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Effect of Sweet Persimmon Wine on Alcoholic Fatty Livers in Rats (흰쥐에서 단감발효주가 알코올성 지방간 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Kyung-Sook;Kim, Ju-Youn;Noh, Sang-K.;Park, Joong-Hyeop;Sung, Eon-Gi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.1548-1555
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    • 2011
  • Persimmons are shown to contain high levels of phenolics. The present study was designed to investigate if a sweet persimmon wine (SPW) would affect the development of alcoholic fatty liver in rats. Initially, male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed singly in stainless steel wire-bottomed cages in a room of controlled temperature and lighting. The rats had free access to a nutritionally adequate AIN-93G diet and deionized water. After the acclimatization period, rats were weight-matched and assigned to the following three groups: two groups were fed 6.7% ethanol or the caloric equivalent of maltose-dextrin in a Lieber-DeCarli diet and the other group was fed the isocaloric Lieber-DeCarli diet containing SPW at the same ethanol level. All three groups were fed their respective diets for 6 weeks. Serum transaminase, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Liver lipids and histology were assessed at 6 weeks. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of SPW were determined. SPW significantly increased antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. As markers of liver injury, serum alanine and aspartate transminases were markedly lowered by SPW at 6 weeks. SPW significantly reduced the serum levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride compared to ethanol treatment. SPW delayed the development of an alcoholic fatty liver by reversing fat accumulation in the liver, as evidenced in histological observations. Taken together, SPW seems to protect the liver from becoming fatty by alleviating fatty liver symptoms and lowering hepatic and serum lipid levels. Such a protective effect of SPW appears to be in part due to its phenolics.

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Spiraea prunifolia Sieb. et Zucc. var. simpliciflora Nakai in RAW 264.7 Cells (조팝나무 뿌리 열수 추출물이 RAW264.7 세포에서 미치는 항산화 및 항염증 활성)

  • Sim, Mi-Ok;Lee, Hyun Joo;Jang, Ji Hun;Lee, Hyo Eun;Jung, Ho-Kyung;Kim, Tae-Muk;No, Jong hyun;Jung, Jakyun;Jung, Da Eun;Cho, Hyun-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.335-342
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    • 2017
  • Spiraea prunifolia Sieb. et Zucc. var. simpliciflora Nakai (SSN) has been used for the anti-inflammation in traditional folk medicine. To compare water and methanol extracts of SSN, we analyzed major components using LC IT TOF MS. The major components of hot water extract were identified as caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, but methanol extract was not well established. However, methanol extract was detected with less polarity compounds compared to hot water extract. Next, we investigated the inhibitory effects of SSN water extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response or $H_2O_2-induced$ oxidative stress in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. SSN strongly suppressed the production of nitric oxide in LPS-induced inflammatory response without cytotoxcity. The SSN possessed free radical scavenging activities such as DPPH ($IC_{50}=320.2{\mu}g/m{\ell}$), ABTS ($IC_{50}=124.0{\mu}g/m{\ell}$), and superoxide anion radical ($IC_{50}=122.6{\mu}g/m{\ell}$). The total phenol and flavonoid content of SSN was 56.7 mg/g, and 15.1 mg/g, respectively. Furthermore, SSN decreased the $H_2O_2-induced$ cytotoxicity by enhancing the cell viability, and SSN significantly reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Therefore, SSN may be recommended as an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat various inflammation and ROS-induced diseases.

