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Locus of control of surgical-orthodontic patient (수술-교정 치료 환자의 통제 소재)

  • Lee, Shin-Jae;Ahn, Sug-Joon;Baek, Seung-Hak;Kim, Tae-Woo;Chang, Young-Il;Yang, Won-Sik;Suhr, Cheong-Hoon;Nahm, Dong-Seok
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2002
  • Surgical-orthodontic treatment is an increasingly more common dental procedure whose unique psycho-social or psychological feature has not been fairly quantified objectively. Since the treatment of a surgical-orthodontic (or orthodontic) patient is part science and part art, a subjective recognition of a patient about his or her own treatment may be more important than technical success during and after treatment. Therefore, the knowledge of the patient's underlying psychological status could be useful in the prediction of patient's response to surgical-orthodontic (or orthodontic) treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate and evaluate the psychological difference between conventional orthodontic patient and surgical-orthodontic patient by using locus of control (LOC) examination. Locus of control scale has been proven to be extremely useful in the prediction of a variety of human behaviors. Two types of locus of control data (I-score, Internal locus of control score : I-score, External locus of control score) were obtained for 42 surgical-orthodontic patients and randomly selected 42 conventional orthodontic patients (as a control group) matched for age and gender. No statistically significant difference was observed in the scale of internal and external locus of control between the groups of surgical-orthodontic patients and conventional orthodontic patients. However, in the group of surgical-orthodontic patients, males showed lower E-score (external locus of control score, higher internal locus of control tendency) than females. The results of this study suggested that the psychological background of surgical-orthodontic patients, in contrast with that of cosmetic surgery patients, has a similar disposition with that of orthodontic patients.

Development and Evaluation of Criterion-Referenced Performance Assessment Items Based on the 7th National Science Curriculum -Subject Unit of Reproduction and Biological Accumulation- (제7차 교육과정에 근거한 준거지향적 수행평가 문항의 개발과 평가 -고등학교 과학 "생식"과 "생물 농축" 단원을 중심으로-)

  • Chung, Young-Lan;Park, Jin-Joo
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.519-531
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    • 2004
  • In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on performance assessment to evaluate students' abilities. Our nation has introduced a change in testing and assessment. Additional work on the efficacy, reliability, and comparability in order to develop the performance assessment item has been needed in the enforcement of the 7th National Science Curriculum. Also, criteria for professional and technical standards has been needed to be developed. The purpose of this study was to draw out various key concepts and to develop achievement standards, assessment standards and performance assessment items based on the 7th National Science Curriculum on the subject matter of reproduction(chapter 13) and biological accumulation(chapter 17). And also, this study examined the validity of completed performance assessment items based on classical test theory and polytomous item response theory. Twelve key concepts in chapter 13(reproduction) and four from chapter 17(biological accumulation) were abstracted. Twenty-six achievement standards in chapter 13(reproduction), and nine in chapter 17(biological accumulation) were developed. The achievement standards were determined in terms of knowledge(K), process skill(P) and attitude(A). Twenty-five assessment standards in chapter 13(reproduction) and nine in chapter 17(biological accumulation) were developed. Based on the developed achievement standards and assessment standards, twenty-two performance assessment items(seventeen open-ended questions, three essays, and two portfolios) with concrete grading criteria were developed. Eight open-ended items were applied to 240 10th graders to evaluate reliabilities of the test which consisted of four items per each chapter. The results would be suggested that the applied items were valid for performance assessment because item difficulties and item discriminations were proper. There was not much differences in item discrimination between interpretation from classical test theory and that from polytomous item response theory. However, there were some differences in item difficulties between the interpretations of two theories because the characteristics of examinees were reflected in classical test theory.

A Study on the Research Model for the Standardization of Software-Similarity-Appraisal Techniques (소프트웨어 복제도 감정기법의 표준화 모델에 관한 연구)

  • Bahng, Hyo-Keun;Cha, Tae-Own;Chung, Tai-Myoung
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartD
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    • v.13D no.6
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    • pp.823-832
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    • 2006
  • The Purpose of Similarity(Reproduction) Degree Appraisal is to determine the equality or similarity between two programs and it is a system that presents the technical grounds of judgment which is necessary to support the resolution of software intellectual property rights through expert eyes. The most important things in proceeding software appraisal are not to make too much of expert's own subjective judgment and to acquire the accurate-appraisal results. However, up to now standard research and development for its systematic techniques are not properly made out and as different expert as each one could approach in a thousand different ways, even the techniques for software appraisal types have not exactly been presented yet. Moreover, in the analyzing results of all the appraisal cases finished before, through a practical way, we blow that there are some damages on objectivity and accuracy in some parts of the appraisal results owing to the problems of existing appraisal procedures and techniques or lack of expert's professional knowledge. In this paper we present the model for the standardization of software-similarity-appraisal techniques and objective-evaluation methods for decreasing a tolerance that could make different results according to each expert in the same-evaluation points. Especially, it analyzes and evaluates the techniques from various points of view concerning the standard appraisal process, setting a range of appraisal, setting appraisal domains and items in detail, based on unit processes, setting the weight of each object to be appraised, and the degree of logical and physical similarity, based on effective solutions to practical problems of existing appraisal techniques and their objective and quantitative standardization. Consequently, we believe that the model for the standardization of software-similarity-appraisal techniques will minimizes the possibility of mistakes due to an expert's subjective judgment as well as it will offer a tool for improving objectivity and reliability of the appraisal results.

