• Title/Summary/Keyword: translocation

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Inhibition of Vitamin D Receptor Translocation by Cigarette Smoking Extracts

  • Uh, Soo-Taek;Koo, So-My;Kim, Yang Ki;Kim, Ki Up;Park, Sung Woo;Jang, An Soo;Kim, Do Jin;Kim, Yong Hoon;Park, Choon Sik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.73 no.5
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    • pp.258-265
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    • 2012
  • Background: Vitamin D can translocate a vitamin D receptor (VDR) from the nucleus to the cell membranes. The meaning of this translocation is not elucidated in terms of a role in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) till now. VDR deficient mice are prone to develop emphysema, suggesting that abnormal function of VDR might influence a generation of COPD. The blood levels of vitamin D have known to be well correlated with that of lung function in patients with COPD, and smoking is the most important risk factor in development of COPD. This study was performed to investigate whether cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) can inhibit the translocation of VDR and whether mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this inhibition. Methods: Human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549) was used in this study. 1,25-$(OH_2)D_3$ and/or MAPKs inhibitors and antioxidants were pre-incubated before stimulation with 10% CSE, and then nucleus and microsomal proteins were extracted for a Western blot of VDR. Results: Five minutes treatment of 1,25-(OH2)D3 induced translocation of VDR from nucleus to microsomes by a dose-dependent manner. CSE inhibited 1,25-$(OH_2)D_3$-induced translocation of VDR in both concentrations of 10% and 20%. All MAPKs inhibitors did not suppress the inhibitory effects of CSE on the 1,25-$(OH_2)D_3$-induced translocation of VDR. Quercetin suppressed the inhibitory effects of CSE on the 1,25-$(OH_2)D_3$-induced translocation of VDR, but not in n-acetylcysteine. Conclusion: CSE has an ability to inhibit vitamin D-induced VDR translocation, but MAPKs are not involved in this inhibition.

Translocation Pattern of Photosynthate(14C) and Nutrient Effect on Translocation during Ripening in Rice (수도(水稻) 등숙기간(登熟期間中) 동화산물(同化産物)(14C)의 전유특성과 무기성분(無機成分)의 영향(影響))

  • Hong, Young-Pyo;Seok, Soon-Jong;Hwang, Young-Soo;Ryu, In-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 1982
  • This study was conducted to elucidate the translocation pattern of photosynthate labelled by $^{14}C$ in rice cultivars and the effects of nutrient composition on the translocation in rice plant during ripening, Showing coincidence between the grain filling rate and the translocation of $^{14}C$ into the grain during ripening period, the translocation patterns of cultivars tested were grouped by three; 1) the late dominance type (Akibare), 2) the early dominance type (Taebaegbyeo, Chupungbyeo), and 3) the semi-late dominance type (Milyang #23, Milyang #42, and Yushin). The negative relation ship existed between the translocation ratio of $^{14}C$ into the grain and the nitrogen content in plants, but not significant, The nutrient depletion of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Si in water medium from the panicle initiation to the heading stage resulted in the decrease of grain weight by 4 to 12 percent and the increase of translocation of $^{14}C$ into grain assimilated at heading. The effect of resupply of these nutrients after heading was recognized by the order of P>Mg>K and Ca. But the effect of Si resupply was hardly recognized in increasing grain weight. The photosynthetic rate was greatly affected by the nitrogen status and the depletion of P, K, and Ca decreased the photosynthetic rate in single leaf at heading, while the depletion of Si enhanced the rate.

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Differential Absorption and Translocation of Oxyfluorfen Between Selected Rice Cultivars (Oxyfluorfen 처리(處理)에 따른 내성선발(耐性選拔) 수도품종(水稻品種)의 흡수(吸收) 및 이행(移行) 차이(差異))

  • Guh, J.O.;Ishizuka, K.;Pyon, J.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1988
  • A serial study on differential response in absorption and translocation of $^{14}C$-oxyfluorfen was conducted by use of a group of selected rice cultivars as the tolerant or the susceptible to oxyfluorfen. Trial 1. Differential response in absorption and translocation of selected cultivar group. The susceptible cultivar group has reached as higher rate as 209%, 193%, 344%, 204% and 152% of the tolerant cultivar group in root absorption rate per unit dry weight, lower-shoot absorption rate, higher shoot absorption rate, whole amount of absorption, and the rate of translocation from bottom to shoot, respectively. Trial 2. Differential Response in Absorbtion and translocation of selected cultivar as affected by exposed portion and time. ${\bullet}$ Regardless of cultivar, the rate of root absorption has effectively realized but the translocation was significantly limited. ${\bullet}$ Lower portion of shoot has also achieved a higher amount of absorption but the translocation was very limited. ${\bullet}$ By relaying the exposure time. the amount of root absorption was ted increasing, and persistent absorption was rather effective in the susceptible (cv. Mushakdanti) cultivar than the tolerant (cv. Chokoto). ${\bullet}$ Translocation of oxyfluorfen from shoot to root was tended to easily attaining in both cultivars.

