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Introducing a New Urban Utility Index Concept that Combines Urban Growth and Disasters

  • Koh, Munsung
    • Asian Journal of Innovation and Policy
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.236-248
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    • 2021
  • The objective of this study is to introduce the urban utility concept that combines urban growth and urban disasters in the aspect of a conceptual theory. While many studies focused on the dollar amount damaged from a disaster, it requires adding not just building damages or human body losses but also the quality of life satisfaction. An issue in measuring the quality of life satisfaction needs to introduce a proper mode quantifying it. This study introduces the urban utility change in measuring the negative impacts of a disaster on urban life, which has been rarely investigated. To identify urban utility, urban flooding that is a cross-sectoral agenda and important to both developed and developing countries was adopted to respond to its increased frequency and damages, encouraging governments to focus on flood control policies. By combining a literature review on urban utility and urban growth, this study defined the urban utility concept as a net benefit of a resident with earnings subtracting housing and commuting costs. The theoretical study also explained that urban utility and its components dynamically change as per urban growth and disasters that even reversely affect urban growth. Because the urban utility can be one of the useful indices to appreciate the relationship between a disaster and urban growth, it is highly expected to apply for similar disaster impacts on urban areas, including COVID-19 and various global warming issues.

The Current Status of the Korean Urban Farming Researched from an Institutional Perspective and Tasks for the Future (제도적 측면에서 살펴본 도시농업의 현황과 과제)

  • Park, Jin-Wook;Ahn, Gye-Bog
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2013
  • This study presents the methods to improve the urban farming in Korea by analysing the current circumstances of urban farming in Korea. Specifically, the legal system in association with urban farming, current status of the act on the urban farming, the present situation of the Korean urban farming, and the comprehensive plans for urban farming have been analysed in order to grasp the present situations and seek for solutions. Based on these, the research provides effective supporting methods for sustainable urban farming in Korea. As a result, the essentials to improved urban farming can be summarized with two factors; securing more space for urban farming and improving the supporting system for the urban farmers. Enthusiastic attitudes of local governments, security of budget, and cooperation with the citizens are vital to expand the urban farming in addition to the institutional and systematic urban farming improving methods mentioned above.

The Management Status and Civic Consciousness Analysis on the Urban Forests in Chuncheon (춘천시 도시림의 관리실태 및 시민의식 분석)

  • Kim, Ji-Hun;Choi, In-Hwa
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.46-55
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    • 2012
  • The research on urban forests in Chuncheon, so far, has mainly conducted in Ponguisan urban forest. Research on other urban forests in Chuncheon was scarce. Accordingly, in this study, the author chose the main urban forests in Chuncheon and tried to find a way of efficient establishment and management of urban forests in Chuncheon by field and questionnaire survey. The research findings, there were several reasons why effective management can not be implemented in the main urban forests in Chuncheon. To solve these problems and make an efficient establishment and management of urban forests in Chuncheon, the first way is to make forest management plans on the urban forest in Chuncheon and expand administrative organization, personnel and budget. Establishment and management of urban forests needs a practical, strengthened overall management system. The second way is to enhance the regional and functional characteristics for urban forest, expand the area of urban forests, and enhance management of Street trees. The third way is to designate Urban Nature Park or Urban Park for the main urban forests in Chuncheon and need to change the ownership of the urban forests by purchasing. The fourth way is to respond to Chuncheon citizen's preference and their way of utilization when create the urban forests in Chuncheon, expand convenience facilities, relaxation facilities as well.

