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The Influence of Online Social Networking on Individual Virtual Competence and Task Performance in Organizations (온라인 네트워킹 활동이 가상협업 역량 및 업무성과에 미치는 영향)

  • Suh, A-Young;Shin, Kyung-Shik
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.39-69
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    • 2012
  • With the advent of communication technologies including electronic collaborative tools and conferencing systems provided over the Internet, virtual collaboration is becoming increasingly common in organizations. Virtual collaboration refers to an environment in which the people working together are interdependent in their tasks, share responsibility for outcomes, are geographically dispersed, and rely on mediated rather than face-to face, communication to produce an outcome. Research suggests that new sets of individual skill, knowledge, and ability (SKAs) are required to perform effectively in today's virtualized workplace, which is labeled as individual virtual competence. It is also argued that use of online social networking sites may influence not only individuals' daily lives but also their capability to manage their work-related relationships in organizations, which in turn leads to better performance. The existing research regarding (1) the relationship between virtual competence and task performance and (2) the relationship between online networking and task performance has been conducted based on different theoretical perspectives so that little is known about how online social networking and virtual competence interplay to predict individuals' task performance. To fill this gap, this study raises the following research questions: (1) What is the individual virtual competence required for better adjustment to the virtual collaboration environment? (2) How does online networking via diverse social network service sites influence individuals' task performance in organizations? (3) How do the joint effects of individual virtual competence and online networking influence task performance? To address these research questions, we first draw on the prior literature and derive four dimensions of individual virtual competence that are related with an individual's self-concept, knowledge and ability. Computer self-efficacy is defined as the extent to which an individual beliefs in his or her ability to use computer technology broadly. Remotework self-efficacy is defined as the extent to which an individual beliefs in his or her ability to work and perform joint tasks with others in virtual settings. Virtual media skill is defined as the degree of confidence of individuals to function in their work role without face-to-face interactions. Virtual social skill is an individual's skill level in using technologies to communicate in virtual settings to their full potential. It should be noted that the concept of virtual social skill is different from the self-efficacy and captures an individual's cognition-based ability to build social relationships with others in virtual settings. Next, we discuss how online networking influences both individual virtual competence and task performance based on the social network theory and the social learning theory. We argue that online networking may enhance individuals' capability in expanding their social networks with low costs. We also argue that online networking may enable individuals to learn the necessary skills regarding how they use technological functions, communicate with others, and share information and make social relations using the technical functions provided by electronic media, consequently increasing individual virtual competence. To examine the relationships among online networking, virtual competence, and task performance, we developed research models (the mediation, interaction, and additive models, respectively) by integrating the social network theory and the social learning theory. Using data from 112 employees of a virtualized company, we tested the proposed research models. The results of analysis partly support the mediation model in that online social networking positively influences individuals' computer self-efficacy, virtual social skill, and virtual media skill, which are key predictors of individuals' task performance. Furthermore, the results of the analysis partly support the interaction model in that the level of remotework self-efficacy moderates the relationship between online social networking and task performance. The results paint a picture of people adjusting to virtual collaboration that constrains and enables their task performance. This study contributes to research and practice. First, we suggest a shift of research focus to the individual level when examining virtual phenomena and theorize that online social networking can enhance individual virtual competence in some aspects. Second, we replicate and advance the prior competence literature by linking each component of virtual competence and objective task performance. The results of this study provide useful insights into how human resource responsibilities assess employees' weakness and strength when they organize virtualized groups or projects. Furthermore, it provides managers with insights into the kinds of development or training programs that they can engage in with their employees to advance their ability to undertake virtual work.

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Analysis on On-line Q&A Cases regarding Landscape Trees Management - Focused on Online Consultation Board at Tree Diagnostic Center - (조경수 관리에 관한 온라인 질의응답 사례 분석 - 수목진단센터 온라인 상담 사례를 대상으로 -)

