• Title/Summary/Keyword: weaning practice

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Genetic Parameters and Responses in Growth and Body Composition Traits of Pigs Measured under Group Housing and Ad libitum Feeding from Lines Selected for Growth Rate on a Fixed Ration

  • Nguyen, Nguyen Hong;McPhee, C.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1075-1079
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    • 2005
  • The main objective of this study is to examine genetic changes in growth rate and carcass composition traits in group housed, ad libitum fed pigs, from lines of Large White divergently selected over four years for high and low post-weaning daily gain on a fixed but restricted ration. Genetic parameters for production and carcass traits were also estimated by using average information-restricted maximum likelihood applied to a multivariate individual animal model. All analyses were carried out on 1,728 records of group housed ad libitum fed pigs, and include a full pedigree of 5,324 animals. Estimates of heritability (standard errors in parentheses) were 0.11 (0.04) for lifetime daily liveweight gain (LDG), 0.13 (0.04) for daily carcass weight gain (CDG) and 0.28 (0.06) for carcass backfat (CFT). Genetic correlations between LDG and CDG were highly positive and between LDG and CFT negative, suggesting that selection for lifetime daily gain under commercial conditions of group housing with ad libitum feeding would result in favourable improvement in carcass traits. CFT showed negative genetic correlations with CDG. Correlated genetic responses evaluated as estimated breeding values (EBVs) were obtained from a multivariate animal model-best linear unbiased prediction analysis. After four years of divergent selection for 6 week post-weaning growth rate on restricted feeding, pigs performance tested on ad libitum feeding in groups exhibited changes in EBVs of 6.77 and -9.93 (g/d) for LDG, 4.25 and -7.08 (g/d) for CDG, and -1.42 and 1.55 (mm) for CFT, in the high and low lines, respectively. It is concluded that selection for growth rate on restricted feeding would significantly improve genetic performance and carcass composition of their descendants when group housed and ad libitum fed as is a common commercial practice.

Nutritional Situation in Korea (한국인영양(韓國人營養)의 현황(現況))

  • Ju, Jin-Soon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 1968
  • According to the dietary surveys and national food balance sheets, the dietary state of person living in Korea is ingesting a high level of grain and vegetable diet and very low animal sources. The daily calory intake is about 2,300-2,600 Cal. per head in which a total protein intake is 69-86 gm respectively. These data indicate no shortage of calory and total protein intake. However, the intake of animal protein is only 4-11 gm and the fat is 8-18 gm, both of which are far below the requirment. The low fat intake brings about a low level of fat soluble vitamins, and that V-A intake is as short as the half amount of the allowance. Riboflavine is also about a half of dietary requirment. Both thiamin and ascorbic acid intake are sufficient. The calcium intake is 0.26-0.5 gm per day which is inadequate. In fact, biochemical findings through field survey show; serum protein 6.7 gm, hemoglobin 13.1 gm and hematocrite 41.5% all of which are lower than the Kwon's report. The serum V-A and uunrinary riboflavin value are also lower than the Williams'es report. Clinically, inflamation of the eyes, cheilosis, pathological signs of tangue, xerosis of the hand and arm, or the like are frequently seen. On the other hand, there is no suitable diet available for the weaning infant and delayed weaning is a common practice. A school lunch program is still in an early stage of development. Another example can be cited that the Korean infant grows faster than the Japanese until one year of age, and no difference is noted between the Korean and the American infants up to six monthes of age, thereafter the former lags in the growth rate. This might be mainly due to the nutritional reasons as mentioned above, and in part due to the high inidence of intestinal parasitism and others.

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Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants

  • Hong, Jeana;Chang, Ju Young;Shin, Sue;Oh, Sohee
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.974-984
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    • 2017
  • The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8-15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA.