A Study on the Urban Design Method based on Urban Village Strategy in Seattle, U.S.A (미국 시애틀시 어반빌리지(Urban Village) 전략에 의한 도시설계수법에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Hyung;Lee, Yeo-Kyung;Hwang, So-Young
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.207-218
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse and evaluate an urban design method of "Urban Village Strategy" in Seattle. Seattle represents a case of successful urban regeneration through the urban village strategy, including sustainable urban design; community planning and growth management. To be more specific, the urban general plan and the neighborhood plan suggest the direction that they should pursue in mutual complementation with each other, in order to maximize the public investment interest on the urban infrastructure and service, to make pedestrian-oriented communities and facilitate. As a conclusion, the urban village strategy, representing a model of making sustainable local area, has three major characteristics. First, the urban village strategy connects the regional policy of growth-management with urban regeneration and binds up all various urban policies. Second, the urban village strategy revitalizes the local community based on public project regeneration. Third, the urban village strategy is making strategical district townscapes by controlling private designs.

Analysis of the Effects of Advection and Urban Fraction on Urban Heat Island Intensity using Unified Model for Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea (통합모델을 활용한 이류와 도시비율이 서울 수도권 지역의 도시열섬강도에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Hong, Seon-Ok;Kim, Do-Hyoung;Byon, Jae-Young;Park, HyangSuk;Ha, Jong-Chul
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.381-390
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    • 2019
  • This study investigates the impacts of urban land-use fraction and temperature advection on the urban heat island intensity over the Seoul metropolitan area using the UM (Unified Model) with the MORUSES (Met Office Reading Urban Surface Exchange Scheme) during the heat wave over the region from 2 to 8, August 2016. Two simulations are performed with two different land-use type, the urban (urban simulation) and the urban surfaces replaced with grass (rural simulation), in order to calculate the urban heat island intensity defined as the 1.5-m temperature difference between the urban and the rural simulations. The land-use type for the urban simulation is obtained from Korea Ministry of Environment (2007) land-use data after it is converted into the types used in the UM. It is found that the urban heat island intensity over high urban-fraction regions in the metropolitan area is as large as 1℃ in daytime and 3.2℃ in nighttime, i.e., the effects of urban heat island is much larger for night than day. It is also found that the magnitude of urban heat island intensity increases linearly with urban land-use fraction. Spatially, the estimated the urban heat island intensities are systematically larger in the downwind regions of the metropolitan area than in the upwind area due to the effects of temperature advection. Results of this study indicate that urban surface fraction in the city area and temperature advection play a key role in determining the spatial distribution and magnitude of urban heat island intensity.

Analysis of Traditional Urban Morphology of Korean Contemporary City and Institutional Measures for Preservation

  • Choi, Min-Ah
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 2014
  • In the present circumstance of exploring measures for sustainable development, finding and using planning elements of historical city is getting important as a urban planning tool. Thus this study aims to examine the characters of Korean traditional urban form through three periods, Josun, modern and contemporary eras. Three urban centers representing different characteristics were selected; historical center based on 14th century's traditional planning, modern period urban center, which is related with development of railway, and contemporary urban center of late 20th century. Analyse of urban tissue, composed with form and scale of street network, blocks and plots, shows that each urban center of Seoul has certain common attributes in terms of morphology in spite of the difference of formation and development period. However this historical urban forms are rarely applicated in the current urban planning, such as new-town planning or district unit plan. This shows the necessity of modification of urban regulation for preserving the identity of our city and pursuing sustainable development.

The Consideration of Progressive Urban Park and The Possibility of Urban Agricultural Park (도시공원 진화상의 비판적 고찰을 통한 도시농업공원의 발전 가능성)

  • Yun, Hee-Jeong;Cho, Mi-Kyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2012
  • Urban parks are progressing but are in chaos in the twenty-first century. Therefore the purposes of this study are to consider critically and classify the new paradigm of urban parks. Urban parks are one of the space products, and progressing aspects can be divided into three parts; supply, demand and market aspects. In the abstract, urban parks' progress represents process, openness or voidness, general and cultural ecology, productivity, experience program, identity or sense of place, carriers of urban regeneration, urban infrastructure, community space, multi-layered activity, active space, communication with urban space, tool of low carbon strategy and consilience. But urban parks have come under increased criticism about the long period development on trees growth, covering open space, limitation of general and cultural ecology, production, activity programs, identity and community space, visible urban regeneration, economic validity, urban sprawl, not using as the low carbon strategy, and finally negative consilience with contiguous fields. We collected these critical consideration about progressing urban parks, and proposed urban agricultural park as one of the alternative urban parks. This is closely connected with sustainable region development, low-carbon society, local food, well-being, Lohas paradigm and amenity of urban life.