  • Lim, Byoung-Eul;Lee, Sae-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2013
  • The persons in charge of management request diagnosis and prescription to tree hospitals in order to get consultation about the problems like blight that occur in landscape tree management. This study aims to analyze what the main problems and questions raised by landscape gardeners are and those concerned in landscape tree management. This is done by investigating landscape tree-related questions and answers uploaded on the online consultation boards of the plant diagnostic centers approved in Korea including the Seoul National University Plant Clinic, the Chungbuk National University Plant Hospital, and the Kangwon Diagnostic Center. As a result, those concerned in landscape occupied the most as 81.4% among the questioners. However, only 11.5% did explain the plant management history or surrounding environment, which is essential for landscape tree diagnosis when asking questions. This shows that those concerned in landscape lack basic knowledge or interest about plant diagnosis. Among 263 questions about landscape trees, questions about physiological damage included 94 cases that were the most taking up 35.8%. Moreover, the next were damage by insects and damage by disease in order. It is thought that due to the characteristics of physiological problems that occur by various sorts of stress and with no signs, they tend to request diagnosis or prescription the most. The most frequent reasons for physiological damage are water stress and temperature stress. About damage by disease, there exist many types of diseases, and there are many complex damages accompanied by physiological causes. About damage by insects, the most common include damage by moths. In consideration of this result, universities or technician training centers should provide education for landscape tree management so that landscape technicians and students can acquire essential knowledge and information about landscape tree management and increase their interest in it. In particular, it is necessary to provide profound learning opportunities for plant physiology, and the technicians should make efforts themselves. In addition, it is needed to build organizations to which they can ask technical questions about landscape planting and management in order to understand landscape industry in general and the actual status of landscape planting technique and the actual field. Moreover, to elevate systemicity and expertise in the area of landscape tree management not yet equipped with the foundation, it is needed to cultivate the technicians intensively and conduct research by those concerned both in academic and industrial circles.

A Study on Recent Research Trend in Management of Technology Using Keywords Network Analysis (키워드 네트워크 분석을 통해 살펴본 기술경영의 최근 연구동향)

  • Kho, Jaechang;Cho, Kuentae;Cho, Yoonho
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.101-123
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    • 2013
  • Recently due to the advancements of science and information technology, the socio-economic business areas are changing from the industrial economy to a knowledge economy. Furthermore, companies need to do creation of new value through continuous innovation, development of core competencies and technologies, and technological convergence. Therefore, the identification of major trends in technology research and the interdisciplinary knowledge-based prediction of integrated technologies and promising techniques are required for firms to gain and sustain competitive advantage and future growth engines. The aim of this paper is to understand the recent research trend in management of technology (MOT) and to foresee promising technologies with deep knowledge for both technology and business. Furthermore, this study intends to give a clear way to find new technical value for constant innovation and to capture core technology and technology convergence. Bibliometrics is a metrical analysis to understand literature's characteristics. Traditional bibliometrics has its limitation not to understand relationship between trend in technology management and technology itself, since it focuses on quantitative indices such as quotation frequency. To overcome this issue, the network focused bibliometrics has been used instead of traditional one. The network focused bibliometrics mainly uses "Co-citation" and "Co-word" analysis. In this study, a keywords network analysis, one of social network analysis, is performed to analyze recent research trend in MOT. For the analysis, we collected keywords from research papers published in international journals related MOT between 2002 and 2011, constructed a keyword network, and then conducted the keywords network analysis. Over the past 40 years, the studies in social network have attempted to understand the social interactions through the network structure represented by connection patterns. In other words, social network analysis has been used to explain the structures and behaviors of various social formations such as teams, organizations, and industries. In general, the social network analysis uses data as a form of matrix. In our context, the matrix depicts the relations between rows as papers and columns as keywords, where the relations are represented as binary. Even though there are no direct relations between papers who have been published, the relations between papers can be derived artificially as in the paper-keyword matrix, in which each cell has 1 for including or 0 for not including. For example, a keywords network can be configured in a way to connect the papers which have included one or more same keywords. After constructing a keywords network, we analyzed frequency of keywords, structural characteristics of keywords network, preferential attachment and growth of new keywords, component, and centrality. The results of this study are as follows. First, a paper has 4.574 keywords on the average. 90% of keywords were used three or less times for past 10 years and about 75% of keywords appeared only one time. Second, the keyword network in MOT is a small world network and a scale free network in which a small number of keywords have a tendency to become a monopoly. Third, the gap between the rich (with more edges) and the poor (with fewer edges) in the network is getting bigger as time goes on. Fourth, most of newly entering keywords become poor nodes within about 2~3 years. Finally, keywords with high degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality are "Innovation," "R&D," "Patent," "Forecast," "Technology transfer," "Technology," and "SME". The results of analysis will help researchers identify major trends in MOT research and then seek a new research topic. We hope that the result of the analysis will help researchers of MOT identify major trends in technology research, and utilize as useful reference information when they seek consilience with other fields of study and select a new research topic.