The study of the status of teaching and learning and needs assessment for 'The basis of the Invention Patent' subjects ('발명.특허 기초' 과목의 교수.학습 방법 실태 및 요구 조사 연구)

  • Lee, Chan Joo;Lee, Byung Wook;Kang, Kyoung Kyoon;Im, Yoo Hwa
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.105-124
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    • 2013
  • This study aims to analyze the teaching and learning methods realities and needs in the subjects 'The basis of the Invention Patent'. To this end, research and analysis of the subjects 'The basis of the Invention Patent' the teacher and take advantage of their current teaching and learning methods, 'The basis of the Invention Patent' subject teachers to recognize the most desirable teaching and learning methods, subjects 'The basis of the Invention Patent' of teaching and learning and the operating requirements of the difficult matters. Survey of 48 schools across the country in high school teachers to teach the subjects 'The basis of the Invention Patent' was conducted, the results of this study are as follows. First, a high percentage of theoretical learning activities, teaching methods, such as 'lectures' and take advantage of the higher percentage. Module was to conduct classes such as 'project', 'lab experiments', 'discussion', 'investigation' by taking advantage of the high proportion of practice learning activities. Second, Higher requirements for the experience and practice of student-centered 'lab experiments', 'project', 'Case Studies', 'field trips' and theory-driven rather than 'lectures'. Third, 'The basis of the Invention Patent' subjects 'Teaching and learning important when operating requirements for the degree' as a whole was highly recognized. in particular, operating requirements for teaching and learning in accordance with the former college of education of education than non-group differences were higher overall response. Fourth, 'The basis of the Invention Patent' subjects 'Teaching and learning difficult when operating your degree' as a whole was highly recognized. In particular, was recognized by difficult questions, such as lack of preparation classes due to excessive work, educational facilities and equipment shortage, lack of prior knowledge about the subject, individual differences of the students considering the difficulties, student's

A research on priority of the role and function of industrial high school recognized by industrial education specialist (공업계열 고등학교 역할과 기능의 우선 순위에 관한 공업교육 전문가 인식)

  • Oh, Seung-gyun;Kim, JinSoo
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.97-119
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this research is to clarify the elements of the function of the role of industrial high schools that its experts perceived. The content of this research is verify the function element required for the performance of the role of specialized education through content validity ratio(CVR). This research adopted the method of literature research and Delphi method, which is to collect and come to an agreement of the opinions of the 26 research panels. The first round is constructed by the semi-constructed questionnaire for the analysis of the opinions of the panels by inductive method. The second round is to categorize the result of the first one into 7 domains, and asked each category by Likert's 5 scale checklists, and statistically analyzed mean, medium, standard deviation, and quartile. The third round is to statistically analyze Mean, standard deviation, medium, and validity ratio(CVR) to reassure the opinions of the panels on the basis of the result of the first one. The categorized contents of the function required for the performance of the specialized education in this research is 'in-service visit and in-service training', 'licence acquiring education', 'employment counseling and job employment information', 'custom-made education connected with industry', 'career education' and 'enhancement of basic career competency'. The panels are divided into professors, teachers, professionals, and policy administrators, and they verified the validity rate of the function role and priority of emphasis. The result showed that the tendency of the education is converting from physical function-centered education to education of emotional attitude and competence of thought.

An Efficient Algorithm for Streaming Time-Series Matching that Supports Normalization Transform (정규화 변환을 지원하는 스트리밍 시계열 매칭 알고리즘)