Nutrient intakes of infants with atopic dermatitis and relationship with feeding type

  • Han, Youngshin;Lee, Youngmi;Park, Haeryun;Park, Sunyoung;Song, Kyunghee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants is increasing worldwide. However, the nutrient intake status of infants with atopic dermatitis has not been studied properly. This study was conducted to compare the nutrient intake status of infants in the weaning period with atopic dermatitis by feeding type. MATERIALS/METHODS: Feeding types, nutrient intake status and growth status of 98 infants with atopic dermatitis from age 6 to 12 months were investigated. Feeding types were surveyed using questionnaires, and daily intakes were recorded by mothers using the 24-hour recall method. Growth and iron status were also measured. RESULTS: The result showed that breastfed infants consumed less energy and 13 nutrients compared to formula-fed or mixed-fed infants (P < 0.001). The breastfed group showed a significantly lower intake rate to the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans than the other two groups (P < 0.001). In addition, they consumed less than 75% of the recommended intakes in all nutrients, except for protein and vitamin A, and in particular, iron intake was very low, showing just 18.7% of the recommended intake. There was no significant difference in growth by feeding type, but breastfed infants showed a significantly higher rate of iron deficiency anemia (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Continuous management programs should be prepared for breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis, who are in a period when rapid growth takes place and proper nutrient intake is essential.

A Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Relative to Maternal and Child Health Among Women Residing in Apartments at Yonsei Community Health Area (연세지역 아파트 주민의 모자보건에 관한 실태조사)

  • Yu, Seung-Hum;Chung, Young-Sook;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Kim, Kwang-Jong
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 1971
  • A study of the knowledge, attitude and practices about the maternal and child health of 305 married women residing in apartments at the Yonsei Community Health area was conducted during the period from November to December 1970 using designed questionnaire with well trained interviewers. The results and findings obtained from the study are summarized as follows: A. Pregnancy and Birth Questions were asked about their last child. 1. 16.4% of the women were pregnant. 2. Among 281 women who had experienced delivery, 48.0% were assisted by doctor or midwisves for their last delivery, while the rest of women delivered their last baby at home without any professional's assistance. The higher the level of education or the greater exposure to mass communication, the more the deliveries were assisted by doctors or midwives. Those women who were born and raised in cities had more deliveries assisted by doctors and midwives than those who were not. 3. Kinds of delivery sheets used. Among 141 cases of home delivery 68% used cement bag paper or vinyl sheets. Three% used nothing and remained used unsterile materials. 4. Among 141 cases of home delivery, 70.2% used scissors. The rest of them used other methods. 5. 47.3% of the women had a rest for one month or more after birth. The higher the level of education, the longer the period of rest was observed. 6. 52.4% of the women fed the colostrum to their babies. This was not related to the mother's education. 7 About half(42.9%) of the women had poor knowledge about a proper diet for the pre and post natal period. B. Child Health 1. Knowledge and practice regarding to the immunization for their children: Most of the women (93.2%) could name at least one kind of immunization. 20.3% could name 6 kinds of immunization. Mothers education level did not influence their ability to name immunizations. 85.2% of children had been immunized at least once. 2. Morbidity of last born children: 48.1% of their last born children were found to have been sick during the last year. Less than half(41.5%) of the sick children were seen by doctor. 3. Counselling at well baby clinic: Most of the women(76.5%) had no counselling for their children. Registration rate at the well baby clinic at the Severance Hospital was 13.2%. 45.9% wanted to visit to the well baby clinic at the Severance Hospital. 4. Weaning Period: 44.6% said that the beginning of the weaning for their last born children was from 6 months to twelve months of age. The most important reason of weaning was the health of both mothers and children. 5. Knowledge and Practice regarding birth and death Registration: 64.6% of the women could name correctly the Ku-office as the place for the registration. Only 29.2% registered the birth of their last born children within 14 days. C. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding to family planning Most: of the women accepted the idea of family planning. 97.7% could name at least one contraceptive method. 35.4% were found to be current users of contraceptive methods. The ideal number of children was 3.1 in average.