A Study on the Architecture of the Original Nine-Story Wooden Pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple (황룡사 창건 구층목탑 단상)

  • Lee, Ju-heun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.196-219
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    • 2019
  • According to the Samguk Yusa, the nine-story wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple was built by a Baekje artisan named Abiji in 645. Until the temple was burnt down completely during the Mongol invasion of Korea in 1238, it was the greatest symbol of the spiritual culture of the Korean people at that time and played an important role in the development of Buddhist thought in the country for about 700 years. At present, the only remaining features of Hwangnyongsa Temple, which is now in ruins, are the pagoda's stylobate and several foundation stones. In the past, many researchers made diverse inferences concerning the restoration of the original structure and the overall architecture of the wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple, based on written records and excavation data. However, this information, together with the remaining external structure of the pagoda site and the assumption that it was a simple wooden structure, actually suggest that it was a rectangular-shaped nine-story pagoda. It is assumed that such ideas were suggested at a time when there was a lack of relevant data and limited knowledge on the subject, as well as insufficient information about the technical lineage of the wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple; therefore, these ideas should be revised in respect of the discovery of new data and an improved level of awareness about the structural features of large ancient Buddhist pagodas. This study focused on the necessity of raising awareness of the lineage and structure of the wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple and gaining a broader understanding of the structural system of ancient Buddhist pagodas in East Asia. The study is based on a reanalysis of data about the site of the wooden pagoda obtained through research on the restoration of Hwangnyongsa Temple, which has been ongoing since 2005. It is estimated that the wooden pagoda underwent at least two large-scale repairs between the Unified Silla and Goryeo periods, during which the size of the stylobate and the floor plan were changed and, accordingly, the upper structure was modified to a significant degree. Judging by the features discovered during excavation and investigation, traces relating to the nine-story wooden pagoda built during the Three Kingdoms Period include the earth on which the stylobate was built and the central pillar's supporting stone, which had been reinstalled using the rammed earth technique, as well as other foundation stones and stylobate stone materials that most probably date back to the ninth century or earlier. It seems that the foundation stones and stylobate stone materials were new when the reliquaries were enshrined again in the pagoda after the Unified Silla period, so the first story and upper structure would have been of a markedly different size to those of the original wooden pagoda. In addition, during the Goryeo period, these foundation stones were rearranged, and the cover stone was newly installed; therefore, the pagoda would seem to have undergone significant changes in size and structure compared to previous periods. Consequently, the actual structure of the original wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple should be understood in terms of the changes in large Buddhist pagodas built in East Asia at that time, and the technical lineage should start with the large Buddhist pagodas of the Baekje dynasty, which were influenced by the Northern dynasty of China. Furthermore, based on the archeological data obtained from the analysis of the images of the nine-story rock-carved pagoda depicted on the Rock-carved Buddhas in Tapgok Valley at Namsan Mountain in Gyeongju, and the gilt-bronze rail fragments excavated from the lecture hall at the site of Hwangnyongsa Temple, the wooden pagoda would appear to have originally been an octagonal nine-story pagoda with a dual structure, rather than a simple rectangular wooden structure.

Considerable Aspects for Technical and Vocational Training in Forestry (임업기술(林業技術) 및 직업훈련(職業訓練)에 고려(考慮)되어야 할 사항(事項))