  • Loh, Woong-Kee;Moon, Yang-Sae;Kim, Young-Kuk
    • Journal of KIISE:Databases
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.600-619
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    • 2006
  • According to recent technical advances on sensors and mobile devices, processing of data streams generated by the devices is becoming an important research issue. The data stream of real values obtained at continuous time points is called streaming time-series. Due to the unique features of streaming time-series that are different from those of traditional time-series, similarity matching problem on the streaming time-series should be solved in a new way. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm for streaming time- series matching problem that supports normalization transform. While the existing algorithms compare streaming time-series without any transform, the algorithm proposed in the paper compares them after they are normalization-transformed. The normalization transform is useful for finding time-series that have similar fluctuation trends even though they consist of distant element values. The major contributions of this paper are as follows. (1) By using a theorem presented in the context of subsequence matching that supports normalization transform[4], we propose a simple algorithm for solving the problem. (2) For improving search performance, we extend the simple algorithm to use $k\;({\geq}\;1)$ indexes. (3) For a given k, for achieving optimal search performance of the extended algorithm, we present an approximation method for choosing k window sizes to construct k indexes. (4) Based on the notion of continuity[8] on streaming time-series, we further extend our algorithm so that it can simultaneously obtain the search results for $m\;({\geq}\;1)$ time points from present $t_0$ to a time point $(t_0+m-1)$ in the near future by retrieving the index only once. (5) Through a series of experiments, we compare search performances of the algorithms proposed in this paper, and show their performance trends according to k and m values. To the best of our knowledge, since there has been no algorithm that solves the same problem presented in this paper, we compare search performances of our algorithms with the sequential scan algorithm. The experiment result showed that our algorithms outperformed the sequential scan algorithm by up to 13.2 times. The performances of our algorithms should be more improved, as k is increased.

Optimization of Support Vector Machines for Financial Forecasting (재무예측을 위한 Support Vector Machine의 최적화)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Jae;Ahn, Hyun-Chul
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.241-254
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    • 2011
  • Financial time-series forecasting is one of the most important issues because it is essential for the risk management of financial institutions. Therefore, researchers have tried to forecast financial time-series using various data mining techniques such as regression, artificial neural networks, decision trees, k-nearest neighbor etc. Recently, support vector machines (SVMs) are popularly applied to this research area because they have advantages that they don't require huge training data and have low possibility of overfitting. However, a user must determine several design factors by heuristics in order to use SVM. For example, the selection of appropriate kernel function and its parameters and proper feature subset selection are major design factors of SVM. Other than these factors, the proper selection of instance subset may also improve the forecasting performance of SVM by eliminating irrelevant and distorting training instances. Nonetheless, there have been few studies that have applied instance selection to SVM, especially in the domain of stock market prediction. Instance selection tries to choose proper instance subsets from original training data. It may be considered as a method of knowledge refinement and it maintains the instance-base. This study proposes the novel instance selection algorithm for SVMs. The proposed technique in this study uses genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize instance selection process with parameter optimization simultaneously. We call the model as ISVM (SVM with Instance selection) in this study. Experiments on stock market data are implemented using ISVM. In this study, the GA searches for optimal or near-optimal values of kernel parameters and relevant instances for SVMs. This study needs two sets of parameters in chromosomes in GA setting : The codes for kernel parameters and for instance selection. For the controlling parameters of the GA search, the population size is set at 50 organisms and the value of the crossover rate is set at 0.7 while the mutation rate is 0.1. As the stopping condition, 50 generations are permitted. The application data used in this study consists of technical indicators and the direction of change in the daily Korea stock price index (KOSPI). The total number of samples is 2218 trading days. We separate the whole data into three subsets as training, test, hold-out data set. The number of data in each subset is 1056, 581, 581 respectively. This study compares ISVM to several comparative models including logistic regression (logit), backpropagation neural networks (ANN), nearest neighbor (1-NN), conventional SVM (SVM) and SVM with the optimized parameters (PSVM). In especial, PSVM uses optimized kernel parameters by the genetic algorithm. The experimental results show that ISVM outperforms 1-NN by 15.32%, ANN by 6.89%, Logit and SVM by 5.34%, and PSVM by 4.82% for the holdout data. For ISVM, only 556 data from 1056 original training data are used to produce the result. In addition, the two-sample test for proportions is used to examine whether ISVM significantly outperforms other comparative models. The results indicate that ISVM outperforms ANN and 1-NN at the 1% statistical significance level. In addition, ISVM performs better than Logit, SVM and PSVM at the 5% statistical significance level.

A Study on the Present Condition of Four-Year University Curriculum for Introducing NCS Landscape Architecture (NCS 조경 분야 적용을 위한 4년제 대학 교육과정 현황분석)

  • Lee, Chang-Hun;Kim, Kyou-Sub;Lee, Won-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.134-147
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the functional unit system of NCS landscape field for correction and supplementation of NCS landscape field and the contents of the four-year college landscape course subject. First, 24 unconsolidated four-year universities were selected, and FGI was conducted and verified for 816 courses in 24 universities. The results of the study are summarized as follows, with three sections three, nine divisions and 65 sub-category. First, landscape design subjects accounted for 40.0% of the subjects organized by four-year universities. In addition, the ratio of 12.9% for ecological landscape, 11.3% for landscape construction, 10.2% for others, 10.0% for landscape information, 6.6% for landscape culture and 3.7% for landscape management was surveyed. Balanced and efficient modification and reinforcement of NCS is required in the future. Second, 10(18.9%) units with matching NCS performance criteria and educational objectives were found to be capable of different units(18.9%), 15(28.3%), and 37subjects with inconsistent NCS unit capability (56.9%). Third, looking at the criteria for the reference of each unit of capability presented by the NCS, it is deemed that one unit of capability should be organized separately to improve the practical ability, since it includes the contents of basic knowledge learning. Fourth, the objectives pursued on the basis of the contents of the NCS capability unit and four-year college curriculum were developed by focusing on the development of unit capabilities in the field of landscape construction and landscape management compared to the field of landscape design. It has been shown that a balance is needed for future development. This study is intended to put forward further research that re-examine specific curriculum assessment criteria that have not been classified in the course of classifications based on the curriculum handbook, which excludes interferences from each school.

