• Title/Summary/Keyword: warmth index

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Multi Layered Planting Models of Zelkova serrata Community according to Warmth Index (온량지수에 따른 느티나무군락의 다층구조 식재모델)

  • Kong, Seok Jun;Shin, Jin Ho;Yang, Keum Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2012
  • This study suggested the planting model of Zelkova serrata communities in the areas with the warmth index of both 80~100 and $100{\sim}120^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$. Warmth index was calculated with 449 weather points using inverse distance weighted interpolation method. The planting species were selected by correlation analysis between Z. serrata and each species of four or more frequency among the 36 relev$\acute{e}$ surveyed for this study. The result of this study is summarized as follows : Warmth index of Z. serrata communities was among $74{\sim}118^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$. Results of the correlation analysis between Z. serrata and each species observed that the Z. serrata belongs to the tree layer with warmth index of 80~100 and $100{\sim}120^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$. On the other hand, the species of Carpinus laxiflora, Quercus serrata, Prunus sargentii and Platycarya strobilacea appeared only in the tree layer with warmth index of $80{\sim}100^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$. Z. serrata and Styrax japonica appeared in the subtree layer with the warmth index of 80~100 and $100{\sim}120^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$, while Acer pseudosieboldianum, Lindera erythrocarpa, Acer mono, Quercus serrata, etc. appeared in the subtree layer with the warmth index of $80{\sim}100^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$. Z. serrata, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Lindera obtusiloba, Callicarpa japonica and Zanthoxylum schinifolium all appeared in the shrub layer with the warmth index of 80~100 and $100{\sim}120^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$. Lindera erythrocarpa, Orixa japonica, Staphylea bumalda, Akebia quinata and Sorbus alnifolia appeared in the shrub layer with the warmth index of $80{\sim}100^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$ and Styrax japonica and Stephanandra incisa appeared in the shrub layer with the warmth index of $100{\sim}120^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$, The numbers of each species planted in a $100m^2$ area of the Z. serrata community were suggested as follows : five in tree layer, five in subtree layer and nine in shrub layer. The average area of canopy are suggested to be about $86m^2$ for tree layer, $34m^2$ for subtree layer and $34m^2$ for shrub layer.

Vegetation Structure and Ecological Restoration Model of Quercus mongolica Community (신갈나무림의 식생구조와 생태적 복원모델)

  • Lee, Mi-Jeong;Song, Hokyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2011
  • The composition of species for each community of Quercus by vegetation and soil survey, the community classification by TWINSPAN, the structural characteristics of communities were used and analyzed during the period of 2000~2004 for Quercus mongolica forest. And the resulting suggestions for a subsequent planting model for forest are as follows. The Quercus mongolica community had the highest importance value for Quercus mongolica followed sequentially by Acer pseudosieboldianum, Acer mono, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, and Fraxinus sieboldiana. As a result of suggesting a planting modeling for the Quercus mongolica communities in the areas with the warmth index of both $60.90{\sim}79.79^{\circ}C$ and $53.96{\sim}64.82^{\circ}C$, Quercus mongolica was absolutely dominant in case of the subtree layer for the accompaniment species of distribution in the planting modeling by tree layer in the two areas depending on the warmth index, while there were distinct differences shown in case of the lower tree layer. While Acer pseudosieboldianum, Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Sorbus alnifolia, Acer mono, etc. were appeared in the subtree layer for the areas with the warmth index of $60.90{\sim}79.79^{\circ}C$. Cornus controversa, Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus sieboldiana, etc. were many appeared in the subtree layer for the areas with the warmth index of $53.96{\sim}64.82^{\circ}C$. And, when we made ecological Quercus mongolica community, subtree layer planting is different by warmth index.

