• Title/Summary/Keyword: vegetation structure

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Analysis of Vegetation Structure of Castanopsis sieboldii Forest in the Warm-temperate Zone, Korea

  • Lee, Sung-Je;Ohno, Keiichi;Song, Jong-Suk
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 2012
  • This study aims at classifying and analyzing the vegetation structure of Castanopsis sieboldii forest, one of the evergreen broad-leaved forests found under the warm-temperate climate of Korea. It is also compared with the ones of the Castanopsis sieboldii forest in Japan where most similar such forest of Korea, to find unique vegetation structures of the only Korean forest. Vegetation structure of Korean Castanopsis sieboldii forest was divided into two units at the level of community units both of Ardisia japonica-Castanopsis sieboldii community and Ardisio-Castanopsietum sieboldii association. The association carries similar type with the vegetation system of Japan, but any subunits differentiated with the Japan were found vary much. Hierarchical cluster analysis brings in similar result with the analysis on the vegetation structure as well.

Estimating the Stand Level Vegetation Structure Map Using Drone Optical Imageries and LiDAR Data based on an Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) (인공신경망 기반 드론 광학영상 및 LiDAR 자료를 활용한 임분단위 식생층위구조 추정)

  • Cha, Sungeun;Jo, Hyun-Woo;Lim, Chul-Hee;Song, Cholho;Lee, Sle-Gee;Kim, Jiwon;Park, Chiyoung;Jeon, Seong-Woo;Lee, Woo-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.5_1
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    • pp.653-666
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    • 2020
  • Understanding the vegetation structure is important to manage forest resources for sustainable forest development. With the recent development of technology, it is possible to apply new technologies such as drones and deep learning to forests and use it to estimate the vegetation structure. In this study, the vegetation structure of Gongju, Samchuk, and Seoguipo area was identified by fusion of drone-optical images and LiDAR data using Artificial Neural Networks(ANNs) with the accuracy of 92.62% (Kappa value: 0.59), 91.57% (Kappa value: 0.53), and 86.00% (Kappa value: 0.63), respectively. The vegetation structure analysis technology using deep learning is expected to increase the performance of the model as the amount of information in the optical and LiDAR increases. In the future, if the model is developed with a high-complexity that can reflect various characteristics of vegetation and sufficient sampling, it would be a material that can be used as a reference data to Korea's policies and regulations by constructing a country-level vegetation structure map.

Vegetation Structure Analysis of Urban Forest -The Case of Namsan in Kyungju- (도시림의 식생구조분석 -경주 남산을 중심으로-)

  • 이영경;최송현
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2000
  • In urban area, urban forests work as an ecological center that mitigates the environmental pollution of the area. In order to maintain the ecological function of a forest, the management method should be established based on ht through investigation of the vegetation structure of the forest. In this study, the vegetation structure of Namsan in Kyungju area was investigated in order to study the ecological value of Namsan and to suggest a desirable management alternative. 21 plots were selected as survey areas. Using the TWINSPAN technique, the forest of Namsan was classified into four communities: Quercus serrata community(I), Castanea crenata-Q. serrata-Q. mongolica community(II), Pinus densiflora community(III) and P. densiflora-P. rigida-Robinia pseudoacacia community(IV). The survey results were summarized by five: 1) the distribution of vegetation showed 2) P. densiflora was the absolutely dominant species in Namsan, 3) number of the average species was 12.6$^{\circ}$$\pm$3.1, 4) number of individual was 131.1$^{\circ}$$\pm$47.8 per a plot(100$m^2$), 5) the results of annual ring analysis revealed that the age of P. densiflora in Namsan was about 3 0$^{\circ}$~60$^{\circ}$years old. From the above results, it was found out that the forest has two problems. One thing is maintenance of P.densiflora against succession, another is artificial forest dispersion. The problems of Namsan forest management will be solved with further studies related.

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Analysing Vegetation Structure of Aemirang Hill in the Nakdongjeongmaek, Korea (낙동정맥 애미랑재 지역의 식생구조 분석)

  • Lee, Soo-Dong;Lee, Seung-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2011
  • This paper is to contribute for management and restoration as a basic study of vegetation structure in Aemirang Hill, Nakdongjeongmaek. To verify the characteristics of vegetation structure, we set up 25 plots($100m^2$). The result of community analysis was used by TWINSPAN classification. The communities were classified 7 types i.e. Quercus variabilis community, Quercus mongolica community, Pinus densiflora community, Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica community, Q. mongolica-Quercus variabilis community, Quercus mongolica-Betula davurica community, Larix leptolepis community. Pinus densiflora community and Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica community are progressively transforming a Quercus mongolica community that is called Pinus densiflora next succession stage. Whereas the communities that has dominant Quercus variabilis and Quercus mongolica did not appear a next generation succession tree such as Carpinus laxiflora, Carpinus cordata in the under story and shrub layer. Therefore, Aemirang Hill's ecological succession was to maintain the status condition. Aemirang Hill's diversity index is 0.5738 to 0.8906. It were analyzed that diversity index was lower than other places.