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Application of the New Surgical Technique for Orthotopic Heart Transplantation in Dogs (잡견에 있어서 새로운 심장수술기법의 적용)

  • 원태희;한재진;김기봉;노준량
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.207-211
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    • 2000
  • Backgroud: Conventional cardiac transplantation with each atrial anastomosis designed by Shumway and associates has been used widely in cardiac transplantation because of its simplicity and efficiency. There have been many reports about the postoperative atrioventricular value regurgitation resulting from the alteration in atrial geometry after cardiac transplantation by Shumway's technique. New surgical technique of direct anastomosis of superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, right pulmonary vein and left pulmonary vein was introduced to overcome the those problems. We performed this study to test the feasibility of this new surgical technique prior to application to clinical practice. Material and Method: Conventional cardiac transplantation was performed on 12 mongrel dogs(Group I) and cardiac transplantation with new surgical mthod of direct anastomosis of SVC, IVC, left and right pulmonary veins was performed on 11 mongrel dogs(Group II). After weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, we compared the postoperative rhythm, hemodynamic data, and echocardiographic findings between two groups. Result : The cardiopulmonary bypass time and graft ischemic time were 119.0$\pm$4.4 minutes, 162.0$\pm$4.5 minutes respectively in group I, and 140.0$\pm$7.1 minutes, 180.5$\pm$5.4 minutes respectively in group II. The cardiopulmonary time and graft ischemic time in group II were longer than those of group I (p<0.05). There were 3 cases of failure to weaning from cardipulmonary bypass onein group I and two in group II, and this difference was not significant statistically. Sinus rhythm was regained postoperatively in 58% (group I) and 82%(group II), without statistical significant between 2 groups. Postoperative echolcardiography showed 2 cases of tricuspid value regurgitation and 1 case of mitral regurgitation in group I, and no regurgitation of atrioventricular value in group II. Conclusion: Although these was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups, there was tendency of less arrhythmia and less atrioventricular valvular regurgitation in group II. We suggested that the new surgical technique could be a useful strategy in heart transplantation, especially in the case of size mismatching between donor and recipient.

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Baby Food Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Multi-cultural Families in a Rural Area (일개 농촌지역 다문화가정의 이유식에 대한 지식, 태도 및 실천)

  • Kim, Min-Seo;Kim, Keon-Yeop;Kim, Kyeong-Na;Kim, Kwang-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.500-509
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016 to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of baby foods in rural multi-cultural families. The survey included the general characteristics of households and infants, knowledge, attitude, and practice of baby food. The results indicated that the mean score of baby food knowledge was 3.79, 4.07 for attitudes, and the practice group was 25.0%. In the knowledge of baby food, the groups with a total number of two or more children, high educational background for both the father and mother, Chinese or Japanese nationality, high Korean language ability, and marriage for at least 6 or more years was higher (p<0.05). In the attitude of baby food, the groups with a total number of two or more children, a higher mother's Korean language, and the mother in charge of the baby food were higher (p<0.05). In the case of baby food practice, the groups the baby mother was from Japan and Cambodia, there was no occupation, and the mother was in charge of the baby food were higher (p<0.05). Knowledge and attitude according to the practice of baby food showed a higher knowledge (p <0.001) and attitude in the weaning practiced group than unpracticed. To produce baby food for infants in multi-cultural families, it is important to improve the Korean language ability of infant mothers who are in charge of baby food, and it is necessary to provide correct information related to infant formula utilizing the supporters of the neighboring mothers. In addition, it is necessary to provide customized education and support that is contingent upon the nationality of the native people while remaining mindful of the cultural implications of multi-cultural families.