Dietary effects of black bean fermented by Monascus pilosus on body weight, serum lipid profiles and activities of hepatic antioxidative enzymes in mice fed high fat diets (Monascus Pilosus로 발효시킨 검정콩 첨가 식이가 고지방식이 마우스의 체중과 혈청 지방함량 및 간 조직 항산화계 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Il;Kim, Soon-Dong;Lee, Ye-Kyung;Kim, Mee-Jung;Lee, In-Ae;Choi, Jongkeun;Suh, Joo-Won
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2013
  • The anti-obesity effects of fermented black bean were tested with mice fed a high fat diet for seven weeks. Body weight gain and feed efficiency ratio (FER) in the high fat diet control (HC) group were markedly higher, compared with those of the normal control (NC) group, but were significantly lower in the 2% black bean powder supplemented high fat diet (BB) group and 2% black bean powder fermented by M. pilosus supplemented high fat diet (BBM) group, compared with those of the HC group. Food intake in the HC and BB groups was significantly lower than that of the NC and BBM groups. Water intake in the HC group was significantly lower than that of the NC group, but was higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. On the other hand, relative liver and kidney weight in the HC group was lower than that of the NC group, but was higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. In addition, whereas epididymal fat weight in the HC group was markedly higher than that of the NC group, it was significantly lower in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. Meanwhile, hepatic GSH in the HC group was significantly lower than that of the NC group, but was slightly higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. Although hepatic LPO in the HC group was dramatically higher than that of the NC group, it was significantly lower in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. In addition, serum TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in the HC group was significantly higher than that of the NC group, but was significantly lower in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. On the contrary, HDL-cholesterol in the HC group was significantly lower than that of the NC group, but was higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. In addition, activity of XOR D type in the HC group was lower than that of the NC group, but was slightly higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the NC group. Activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, such as SOD, GPX, and GST in the HC group were significantly lower than those of the NC group, but were significantly higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with those of the HC group. In addition, serum ALT activity in the HC and BB groups was higher than that of the NC group, but was significantly lower in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. In histopathological findings, hepatic fat accumulation in the HC group was higher than that of the NC group, but was lower in the BBM group, compared with that of the HC and BB groups. In particular, antiobese, hypolipidemic, and antifatty liver effect of black bean powder fermented by M. pilosus was specifically higher than that of non-fermented steamed black bean. In conclusion, the constituents of black bean fermented by Monascus pilosus have been proven to not only inhibit obesity and hyperlipidemia but also decrease hepatic fat accumulation in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

Quality Characteristics and Evaluation of Physiological Activities of Moju Made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (헛개나무를 이용한 모주의 품질 특성 및 생리활성(in vivo) 효능 검증)

  • Park, Yeon-Hee;Yu, Ok-Kyeong;Bae, Cho-Rong;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1599-1606
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. and its physiological effects on ICR mice. According to the sensory score, we selected Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. among Moju made with 0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Compared to Moju made without Hovenia dulcis Thunb., Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. had higher proportions of moisture (86.77 g/100 g) and carbohydrates (11.86 g/100 g). The mean values of the physicochemical analyses were as follows: pH 4.91, acidity 0.28, $^{\circ}Brix$ 12.63, reducing sugar 68.97, alcohol content 0.1, alcohol density 0.998. Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. did not have effects on DPPH radical scavenging activity; however, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher than that of Moju made without Hovenia dulcis Thunb. For assessing physiological activities, 4-week-old male ICR mice were divided into six groups (n=10): normal control group (NC), ethanol-administered group (EC), EC plus low-dose Moju made with 0% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MCL), EC plus high-dose Moju made with 0% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MCH), EC plus low-dose Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MDL), and EC plus high-dose Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MDH). Serum triglyceride (TG) level was reduced by 11.17% and 19.61% in the MDL and MDH groups, respectively, compared to the EC group. Serum total-cholesterol levels of MDL and MDH groups were significantly lower as compared to the EC group. Serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels of the MDL and MDH groups were significantly higher than those of the EC group. Liver TG levels were significantly reduced in the MCL and MDL groups. From these results, Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. demonstrated antioxidant activity and reduction of hyperlipidemia markers. Therefore, Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. can serve as a non-alcoholic beverage and functional food source.

Antioxidative, Antimicrobial and Anticytotoxic Activities of Seungmagalgeuntang and Fermented Seungmagalgeuntang (승마갈근탕과 발효 승마갈근탕에 의한 항산화, 항미생물 및 항세포독성 효과)

  • In, Jae Pyung;Shin, Jung Mi;Hur, Sun Jin;Lee, Si Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.980-988
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    • 2014
  • Seungmagalgeuntang (SG) is broadly used in traditional Oriental medicine especially in Korea, China, and Japan, for its many pharmacological effects. This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative, antimicrobial, and anticytotoxic activities of SG and fermented seungmagalgeuntang (FSG). DPPH radical scavenging activities of SG and FSG were 70% and 74%, respectively, which increased slightly by fermentation. Nitrite scavenging activities were strongly altered at pH 1.2, (36.4% in SG and 38.3% in FSG) by addition of $200{\mu}g/g$. Superoxide dismutase-like activities were from 21.5% to 23.3% at a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, and the highest value were observed in FSG. Total flavonoid contents of SG and FSG were 47.1 and $52.1{\mu}g/L$, respectively which shows an increase upon fermentation. In the antimicrobial activity test, $MIC_{50}$ values of SG and FSG were $800{\mu}g/mL$ for Candida albicans and 3,200 and $1,600{\mu}g/mL$ for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Antibacterial effects were higher in FSG compared to SG. Anticytotoxic cadmium toxicities ranged from 63.5% to 76.1% at $10{\mu}g/mL$ of SG and FSG, and the highest value was observed in FSG. In the sensory evaluation, color, flavor, and overall preference values were higher in FSG.