The Study of Adaptable Plant Species according to Warmth Index using RCP 8.5 Scenarios in Cheonan-Si (RCP 8.5 시나리오를 이용하여 온량지수에 따른 천안시 적응 가능한 식물종 연구)

  • Kong, Seok Jun;Shin, Jin Ho;Yang, Keum Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2013
  • This study was proposed to adaptable species according to climate change using warmth index(WI) in Cheonan-Si. RCP 8.5 was used to estimate change of warmth index(WI) depending on climate change in Cheonan-Si. Climatic change of Cheonan-Si was estimated to change from cool temperate forest central zone to warm temperate forest zone. The following plant species will survive within WI change of Cheonan-Si from 2010 to 2050 : 18 species in the tree layer including Quercus serrata, Q. variabilis, Pinus densiflora, Q. acutissima etc.; 28 species in the shrub layer including Rhus trichocarpa, Lindera obtusiloba, Zanthoxylum schinifolium etc.; 24 species in the herb layer including Oplismenus undulatifolius, Carex lanceolata, etc.; 12 species in the vine plants including Smilax china, Cocculus trilobus, etc.

Wetness or Warmth, Which is the Dominant Factor for Vegetation?

  • Suzuki, Rikie;Xu, Jianqing;Motoya, Ken
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.147-149
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    • 2003
  • The wetness, a function of precipitation and temperature etc, and the warmth, a function of temperature, are the dominant factor for global vegetation distribution. This paper employs the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), warmth index (WAI), and wetness index (WEI), and focuses on an essential climate-vegetation relationship at global scale. The NDVI was acquired from ‘Twenty-year global 4-minute AVHRR NDVI dataset.’ The WEI is defined as the fraction of the precipitation to the potential evaporation. The WAI was calculated by accumulating the monthly mean temperature of the portion exceeded 5$^{\circ}C$ throughout the year. Meteorological data for the WEI and WAI calculation were obtained from the ISLSCP CD-ROM. All analyses were conducted for 1 ${\times}$ 1 degree grid box on the terrestrial area of the Earth, and on annual value basis averaged in 1987 and 1988. The result of analyses demonstrated that there are two regimes in their relations, that is, a regime in which NDVIs vary depending on the WEI, and a regime in which NDVIs vary depending on the WAI. These two regimes appeared to correspond to the wetness dominant and warmth dominant vegetation, respectively. The geographical distributions of two regimes were mapped. Most of the world vegetation is categorized into wetness dominant, while warmth dominant vegetation is seen in the high-latitude area mainly to the north of 60$^{\circ}$N in the Northern Hemisphere and high-altitude areas.

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Observational Study on Local Climatological Environment of the Mountain Adjacent the Dongyeong Herb Garden in Chilgok (칠곡 동영 약초원 인근 산지의 국지 기후 환경 관측 연구)

  • Kim, Hak-Yun;Choi, Seo-Hwan;Kim, Hae-Dong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.897-904
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    • 2016
  • We investigated the local climatological characteristics of the mountain adjacent the Dongyeong herb garden in Chilgok. We established one set of automatic weather system (AWS) on a hill where development of herb garden is in progress. The observations were continued for 2 years(2013. 07-2015.06). In this study, we analyzed the observed data comparing the data of Gumi meteorological observatory (GMO). The results showed that the air temperature(relative humidity) of Dongyeong herb garden were lower(higher) than those of GMO. Especially the differences are more during warm climate season. It means that the gaps of thermal environment between two points are mainly caused by the evaporation effects of forest. In addition, we analyzed the warmth indices(warmth index and coldness index) with the observed air temperature. The warmth and coldness indices indicate about 107 and -12, respectively. The values correspond to warm temperature climate.

Studies on major plant communities distribution factors of the Gayasan national park using GIS (GIS 기반 가야산국립공원의 주요 식물군락 분포요인 분석)