Effects of disturbed liver growth and oxidative stress of high-fat diet-fed dams on cholesterol metabolism in offspring mice

  • Kim, Juyoung;Kim, Juhae;Kwon, Young Hye
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.386-392
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Changes in nutritional status during gestation and lactation have detrimental effects on offspring metabolism. Several animal studies have shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) can predispose the offspring to development of obesity and metabolic diseases, however the mechanisms underlying these transgenerational effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of maternal HFD consumption on metabolic phenotype and hepatic expression of involved genes in dams to determine whether any of these parameters were associated with the metabolic outcomes in the offspring. MATERIALS/METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD: 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD: 45% calories from fat) for three weeks before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Dams and their male offspring were studied at weaning. RESULTS: Dams fed an HFD had significantly higher body and adipose tissue weights and higher serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels than dams fed an LFD. Hepatic lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including $LXR{\alpha}$, SREBP-2, FXR, LDLR, and ABCG8 were significantly changed by maternal HFD intake. Significantly lower total liver DNA and protein contents were observed in dams fed an HFD, implicating the disturbed liver adaptation in the pregnancy-related metabolic demand. HFD feeding also induced significant oxidative stress in serum and liver of dams. Offspring of dams fed an HFD had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels, which were negatively correlated with liver weights of dams and positively correlated with hepatic lipid peroxide levels in dams. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal HFD consumption induced metabolic dysfunction, including altered liver growth and oxidative stress in dams, which may contribute to the disturbed cholesterol homeostasis in the early life of male mice offspring.

The effect of long-term supplementation with different dietary ${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$ ratios on mineral content and ex vivo prostaglandin E2 release in bone of growing rabbits

  • Alnouri, Doha Mustafa;El-Din, Mohamed Fekry Serag;Al-Khalifa, Abdulrhman Salih
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.360-367
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to study the different long term effects of consumption of dietary oil sources with varying omega-6/omega-3 (${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratios on bone marrow fatty acid level, ex vivo prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) release, and mineral content of bone in rabbits. MATERIALS/METHODS: For this purpose, weaning and female New Zealand white rabbits were purchased and randomly divided into five groups and offered ad libitum diets containing 70 g/kg of added oil for 100 days. The dietary lipid treatments were formulated to provide the following ratios of ${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$ fatty acids: 8.68 soy bean oil (SBO control), 21.75 sesame oil (SO), 0.39 fish oil (FO), 0.63 algae oil (DHA), and 0.68 algae oils (DHA/ARA). DHA and ARA are two types of marine microalgae of the genus Crypthecodinium cohnii. RESULTS: The dietary treatments had significant effects on the bone marrow fatty acids of rabbits. Rabbits fed the FO diet, containing the highest ${\omega}-3$ PUFA concentration, and those fed the SBO diet showed the highest ${\omega}-6$ PUFA. On the other hand, a positive correlation was observed between Ex vivo $PGE_2$ level and the ${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$ dietary ratio. Significant effects of dietary treatment on femur Ca, P, Mg, and Zn contents were observed in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the current study clearly demonstrated that dietary PUFA, particularly ${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$ and ARA/EPA ratios are important factors in determining bone marrow fatty acid profile, and this in turn determines the capacity of bone for synthesis of $PGE_2$, thereby reducing bone resorption and improving bone mass during growth.

Maternal high-fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation induces metabolic syndrome in adult offspring

  • Koo, Soohyeon;Kim, Mina;Cho, Hyun Min;Kim, Inkyeom
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.160-172
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    • 2021
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nutritional status and food intake during pregnancy and lactation can affect fetal programming. In the current metabolic syndrome epidemic, high-fructose diets have been strongly implicated. This study investigated the effect of maternal high-fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation on the development of metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Drinking water with or without 20% fructose was administered to female C57BL/6J mice over the course of their pregnancy and lactation periods. After weaning, pups ate regular chow. Accu-Chek Performa was used to measure glucose levels, and a tail-cuff method was used to examine systolic blood pressure. Animals were sacrificed at 7 months, their livers were excised, and sections were stained with Oil Red O and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Kidneys were collected for gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time Polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Adult offspring exposed to maternal high-fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation presented with heavier body weights, fattier livers, and broader areas under the curve in glucose tolerance test values than control offspring. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in the maternal high-fructose group were higher than that in controls. However, there were no significant differences in mRNA expressions of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes and sodium transporter genes. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that maternal high-fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation induces metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in adult offspring.