Enhancing Technology Learning Capabilities for Catch-up and Post Catch-up Innovations (기술학습역량 강화를 통한 추격 및 탈추격 혁신 촉진)

  • Bae, Zong-Tae;Lee, Jong-Seon;Koo, Bonjin
    • The Journal of Small Business Innovation
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.53-68
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    • 2016
  • Motivation and activities for technological learning, entrepreneurship, innovation, and creativity are driving forces of economic development in Asian countries. In the early stages of technological development, technological learning and entrepreneurship are efficient ways in which to catch up with advanced countries because firms can accumulate skills and knowledge quickly at relatively low risk. In the later stages of technological development, however, innovation and creativity become more important. This study aims to identify a) the factors (learning capabilities) that influence technological learning performance and b) barriers to enhancing innovation capabilities for the creative economy and organizations. The major part of this study is related to learning capabilities in the post-catch-up era. Based on a literature review and observations from Korean experiences, this study proposes a technological learning model composed of various influencing factors on technological learning. Three hypotheses are derived, and data are collected from Korean machine tool manufacturers. Intense interviews with CEOs and R&D directors are conducted using structured questionnaires. Statistical analysis, such as correlation and ANOVA are then carried out. Furthermore, this study addresses how to enhance innovation capabilities to move forward. Innovation enablers and barriers are identified by case studies and policy analysis. The results of the empirical study identify several levels of firms' learning capabilities and activities such as a) stock of technology, b) potential of technical labor, c) explicit technological efforts, d) readiness to learn, e) top management support, f) a formal technological learning system, g) high learning motivation, h) appropriate technology choice, and i) specific goal setting. These learning capabilities determine firms' learning performance, especially in the early stages of development. Furthermore, it is found that the critical factors for successful technological learning vary along the stages of technology development. Throughout the statistical and policy analyses, this study confirms that technological learning can be understood as an intrinsic principle of the technology development process. Firms perform proactive and creative learning in the late stages, while reactive and imitative learning prevails in the early stages. In addition, this study identifies the driving forces or facilitating factors enhancing innovation performance in the post catch-up era. The results of the preliminary case studies and policy analysis show some facilitating factors such as a) the strategic intent of the CEO and corporate culture, b) leadership and change agents, c) design principles and routines, d) ecosystem and collaboration with partners, and e) intensive R&D investment.

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A Case Study on Mechanism Factors for Result Creation of Informatization of IT Service Company (IT서비스 기업의 정보화 성과 창출을 위한 메커니즘 요인 사례 연구)

  • Choi, Hae-Lyong;Gu, Ja-Won
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.1-26
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    • 2017
  • In the meantime, research on corporate informatization focuses on the completeness of information technology itself and its financial effects, so there is insufficient research on whether information technology can support business strategy. It is necessary to verify whether the management strategy implementation of the company can be led through the informatization of the enterprise and the relation between the main mechanism factors and the informatization performance. In this study, what a mechanism factor is applied in the process of result creation of informatization from three mechanism perspectives such as selecting mechanism, learning mechanism and coordinating mechanism with cases of representative domestic IT company and what an importance mechanism factors have been ascertained. This study results in 8 propositions. For a main agent of companies, securement of information capability of organizations has been selected to realize informatization results and investment of informatization has been selected to solve organizational decentralization problems as the most important factor. Additionally, as competition in the industry gets fierce, investment on informatization has been changed to a utility way of implementation of strategies and decision on investment has been made through the official process and information technology. Differentiated company capability has been made based on acquisition of technical knowledge and company information has been expanded to its whole employees through the information system. Also, informatization change management and outside subcontractor management have been acknowledged as an important adjustment factor of company. The first implication of this study is that since case studies on mechanism factors that preceding studies on informatization results did not empirically cover have directly been dealt with based on experiences of executives in charge of business and in charge of informatization, this study can provide practical views about factors that should be mainly managed for informatization results of IT companies. Secondly, since ser-M framework has been applied for IT companies for the first time, this study can academically contribute to companies in other fields about main mechanism factors for result creation of informatization based on deeper understanding and empirical cases.