Understanding the LST (Land Surface Temperature) Effects of Urban-forests in Seoul, Korea

  • Kil, Sung-Ho;Yun, Young-Jo
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.246-248
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    • 2018
  • Urban development and population have augmented the increase of impervious land-cover. This phenomenon has amplified the effects of climate change and increasing urban island effects due to increases in urban temperatures. Seoul, South Korea is one of the largest metropolitan cities in the world. While land uses in Seoul vary, land cover patterns have not changed much (under 2%) in the past 10 years, making the city a prime target for studying the effects of land cover types on the urban temperature. This research seeks to generalize the urban temperature of Seoul through a series of statistical tests using multi-temporal remote sensing data focusing on multiple scales and typologies of green space to determine its overall effectiveness in reducing the urban heat. The distribution of LST values was reduced as the size of urban forests increased. It means that changing temperature of large-scale green-spaces is less influenced because the broad distribution could be resulted in various external variables such as slope aspect, topographic height and density of planting areas, while small-scale urban forests are more affected from that. The large-scale green spaces contributed significantly to lowering urban temperature by showing a similar mean LST value. Both of concentration and dispersal of urban forests affected the reduction of urban temperature. Therefore, the findings of this research support that creating urban forests in an urban region could reduce urban temperature regardless of the scale.

The Spatiotemporal Impact of Urban Growth based on Landuse Pattern (도시성장에 따른 토지이용패턴의 시공간적 영향 평가)

  • Lee, Dong-Kun;Choe, Hye-Yeong;Oh, Kyushik
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2009
  • As urban growth continues, the earth ecosystem is increasingly dependent on the patterns of urban growth. The impact intensity from urban growth is expected to change predictably with distance from the urban center. However we can't fully understand yet how urban development pattern affects urban ecosystem. In researches about urban ecosystem, it is important to relate the spatial pattern of urbanization to ecological processes. So we used gradient analysis with time data; 1980's, 1990's and 2000's. We attempted to quantify the urban spatiotemporal impacts in Daejeon-city and Cheonan-city, Korea, along a 75km long and 3km wide transect. Through the results, we found the impacts range of urbanization with urban development process of two cities. When the urban growth was concentrated on in both cities, the impacts intensity and range were much stronger and wider. As a result, in urban planning or green space planning, we have to consider suitable urban development forms with surrounding areas, and make legal clauses which limits landuse change. This quantifying the urban gradient is an important step in understanding urban ecology.

Urbanization Process and the Policy Solutions for Urban Problems in China (중국의 도시화 과정과 도시문제의 해결방안에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Ki
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 2014
  • China's opening up policy has proven to be quite successful. Today, China is the world's largest urban nation. According to China's National Bureau Statistics, China's urbanization rate has increased from 20 percent in 1980 to more than 50 percent in the current year. More than half of China's population resides in cities. This urbanization rate is expected to reach up to 70 percent by 2030. Primarily, a "selection and concentration strategy" in urban planning policy has driven the excessively rapid urban development and has resulted in urbanization on a massive scale. However, such policy gave rise to various urban problems, which should be examined carefully in terms of social, physical and environmental impact that stems from the urbanization process. These urban problems have become a major global issue. Therefore, this study intends to review the urbanization process and characteristics, urban policy and urban problems in China. Moreover, the study aims to suggest a new urban policy in order to reduce urban problems. The study consists of five sections. The first section briefly reviews the relationship between growth of population and urbanization rate. The second section explores the administrative system and the types of cities as well as the urban policy in China. The third section describes some of the positive and negative consequences of China's urban development. The fourth section examines China's urban problems. The fifth section provides some suggestions on the urban policy to reduce urban problems.