pathlength were compared with measured and calculated values which have been already published in the literatures. The followings were the results obtained through the comparisons between the calculated emissivites and the published values; the developed model for the calculations of the weighting factor and the absorption coefficient of C $O_{2}$- $H_{2}$O and C $O_{2}$- $H_{2}$O- transient species-soot gas mixtures could be applied over the wide ranges of the temperature and the pathlength; the errors between the total emissivities calculted and the values published were maximum 10%, and average 1%, respectively.

### A Study on the Method of Safety Condition Evaluation using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP를 이용한 기업별 안전평가 기법에 관한 연구)

• Paik, Shinwon;Lee, Misun
• Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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• v.55 no.3
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• pp.85-89
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• 2013
• In the current domestic, many industrial accidents have happened. And these are analyzed according to several factors. But it is difficult that they evaluate their business safety. Thus, we conducted a study on business specific safety assessment techniques in order that business know their safety level and perform appropriative safety activities. Study methods are survey and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). Each specific weighting factors to calculate the survey was conducted for safety and consulting experts (20 persons). Weight factor was used to AHP decision support as one of the ways through a number of alternatives to the ratings for the Minesota Multiphasic. Factors are each type of industry, specific industrial scale, disaster type and strength, worker age and tenure period, and region. First, survey was conducted with 20 professionals to estimate the weighting factors. Weights between factors using the AHP analysis tool based on the mean values were calculated. Second, last 3 years between the industrial accidents statistics were used to calculate the weights for each of the rating factors in the Occupational Safety and Health Agency. Grade weights between each factor which was based on the rating of each factor was calculated as the average of three years. Finally, the weights between each factor and the grade weights for each factor using the safety level of the enterprise were calculated so that you can evaluate the weighting.

### A Generalized Least Square Method using Dead Zone (불감대를 사용한 최소자승법의 일반화)

• 이하정;최종호
• The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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• v.37 no.10
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• pp.727-732
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• 1988
• In this paper, a parameter estimation method of linear systems with bounded output disturbances is studied. The bound of the disturbances is assumed to known Weighting factors are proposed to modify LS(Least Square) algorithm in the parameter estimation method. The conditions of weighting factors are given so that the estimation method has good convergence properties. This condition is more relaxed form than other known conditions. The compensation term in the estimation equations is represented by a function of the output prediction error and this function should lie in a specified region on x-y plane to satisfy these conditions of weighting factors. A set of weighting factor is selected and an algorithm is proposed using this set of weighting factor. The proposed algorithm is compared with another existing algorithm by simulation and its performance in parameter estimation id discussed.

### A Novel Weighting Factor Method in NLOS Environment

• Guan, Xufeng;Hur, SooJun;Choi, JeongHee
• IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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• v.6 no.2
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• pp.108-116
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• 2011
• Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) error is the most common and also a major source of errors in wireless location system. A novel weighting factor (NWF) method is presented in this paper, based on the RSS(Received Signal Strength) measurements, path loss model and Circular Disk of Scatterers Model (CDSM). The proposed positioning method effectively weighted the TOA distance measurements for each Base Station (BS). Simulation results show that the proposed method efficiently weighted the distance measurements and achieve higher localization accuracy than that of Linear Line of Position (LLOP) and Believable Factor Algorithm (BFA).

### Model Predictive Torque Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives with Voltage Cost Functions

• Zhang, Xiaoguang;Hou, Benshuai;He, Yikang;Gao, Dawei
• Journal of Power Electronics
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• v.18 no.5
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• pp.1369-1379
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• 2018
• In this paper, a model predictive torque control (MPTC) without the use of a weighting factor for surface mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) drive systems is presented. Firstly, the desired voltage vector is predicted in real time according to the principles of deadbeat torque and flux control. Then the sector of this desired voltage vector is determined. The complete enumeration for testing all of the feasible voltage vectors is avoided by testing only the candidate vectors contained in the sector. This means that only two voltage vectors in the sector need to be tested for selecting the optimal voltage vector in each control period. Thus, the calculation time can be reduced when compared with the conventional enumeration method. On the other hand, a novel cost function that only includes the dq-axis voltage errors between the desired voltage and candidate voltage is designed to eliminate the weighting factor used in the conventional MPTC. Thus, the control complexity caused by the tuning of the weighting factor is effectively decreased when compared with the conventional MPTC. Simulation and experimental investigation have been carried out to verify the proposed method.