  • Ma, Sang Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.56-65
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    • 1981
  • The training of forest ranger level and forest worker level to push the sound forest management and to increase the employment effects in forestry will be done without delay as soon as possible. So several opinions to be considered are here discussed. 1. The ranger level will be at first completely trained with the technics developed and modernized, to process really the sound forest management based on the concept of ecological and economical technic. 2. The organization of vocational training and it's systematical training method will be newly adopted to increase the labour efficiency in forestry. The case of fulltime worker level should be more intensively trained and part-time worker or forest famer level should be trained by the forest ranger and skilled worker with visiting circularly their working place. And the daily employed workers and village people for working should be done by the skilled workers. 3. The training subjects for them at the beginning step will be exploited by the instructors and concerned experts with studying their current conditions. Their practical training is more reasonable to do in the practically managing forest and to carry out under the responsible of leader of this forest. 4. The instructors included rangers of training forest will get specially certain intensive training through the aids of outside experts or through the group instruction with them. 5. The training fields and their reasons to be learned by them are discussed in this paper from the basic knowledge to the skill technics. 6. In oder to systematize and mordernize more rapidly our forest technics that need for training them and also applying directly in the forest management, a total effort of certain type by scientists and technicians scattered individually all over the country is now earnestly demanded to synthesize their knowledge, technic and experience. So to do like this, the establishment of certain organization through which can do their total efforts together will be considered and assisted by the concerned authority. 7. For better lieving of full-time workers, the whole-round year working amount have to be supplied though the work technic-and working plan development. And under the conditions that the timber harvesting work is still not so enough and it has a bad climatic season, the in-side working system and side - job aids will be developed for their sound lieving. 8. The organization of labour management will be soon introduced in the concerning administrativ authority to solve the forest labour problems and to increase the employing effects in forestry in future. 9. The supply programm of improved and trained tools and maschines for forest work is also considered to use by the trained persons. If not to do so, the training results will return to the original condition and will get nothing any more.

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A Study and Investigation for the Attitude about Smoking of Boys' and Girls' High School in Seoul (서울시내 남녀고교생의 흡연에 관한 태도 조사연구)

  • Sim Young Ae
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.74-100
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    • 1989
  • Inspite of the lots of studies on the harmfulness of cigarette smoking to the body published by many researchers since 1950, cigarette smoking people are increasing in number especially, cigarette smoking by young and women causes a serious problem. Examining the physiological motives of youth shows that, impulse which the youth want to immitate the adults, alluring curiousity, and defiant physiology of escaping from the norm of traditional groups which has been banned are cooperated well compoundly. As the period of the youth is the one which they accumulate knowledge and charactor by learning as well as the period of growth mentally, and physically they should be rightly educated about smoking before they addicted to smoking and it is desirable for us to make the youth to understand how harmfully the smoking is to effect to their growth and mental soundness simply not as a social norm which they should not smoke. The main motive of this study on the attitude of smoking by the youth is to give basic materials related on this field. For this study, 647 questionnaires were used as studying material which were able to analyze among 720 questionnaires of 2 classes of each grade of 3 high schools among the high schools of boys, girls and co-educated in Seoul from Oct. 21, 1988 through Oct. 26, 1988. Study Instrument are graded in Likert's 5 point from 40 questions which are 20 questions m affirmations and 20 questions in negations after analyzing the factors on 60 simple sentence questions which the students showed in preliminary studies. And these are systemized to be measured from 1 point which means they think smoking IS very bad to 5points which means they think smoking is really good. In these collected materials, technical statistics of frequency. percentage, average, standard deviation are used for general character and smoking attitude, $X^2-test$ for examinning Independant variables of physical. emotional, ethical and other areas pearson's coefficient of correlation for related direction and degree" and step­regression analysis for the degree of relative contribution of all variables which effect smoking attitude. The results of this study are as follows; 1. The smoking attitude of high school boys and girls showed average of 1.78 in physical area, 2.63 in emotional area, 2.61 in ethical area, 2.29 in other area respectively in a negative attitude generally also the negative attitude are expressed most strongly in physical area. I've can also say by this results that smoking is harmful to their health and further more it can be judged that this proves the youth in the period of preparation be adults have a strong curiousity in the emotional, ethical and other areas. 2. The most influential variables in each field as related factors effecting smoking attitude of the student can be explained from 13.2 in physical area the lowest experienced variables to 25.2 in emotional area the highest of degree of smoking experience. The fact that the more the smoking experienced students are increasing in number the higher tendency which accept the' smoking tells as the importance of health education about the population of latest student's smoking as important variables shown equally in each area. Those of grade, age, numbers of smoking people in house are showed meaningful in pure interrelation. Those related to the acceptance of teacher's smoking, sex, mothors education are shown meaningful in opposite interrelations. This means that the' increasing number' of smoking people in grade age, the number of smoker in family have a affirmative attitude. And people who are not interested in teacher's smoking wants to quit it, and whose mother's education is higher have a negative attitude. 3. The most negatively answered questions of the smoking attitude In physical, emotional, ethical and other areas are as belows; Firstly too much smoking is harmful to our health is 1.12 point. Secondly smoking have a ill-effect on pregnancy and embryo is 1.13 point. Thirdly smoking is harmful· to our health is 1.27 point. Fourthly smoking in crowed area with the people such as In a bus or subway should be prohibited is 1.27point. Fifthly smoking can ruin lungs is 1.31 point. And the most affirmatively answered questions are also as below; Firstly we showed smoke depending on time and place is 3.96 points. Secondly smoking is just habit is 3.83 points. Thirdly smoking people seem to be unable and deplorable is 3.69 point. Fourthly smoking should be prohibited by law is 3.56 points. Fifthly high school student's smoking is immitation of adults is 3.52 points.