  • Kim, Bo-Mook;Yang, Keum-Chul
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.164-171
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    • 2017
  • This study analysed 7 distribution features of dominant natural vegetation, such as elevation, slope, aspect, topographic index, annual mean temperature, warmth index and potential evapotranspiration using geographic information system(GIS) in Gayasan national park. The Gayasan national park has total 128 communities in which Pinus densiflora community occupies with 29.42%, Quercus mongolica community 27.66% relatively. These two communities comprise 80.58% out of total area, considering Q. mongolica & P. densiflora dominantly mixed communities. The Q. mongolica communities range around 575~1,065m(80.4%) in elevation, and the P. densiflora communities range around 465~965m(84.1%), respectively. The slopes of those two communities areas showed over $21^{\circ}$(78.0%) and (71.3%) respectively. In terms of slope aspect occurrence, Q. mongolica communities occur mostly on northern slope, and the P. densiflora communities on southern slope. The topographic indices of both communities occur around 5~6 most frequently. The Annual mean temperature distributions of Q. mongolica and P. densiflora range $7{\sim}8^{\circ}C$(83%), $8{\sim}9^{\circ}C$(84%), respectively, And the warmth index range of Q. mongolica is $59{\sim}70^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$ and the P. densiflora community, $58{\sim}88^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$. The potential evapotranspiration ranges mostly from 560 to 590mm/yr, in Q. mongolica communities, and from 580 to 610mm/yr in P. densiflora communities.

송백류의 분포를 중심으로 하는 한라산의 수식분포대

  • 엄규백
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 1962
  • Altitudinal zones of Mt. Hanla were geoecologically investigated, and compared with climate index, according to Coniferae distribution. For climatic index, Warmth index was calculated on Mt. Hanla. With the resultsobtained, the altitudinal zones can be classified into the following three zones; Coniferous forest zone: below $43^{\circ}$ (month-degrees) (above 1, 450m) Deci(u)us broad-leaf forest zone: $84^{\circ}$-$43^{\circ}$ (600-1, 450m) Lucidophyllous forest zone: above $84^{\circ}$ (below 600m)

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Vegetation of Mt. Chil-gab (칠갑산의 식생)

  • Koh, Jae Kee;Yang-Jai Yim
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 1987
  • The forest vegetation of Mt. Chil-gab was studied from 1983 to 1984. By Z-M method, the actual vegetation was classified into 8 communities and 1 plantation; Quercus variabilis, Q. variabilis-Styrax obassia, Q variabilis-Q. dentata, Q. varisbilid-Q. mongolica, Q. acutissima-Q. variabilis, Zelkova serrata-Styrax japonica, Capinus laxiflora, Pinus densiflora community and Larix leptolepts plantation (on the mountain foot) community. The plant communities of Q. variabilis and S. japonica as edaphic climax, in terms of the isopleth line of warmth index. Based on the data of vegetation survey and environmental analysis, the actual vegetation map and potential natural vegetation map were perpared with scale of 1/25, 000.

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Latitudinal Differences in the Accumulation of Soil Organic Matter in Selected Kroean Forest Types (한반도의 몇 삼림형에 따른 임토육기물 축종량의 위도적차이에 대해서)

  • 임양재
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 1971
  • Accumulation of soil organic matter and its vertical distribution at different latitudes in peninsular Korea were studied in the soil of four different forest types viz. Pinus densiflora forest, Castanea forest, Quercus acutissima forest and Carpinus laxiflora forest. Among them, accumulation of soil organic matter in Cheju sites, with a mean annual temperature of 15$^{\circ}C$, was maximum with increasing latitude, soil organic matter concentration decreased. Considering the relationship between concentration of soil organic matter and some climatic conditiions, it seems that concentrations of soil organic matter is a function of annual temperature, especially warmth index or cold index.

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A Study on Changes of the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Temperature in Korea Peninsular During the Past 40 Years (지난 40년간 한반도 기온의 시·공간적 분포 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Nam-Shin;Kim, Gyung-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2013
  • This study is to construe the spatio-temporal characteristics of temperature in cities and the changes of climatical regions by analyzing a climate change in Korea peninsular. We used daily mean air temperature data which were collected in South and North climate stations for the past 34 years from 1974 to 2007. We created temperature maps of 500m resolution with Inverse Distance Weight in application with adiabatic lapse rate per month in linear relation with height and temperature. In the urbanization area, the data analyzed population in comparison with temperature changes by the year. The south climate region in Korea by the Warmth index was expanded to the middle climate region by the latitude after 1990s. A rise of mean temperature was $0.5{\sim}1.2^{\circ}C$ in urban areas such as Seoul, metropolitan and cities which had a rapid urbanization and industrialization with the population increase between 1980s and 1990s. In case of North Korea, cities such as Pyeongyang, Anju, Gaecheon, and Hesan had the same pattern.