Ameliorative effect of onion (Allium Cepa L.) flesh and peel on amyloid-β-induced cognitive dysfunction via mitochondrial activation (미토콘드리아 활성화를 통한 양파(Allium Cepa L.) 과육 및 과피의 Amyloid-β 유도성 인지손상에 대한 개선효과)

  • Park, Seon Kyeong;Lee, Uk;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Shin, Eun Jin;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.263-273
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    • 2020
  • In this study, in order to confirm the ameliorative effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) flesh and peel on amyloidbeta (Aβ)-induced cognitive dysfunction, we evaluated their in vitro neuroprotection and in vivo cognitive functions. As the result of in vitro neuroprotection, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of onion flesh (EOF) on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity was similar to that of the ethyl acetate fraction of onion peel (EOP). In the behavioral tests, the EOF and EOP effectively improved the Aβ-induced learning and memory impairments. For this reason, it could be concluded that the EOF and EOP improved the antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, oxidized glutathione/total glutathione, and malondialdehyde) in brain tissue. In addition, the EOF and EOP effectively activated mitochondrial functions by protecting the mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP, mitochondria-mediated protein (BAX and cytochrome c), and caspase 3/7 activities. The EOF and EOP also improved the cholinergic system (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine). Therefore, we suggest that onion could be used for management of Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction.

Effects of Ojeoksangamibang on the Lipid Metabolism, Anti-oxidation and Concentration of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Rat Fed High Fat Diet (오적산가미방(五積散加味方)이 고지방식이 유도 비만쥐의 지질대사, 항산화계 및 전염증성 cytokine 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, In-Pyo;Park, Won-Hyung;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.23-40
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was designed to examine the effects of extracts of Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) on the lipid lowering, anti-oxidation and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and was investigated on hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Male rats weighing $182.39{\pm}4.71g$ were fed high fat diet for 8 weeks and 36 rats(above 400 g) were divided into 4 groups. Each of 9 rats was divided a control group and experimental groups. We fed a control group of rats a basal diet and administered normal saline(100 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. And we fed each experimental group of rats basal diet and administered an extract of Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) extracts(100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to determine their chemical composition. We measured lipid of plasma and liver, concentration of proinflmmatory cytokines, anti-oxidative activity and $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B, Apo-E and leptin gene expression. Results: 1. Concentration of plasma free fatty(FFA) showed no significant difference in all the treatment groups. Concentration of plasma triglyceride(TG) showed a significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. 2. Concentration of plasma total cholesterol showed a significant decrement in the 200 and 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma low density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol showed a Significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol showed a significant increment in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group. 3. Concentration of liver total cholesterol showed a tendence to decrease in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups. Concentration of liver TG showed a significant decrement in all Ojeoksangamibang groups than that of control group. 4. Concentration of plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) showed a tendence to decrease in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups. 5. The values of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) activity showed a significant increment in all Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. 6. The values of plasma aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) activity showed no significant different in all treatment group. 7. Concentration of plasma $interleukin(IL)-1{beta}$ showed no significant difference in all the treatment groups. Concentration of plasma IL-6 showed a significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group than that of control group. Concentration of plasma tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}(TNF-{\alpha})$ a siginifant decrement in the 200 and 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group than that of control group. However the concentration of plasma IL-10 in the 300 mg/kg Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a significant increment than that of control group. 9. In the analysis of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), gene expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B and Apo-E in the Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a lower expression than that of control group. However the gene expression of leptin showed no difference in the treatment groups. 10. The ratio of $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B, and Apo-E per ${\beta}-actin$ expression in the Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a significant decrement than that of control group. However The ratio of leptin expression per ${\beta}-actin$ expression showed no significant difference among all the treatment groups. Conclusions: According to above results, in lowering lipid effect, anti-oxidation and control of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) gives effect.