### Determination of Weighting Factor in the Inverse Model for Estimating Surface Velocity from AVHRR/SST Data (AVHRR/SST로 부터 표층유속을 추정하기 위한 역행렬 모델에서 가중치의 설정)

• Lee, Tae-Shin;Chung, Jong-Yul;Kang, Hyoun-Woo
• 한국해양학회지
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• v.30 no.6
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• pp.543-549
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• 1995
• The inverse method has been used to estimate a surface velocity field from sequential AVHRR/SST data. In the model, equation system was composed of heat equation and horizontal divergence minimization and the velocity field contained in the advective term of the heat equation, which was linearized in grid system, was estimated. A constraint was the minimization of horizontal divergence with weighting factor and introduced to compensate the null space(Menke, 1984) of the velocity solutions for the heat equation. The experiments were carried out to set up the range of weighting factor and the matrix equation was solved by SVD(Singular Value Decomposion). In the experiment, the scales of horizontal temperature gradient and divergence of synthetic velocity field were approximated to those of real field. The neglected diffusive effect and the horizontal variation of heat flux in the heat equation were regarded as random temperature errors. According to the result of experiments, the minimum of relative error was more desirable than the minimum of misfit as the criteria of setting up the weighting factor and the error of estimated velocity field became small when the weighting factor was order of $10^{-1}$

### Implementation of 70MHz IF Filter with Slanted Finger IDTs on 123°LiNbO3 Substrates (123°LiNbO3 기판을 이용한 기울인 빗살변환기 구조의 70MHz IF 필터 구현)

• 이택주;정덕진
• Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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• v.15 no.4
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• pp.325-331
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• 2002
• In this paper, surface acoustic wave(SAW) bandpass filters using slanted finger interdigital electrode transducers(IDTs) are investigated. The slanted finger IDTs are used to design SAW filters with good shape factor, a flat passband, and good out-of-band rejection characteristic. For the filter design, input-output IDT structure was simulated with modified impulse model; uniform-withdrawal weighting IDTs, withdrawal-withdrawal weighting IDTs. SAW filters of uniform-withdrawal weighting IDTs structure were designed and fabricated on $128^{\circ}LiNbO_3$ piezoelectric substrates. Implemented SAW filter has a fractional bandwidth of 30%, center frequency of 70MHz and shape factor of $1.12\pm0.01$.

### Flowrate Integration Errors of Multi-path Ultrasonic Flowmeter using Weighting Factors (가중계수에 의한 다회선 초음파 유량계의 유량적분오차)

• Lee, Ho-June;Hwang, Shang-Yoon;Kim, Kyoung-Jin
• 유체기계공업학회:학술대회논문집
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• pp.154-160
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• 2003
• Multi-path ultrasonic flowrate measuring technology is being received much attentions from a variety of industrial fields to exactly measure the flowmeter. Multi-path ultrasonic flowmeter has much advantage since it has no moving parts and not occurred pressure loss. It offers good accuracy, repeatability, linearity and Tum-down ratio can measure over 1:50. The present study investigates flowrate integration errors using weighting factors. A theoretical flow model uses power law to describe a fully developed velocity profiles and wall roughness changes. The methods of weighting factor simulate three configurations of measuring location of gaussian, chebyshev and tailor method. The obtained results show that many chord arrangements are not affected for wall roughness changes and can measure accurate flowrate.

### A Weighted Points Registration Method to Analyze Dimensional Errors Occurring during Shipbuilding Process (선박 건조 과정에서 발생하는 치수 오차 분석을 위한 가중 포인트 정합 방법)

• Kwon, Kiyoun
• Korean Journal of Computational Design and Engineering
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• v.21 no.2
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• pp.151-158
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• 2016
• It is important to analyze dimensional errors occurring during shipbuilding process. A ship is constructed by assembling blocks and installing outfits in assembled ship structure. Blocks and outfits have a main direction that has greater importance than other directions from the view point of dimensional error. Therefore, a main direction should have a greater weighting factor than other directions in order to achieve meaningful inspection results. In this paper, a modified point registration method based on iterative closest point (ICP) is proposed. In this method, a user determines one or two main directions among x, y, and z directions, and then each main direction is made to have a greater weighting factor than other directions. For points registration, mapping between measured points and design points are performed by the modified ICP in which weighting factor assigned to each main direction is considered.