The Discrimination and Vegetation Structure of Several Mountainous Wetlands in Chung-ju and Around Area (충주 및 주변지역 산지습지의 판별 및 식생 구조)

  • Kim, Hyeong Guk;Jeong, Young Sun;Koo, Bon Hak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 2008
  • This study was surveyed to analyze vegetation structure of mountainous wetlands in Chung-ju city and around area from September to November, 2006. 6 sites of total 15 potential mountainous wetlands were discriminated throughout field survey. By classification system of mountainous wetlands presented in manual of forest wetlands research, types of wetlands were classified into slant and a flat. Many sites were covered with land plants as Pueraria thunbergiana and so on. To understand vegetation structure of mountainous wetlands, Height, DBH (diameter at breast height), DI (Dominance Index), Sociability and Constancy were surveyed and Based on this result, a projection chart was drawn. As results, Salix koreensis in tree layer and Persicaria thunbergii and Impatiens textori in herb layer were surveyed as broadly distributed species. This study is mainly focused on vegetation condition of mountainous wetlands. But, it will be needed studying on classification system of mountainous wetland type and functional assessment for conservation or management of wetlands.

The Identification and Vegetation Structure of Several Mountainous Wetlands in Dan-yang and Around Area (단양 및 주변 산지습지의 판별 및 식생 구조)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Guk;Jeong, Jin-Yong;Koo, Bon-Hak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2010
  • This study was accomplished to identify and analyze vegetation structure of Mountainous Wetlands in Dan-yang and around area, and surveyed from September to November, 2006. 6 sites of total 16 potential Mountainous Wetlands by GIS based wetland forecasting system (Korea National Arboretum, 2006) were identified as wetlands throughout field survey by the indicators such as hydrology, soil and vegetation. By classification system of Korea National Arboretum (2006), types of wetlands were classified into 3 slope-types and 3 flat-types. To understand vegetation structure of wetlands, height, DBH (diameter at breast height), DI (Dominance Index), sociability and constancy were surveyed and the projection diagram and charts ware drawn. As results, Salix koreensis in woody plant layer and Persicaria thunbergiiin and Juncus effusus var. decipiens in herb layer were surveyed as broadly distributed species. The wetlands of Dan-yang around area were similar to those of Chung-ju around area, but the species of plants and hydrology conditions were different. This study is mainly focused on vegetation condition of Mountainous Wetlands. But, further studies on functional assessment for management and restoration of wetlands were necessary.

Change Prediction for Vegetation Structure, Species Diversity and Life-form of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest by Climate Change in Gageo-Do Island, Korea (기후변화에 따른 가거도 상록활엽수림의 식생 구조, 종 다양성, 생활형의 변화 예측)

  • Lee, Sung-Je;Ahn, Young-Hee
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.979-997
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    • 2013
  • This study aims at classifying and interpreting on the vegetation structure, the correlation between a vegetation and an environment, a species diversity and a life-form of Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest(EBLF) located in Gageo-do Island. It is also the objective that the estimation of vegetation change founded on the species composition and characteristics. The vegetation of EBLF was classified into three forests or four community units as Machilus thunbergii forest (Polystichum polyblepharon-M. thunbergii community and Phaenosperma globosum-M. thunbergii community), Ilex integra-Castanopsis sieboldii community, Quercus acuta community and Neolitsea sericea stand. The ordination analysis by DCA is analogous with the vegetation structure analysis. As a result of the correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient) with environmental conditions, the Altitude has the significance with the distribution of communities. The total vegetation change by progress of succession will not be wandered away from the present vegetation structure practically, and the vegetation on the underlayers will be a little changed.