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A Study on Status of Utilization and The Related Factors of Primary Medical Care in a Rural Area (일부 농촌지역의 일차의료이용실태와 그 관련요인에 관한 연구)

  • Wie, Cha-Hyung
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out, through analyzing the annual reports(year of 1973-1993) on health status of Su Dong-Myun, and specific survey data of 332 households(Su Dong-Myun 209, Byul Nae-Myun 123), located in Nam Yang Ju-Si, Kyung Gi-Do, from July 20 to July 31, 1995, to find out more effective means for primary medical care in a rural area. The results were as fellows : 1. Number of population in Su Dong-Myun was 5,419 in 1973, 4,591(the lowest) in 1987 and 5,707 in 1995. In the composition rate of population, "0-14" of age group showed markedly decreasing tendency from 43.1% in 1975, to 19.1% in 1995, however "65 and over" markedly in creasing tendency form 5.3% in 1975 to 9.8% in 1995. 2. Annual utilization rate per 1,000 inhabitants in Su Dong-Myun showed markedly increasing tendency from 1973 to 1977 such as 343 in 1973, 540 in 1975, 900 in 1977. However, since 1979, the rate showed rapidly decreasing tendency, such as 846 in 1979, 519 in 1985, 190 in 1991 and 1993. 3. The morbid household rate per year was 53.6% of respondents and the rate per 15 days was 48.2%. In disease classification rate of morbid household per year, Arthralgia & Neuralgia was the highest rate(33.9%) and gastro-intestinal disorder(19.3%), Cough(11,9%), Hypertension(7.8%), Accident(3.2%) in next order. 4. In the utilizing facilities for Primary Medical Care, Medical facilities was showed the highest rate(58.1% of respondents) and Pharmacy and Drug Shp(33.1%), Tradition Method(4.0%) in next order. In the Medical facilities, General private clinic was showed the highest rate(34.3%) and specific private Clinic(22.3%), Hospital(19.0%), Health (Sub)center(16.3%), Nurse practitioner (3.3%), Oriental hospital and clinic(2.7%) in next order. 5. Experience rate, utilizing health subcenter was 51.8% of the respondents, and it was 55.0% in Su Dong-Myun and 46.3% in Byul Nae-Myun. In utilization times of health subcenter, times-rate showed next orders such as 1-2 times/6months(31.6%), 1-2 times/year (22.1%), 1-2 times/months(19.2%), 1-2 times/3months(15.6%). 6. In objectives, visiting Health Subcenter, Medical Care was the highest rate(59.8% of the respondents) and health control(23.3%) was in next order. In Medical Care, Primary Care by general physician was higher rate(51.1%) almost all. In the Health control, Immunization too was high rate(18.0%) in health control activities. 7. The reasons rate, utilizing health subcenter showed next order, such as distance to Medical facilities(33.0% of the respondents), Medical Cost(28.1%), Simple process of consultation (10.8%), Effectiveness of cure(7.6%), Function of primary medical care(7.0%) and Attitude of physician(6.5%). 8. In the affecting factors to utilization of primary medical facilities, medical needs was showed the highest rate(29.5% of the respondents) and medical cost(15.4%), distance to medical facilities(14.2%), traffic vehicle(14.2%) and farm work(6.9%) in next order. 9. In the priority between 'daily farm work,' and 'primary medical care', only 46.4% of respondents answered that primary health care is more important than the daily farm work The 22.6% of respondents answered 'daily farm work', and the 12.3% answered 'the equal of the both'. 10. In the criterion of medical facilities choice, medical knowledge and technical quality was showed the highest rate(56.3%), distance or time to medical facilities(10.9%), sincerity and kindness of physician(9.4%), medical cost(8.7%) and traffic vehicle(6.5%) in next order 11. In the advise for improvement of health subcenter function, the 36.1% of respondents answered that 'enforcement of medical personnel and equipment' was required, and then 'improved medical technology'(25.5%), 'good attitude of physician'(14.9%), 'improved medical system'(13.3%), 'enforced drug'(6.7%) in next order. 12. The study on affecting factors to utilization of primary medical facilities was very difficult subject to systematize the analyzed results, due to a prejudice of protocol planner, surveyer and respondent, and variety and overlapping of subject matter.