Studies on Soil Conservation Effects of the Straw-mat Mulchings (I) - Vegetation Establishment and Erosion Control Effects - (볏짚거적덮기공의 사방효과(砂防効果)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(I) - 사면지피조성(斜面地被造成) 및 침식방지(浸蝕防止) 효과(効果) -)

  • Woo, Bo Myong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.67-78
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    • 1971
  • The measures of contour-terracing with sod has been executed as a major measures for hillside erosion control works for a long time in Korea. It is, however, recognized that pair terracings make a new slope-face having the more steeper degree of slope between the upper and the lower terraces on hillsides and it also does not contribute for establishing the natural vegetation-cover by penetration of pioneer seeds on the slope faces or cut-faces of hillsides. The study was therefore conducted in connection with the above problems on the cut-face having slope of $40^{\circ}$ and 1.6 meter in slope length with clay soils. Plot allocation for the experiment consists of 3 kinds of 3 replica plots having each $1.6m^2$ of slope area, i. e., the control plot with direct seeding on slopes only ($T_1$), the covering plot with the straw-mats after seeding on slopes ($T_2$) and the seeding plot after covering with the straw-mats. ($T_3$). The main results obtained may be summarized as follows : 1. Effects of the straw-mat mulchings on surface soil loss control:-The total amount of soil losses from each treatments are measured as 4,651 gr from $T_1$, 163 gr. from $T_2$ and 2,891 gr. from $T_3$ treatment respectively. (Refer to table No. 2, 3 and 4). In short, it is recognized that effect of $T_2$ treatment is compared as 28.5 times than that of $T_1$ treatment and 17.7 times than that of $T_3$ treatment respectively. Effect of $T_3$ treatment compared with $T_1$ treatment is also such recognizable as 1.6 times in control of surface soil losses on a slope face. 2. Effect of the straw-mat mulchings on soil moisture content on slopes; -Average per cent of surface soil moisture content by treatments show as 21.60 at the $T_1$, 23.04 at the $T_2$ and 22.21 at the $T_3$ treatment respectively and that of subsurface soil moisture content by treatment show as 23.81 at the $T_1$, 26.16 at the $T_2$ and 24.81 at the $T_3$ treatment respectively. The variance of soil moisture content by treatments was highly significant (Refer table No. 7, 8 and 9). 3. Effect of the straw-mat mulchings on vegetation establishment;-Average numbers of germination by treatments are counted as 237 Nos. at the $T_1$, 246 Nos. at the $T_2$ and 262 Nos. at the $T_3$ treatment plots and the vegetation coverage on ground was almost same as about 90% of covers in all treatments. This effect is more or less lower than that of surface soil erosion control. 4. Regarding the effect on surface soil erosion control, the straw-mat mulchings would be effective as a new measures for control of soil erosion on erosion susceptible lands such slope-faced bare-lands as cut-fill faces, mass-movement faces and bare hillsides.

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Effect of Hericium erinaceus Mycelia Supplementation on the Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Processes Stimulated by LPS and Their Mechanisms in BALB/C Mice (BALB/C Mice에서 노루궁뎅이버섯 균사체 보충이 LPS로 인한 산화적 스트레스와 염증 반응에 미치는 효과 및 기전)

  • Jang, Ji-Hyun;Noh, Kyung-Hee;Choi, Ji-Na;Jin, Kyong-Suk;Shin, Jin-Hyuk;On, Joon-Ho;Cho, Chung-Won;Jeong, Woo-Sik;Kim, Myo-Jeong;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.227-236
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions of Hericium erinaceus mycelia in BALB/C mice injected with lopopolysaccharide (LPS), called endotoxin. Mice (6 weeks of age) weighing approximately $24.73\pm0.11$ g were divided into 5 groups and were fed on the experimental diets containing Hericium erinaceus mycelia powder (HMP) for 1 week. Experimental groups were NC (normal control), HMP-C (HMP control), LC (LPS control), HMP 3%, and HMP 10%. Endotoxin shock was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (100 mg/kg BW). NC and HMP-C groups were injected with saline solution (100 mg/kg BW). Food efficiency ratio were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the HMP supplementation groups. Total fat and $\beta$-glucan excretion were higher in HMP supplementation groups than NC and LC groups, while plasma TG level was not different among groups. Plasma ALT levels were significantly (p<0.05) lower in the HMP supplementation groups than in LC group at 8 hr after LPS injection, while tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ and interleukine-6 levels of plasma were not different among groups. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reductase (GSH-red), and glutathione-peroxidase activities were higher in the HMP supplementation groups than in LC group at 4 hr after intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Hepatic GSH levels and protein expression of GSH-red was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the HMP supplemented groups than in LC group at 1 hr, 4 hr and 8 hr after LPS injection. From the above results, it is concluded that Hericium erinaceus mycelia may ameliorate hepatic oxidative stress by LPS through the elevation of hepatic glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme activities, which support the hepatoprotective effect of Hericium erinaceus mycelia.