Characteristics of Vegetation Structure in Chamaecyparis Obtusa Stands (편백림의 식생구조 특성 분석)

  • Park, Seok-Gon;Kang, Hyun-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.907-916
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of vegetation structure, vegetation succession, and species diversity of artificially planted Chamaecyparis obtusa (CO) stands. The study was carried out by performing vegetation survey for eight CO stands located in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea. Analysis on vegetation classification and ordinations of the stands was conducted using the data from the vegetation survey, and as a result, the stands were classified into five types of communities. Community I showed a considerably lower index of species diversity when compared to other communities because the canopy of the dominant CO was so highly dense that the low-height vegetation was not able to develop or the low-height vegetation almost disappeared due to elimination of weed trees. Meanwhile, the Community II - IV had relatively higher indices of species diversity because various native tree species mixed with the low-height vegetation and competed with each other in the understory and shrub layers to some degree of stability or in their early stage of vegetation development. Community V, lastly, showed higher use intensity as a recreational forest, thus developing simpler vegetation structure on account of artificial intervention. There was positive correlation between photosynthetically active radiation entering the forest floor, number of observed species and index of species diversity. Such characteristics of vegetation structure in CO stands are closely associated with forest management and prescription for planting reforestation, thinning, and brush cutting in the past. There was a slight difference in vegetation structure and species diversity by communities, based on rotation time of the vegetational succession, process of disturbance frequency and disturbance, development, and maturity by planting CO stands. However, when compared to natural forests, the CO stands showed simpler vegetation structure. Because artificial forests are vulnerable in ecosystem service with lower species diversity, a drive for ecological management is needed for such forests to change into healthy ecosystems that can display functions of public benefit.

A Study on the Characteristics of the Vegetation Structure and Location Environment of the Albizzia kalkora Community (왕자귀나무군락의 식생구조 및 입지환경 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Suk;Park, Seok-Gon
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.783-792
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the vegetation structure and the location environment of Albizzia kalkora (AK) growing in Mt. Yudal located in Mokpo city and in the nearby islands. The AK community in Mt. Yudal in Mokpo city (Community I) is located in a region which is relatively high above the sea level. The average age of the major kinds of trees found in the region is about 30 years. The vegetation structure in the community shows an early stage of vegetation development due to continued disturbance. In Community IV, on the sandy soil in the flatland near the seashores, the average age of the major kinds of trees is about 9 years. In this community, a pure forest is presumed to have been formed in a poor environment which is artificially disturbed in relatively recent times even as AK with its strong adoptability was introduced into the region. In other communities (II, III), the vegetation state shows a competition between AK and deciduous oak trees, and the average age of the major kinds of trees is about 13 to 30 years. AK communities with a better developed vegetation structure are located on the higher steep slopes near the seashore. In the early stage of vegetation development, the forest floor received more effective light for photosynthesis, and thus more seedlings of AK emerged and grew. The probability of AK appearing in the damaged or sterile soil near the seashore was high because of its strong adaptability. However, as the vegetation structure developed further and the soil fertility increased, the domination of AK in the vegetation structure decreased as deciduous oak trees won the competition with AK.

Habitat Characteristics and Vegetation Structure of the Evergreen Fern in Jejudo, Korea (제주도의 상록양치식물 자생지 환경특성 및 식생구조에 관한 연구)

  • Bang, Kwang Ja;Kim, Kwang-Du;Kang, Hyun-Kyung;Ju, Jin Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2004
  • The research was carried out to define the environmental characteristics and vegetation structure of the evergreen fern habitat in Jejudo. The growth conditions of evergreen fern in various habitats was surveyed, including topographical features, vegetation structure, air temperature, humidity, intensity of light, water content and organic matter content in the soil. In the direction of the native habitat, 70% of research area was located in the southeast-facing slopes, 30% was located in southern slopes. The gradient ranged from $0^{\circ}$ to $30^{\circ}$. Temperature ranged from $16^{\circ}C$ to $28^{\circ}C$, and $22.3^{\circ}C$ was the average. Humidity ranged from 20 to 68%, and 36% was the average. In the native habitat, the highest light intensities reached 60,000 to 80,0001ux, but in general ranged from 300 to 40001ux. Water content in the soil ranged from 32% to 59%, organic matter content ranged from 8 to 13%. Within a unit of 25$m^2$, there were tall-tree layer such as Quercus galuca and Castanopsis cuspidata with a covering of rate 40~80%, a sub-tall-tree layer such as Camellia japonica, Staphylea bumalda and Sambucus williamsii with the covering rate of 3~5%, a shrub layer with the covering rate of 5~20%, and a grass layer with the covering rate of 40~95%. This research provides the basic data about the native habitat environment of the evergreen fern plant. Continuous monitoring and accumulation of data is necessary for the use of evergreen fern as vegetation materials.