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RNA Helicase activity of SecA protein of Escherichia coli

  • Park, Sukyung;Kim, Hyoungman
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.24-24
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    • 1996
  • SecA protein of E. coli is essential for the translocation of various precursor proteins across the plasma membrane. Along with it, SecA protein interacts with precursor proteins, SecY/E, SecB and is an ATPase which has multiple ATP binding sites. There is little known about the regulation mechanism of the protein translocation machinery. (omitted)

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The Genetic Studies of Drosophila Population 2. On the frequencies of reciprocal translocation in D. melanogaster irradiated with X-rays (초파리집단의 유전학적 연구 2. X-선조사에 의한 상호 전좌 유발 빈도에 관하여)

  • 강영선;이정수
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 1965
  • The frequency of reicprocal translocation damage in males of D. melanogaster irradiated with X-rays was observed in this study. The frequencies were checked at four periods with two days intervals and duration spermatogenesis after irradiation. (1) Modification in the percentage of the reciprocal translocation damage were not obtained at interval after irradiated with 500r and 1500r of X-rays respectively. (2) In two experimental groups irradiated with 50-0r and 1500r of X-rays, the frequencies showing in the spermatogenesis were 0.50%(500r), 3.85%(1500r) in mature sperm, and 1.59%, 8.10% in the spermatocyte. (3) The frequency of reciprocal translocation between the Y and 3 rd chromosomes was the highest, but in accordance with dosage increase that of 2nd and 3rd chromosomes relatively increased from 9.34 % to 30.49% while decreased from 68.75% to 46.80% in the group of the Y and 3 rd chromosomes. (4) It was supposed that these modifications of the frequency were due to heavy damage of the 2nd chromosomes than other chromosomes in accordance with dosage increase. (5) Spontaneous reciprocal translocations involving the Y, 2nd and 3rd chormosomes was 0.23%.

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Upward and Lateral Translocation of $^32 P$ Supplied to Roots of Apple and Citrus Tress

  • Shim, Kyung-ku;Chung, Kyu-Hoi;Kwon, Shin-Han
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 1976
  • $^{32}$ P was supplied to the roots of stem-ringed 1-year-old apple trees and 2-year-old citrus trees on which bark segments were isolated above and below the ring. $^{32}$ P was translocated to shoots and leaves although considerable translocation occurred especially in wood and bark tissues. The accumulation of $^{32}$ P in isolated bark segments indicated that the occurrence of these materials in this tissue was via radial translocation from xylem tissue, and that the main upward translocation pathway of $^{32}$ P supplied to roots is through the xylem.

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Characteristics of phloem translocation of photoassimilates and herbicides (광합성산물과 제초제의 체관이행 기작)

  • Kim, Song-Mun;Hur, Jang-Hyun;Han, Dae-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1998
  • The generally accepted idea for carbohydrate translocation in plants is an osmotic pressure flow hypothesis. According to the hypothesis, a high concentration of carbohydrate in the phloem of carbohydrate synthesis regions (source) causes a water influx into the phloem. The generated osmotic potential in the phloem is responsible for long distance carbohydrate transport through the positive hydrostatic pressure. In regions of carbohydrate utilization and storage (sink), translocated carbohydrates are continuously metabolized and compartmentalized, generating a concentration gradient between source and sinks. In this system, carbohydrates load into the phloem (phloem loading) and unload out of the phloem (phloem unloading). Phloem-mobile herbicides that are applied to plants are also translocated from the source to sinks. However, some experimental results reveal that the patterns of phloem translocation between carbohydrates and herbicides are different. The differences are due, in part, to the physico-chemical properties of herbicides and to the absence/presence of specific carrier(s) in the phloem.

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A Cytogenetic Study of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (습관성 유산 환자의 세포유전학적인 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Soon;Han, Jung-Ho;Oh, Sun-Kyung;Moon, Shin-Yong
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.475-481
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    • 1999
  • Objective: The purpose of this investigation is to determine the frequency of chromosomal or genetic causes of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Methods: A cytogenetic study was made in of 921 couples for 13 years from January 1984 to December 1997 in which the woman was ascertained to have had two or more spontaneous abortions at our Cytogenetic Laboratory, Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Population, Seoul National University. Results: The overall incidence of chromosome anomaly was 80 out of 921 (8.7%). There were 34 cases (3.69%) of reciprocal balanced translocation and 13 cases (1.41%) of Robertsonian translocation. Also 17 cases (1.85%) of inversion and 5 cases (0.54%) of X chromosome mosiacism was observed. In the case of reciprocal balanced translocation, chromosome 8,6,7,13 were preferentially involved over others. And in the case of Robertsonian translocation, chromosome 13 was preferentially involved. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that cytogenetic analysis is indicated in couples with 2 or more spontaneous abortion and about half of these disorders are reciprocal balanced or Robertsonian translocations.

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Differential Absorption and Translocation of Bensulfuron-methyl Between Selected Rice Cultivars (Bensulfuron-methyl 처리(處理)에 따른 내성선발(耐性選拔) 수도품종(水稻品種)의 흡수(吸收) 및 이행차이(移行差異))

  • Guh, J.O.;Pyon, J.Y.;Ishizuka, K.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 1988
  • A serial study on differential response in absorption and translocation of $^{14}C$-bensulfuron-methyl was conducted by use of a group of selected rice cultivars as the tolerant or the susceptible to bensulfuron-methly. Trial 1. Differential Response in Absorption and Translocation of Selected Cultivar Group. The susceptible cultivar group has reached as higher rate as 102%, 113%, 115%, 127% and 113% of the tolerant cultivar group in root absorption per seedling, per unit dry weight, and the rate of translocation from bottom to shoot, respectively. Trial 2. Differential Response in Absorption and Translocation of Selected Rice Cultivar as Affected by Exposed Time of Root Portion upto 48 hrs. ${\bullet}$ Regardless of leaf stage of experimented plants, the amount of absorption per seedling and per unit dry weight has reached rather higher in the susceptible(cv. IR 1846) than the tolerant (cv. Chinsurah Boro II). However, separating by portions, the tolerant was realized higher rate of aborption in root but the susceptible in shoot, respectively. ${\bullet}$ Translocation rate from root to shoot, namely the individual seedling based rate of radioactivity in shoot to total radioactivity, was significantly higher in the susceptile than the tolerant. ${\bullet}$ Depending on higher rate of seedling growth at the time of chemical treatment, the susceptible (cv. IR 1846) was seemed more sensitive even at equivalent rate of absorption and translocation.

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