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An exploratory study on Social Network Services in the context of Web 2.0 period (웹 2.0 시대의 SNS(Social Network Service)에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Seok-Yong;Jung, Lee-Sang
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.143-167
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    • 2010
  • Diverse research topics relating to Social Network Services (SNS) such as, social affective factors in relationships among internet users, social capital value of SNS, comparing attributes why users are intending to participate in SNS, user's lifestyle and their preferences, and the exploratory seeking potential of SNS as a social capital need to be focused on. However, these researches that have been undertaken only consider facts at a particular period of the changing computing environment. In accordance with this indispensability, the integrated view on what technical, social and business characteristics and attributes need to be acknowledged. The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolving attributes and characteristics of SNS from Web 1.0 to Mobile web 2.0 through the Web 2.0 and Mobile 1.0 period. Based on the relevant literature, the attributes that drive the changing technological, social and business aspects of SNS have been developed and analyzed. This exploratory study analyzed major attributes and relationships between SNS and users by changing the paradigms which represented each period. It classified and chronicled each period by representing paradigms and deducted the attributes by considering three aspects such as technological, social and business administration. The major findings of this study are, firstly, the web based computing environment has been changed into the platform attribute for users in the aspect of technology. Users can only read, listen and view information through the web site in the early stages, but now it is possible that users can create, modify and distribute all kinds of information. Secondly, the few knowledge producers of web services have been changed into a collective intelligence by groups of people in the aspect of society. Information authority has been distributed and there is no limit to its spread. Many businesses recognized the potential of the SNS and they are considering how to utilize these advantages toward channel of promotion and marketing. Thirdly, the conventional marketing channel has been changed into oral transmission by using SNS. The market of innovative mobile technology such as smart phones, which provide convenience and access-ability toward customers, has been enlarged. New opportunities to build friendly relationship between business and customers as a new marketing chance have been created. Finally, the role of the consumer has been changed into the leading role of a prosumer. Users can create, modify and distribute information, and are performing the dual role of customer and producer.

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A study on the structure of the Three storied Stone pagoda in Gameunsa Temple site (감은사지 삼층석탑 구조)

  • Nam, si-jin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.38
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    • pp.329-358
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    • 2005
  • The Three storied Stone pagoda in Gameunsa Temple site, one of the early staged stone pagodas, has been known as a standard for Silla stone pagodas. A stone pagoda is not only a stone art work and but also a stone structure. Most studies and investigation of the stone pagoda has done mainly based on style and chronological research according to an art historical view. However, there is not an attempt to research the stone pagoda as a stone architecture. Most Korean experts at the stone pagoda has art history in their background. Engineers who can understand the structure of the stone pagoda are very limited. More architectural and engineering approach is need to research not only art historial understanding but also safety as a structure. We can find many technical know-how from our ancestors who made stone pagodas. 1. To reduce any deformation such as relaxation and sinking of BuJae which is caused by a heavy load, the BuJae (consist of a foundation stone and lower stereobates) should be enlarged. 2. A special construction method for connection between Myonsuk and Tangjoo was invented. This unique method is not used any longer after the Three storied Stone pagoda in Gameunsa Temple site. 3. The upper BuJae and the lower BuJae are missed each other by making a difference of Okgaesuk and Okgaebatchim in size. It is done for a distribution of perpendicular load and a prevention for relaxation of BuJae. 4. The center of gravity in the BuJae is located to the center of the stone pagoda by trimming the upper surface of the Okgaebatchim into a convex shape. The man who made stone pagodas had excellent knowledge on the engineering and techniques to understand the structure of the stone pagodas. We can confirm it as follows: the enlarged BuJae, dislocated connection between upper Bujae and lower BuJae, and moving the center of gravity close to the center of the stone pagoda.

Digital Archives of Cultural Archetype Contents: Its Problems and Direction (디지털 아카이브즈의 문제점과 방향 - 문화원형 콘텐츠를 중심으로 -)

  • Hahm, Han-Hee;Park, Soon-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean BIBLIA Society for library and Information Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.23-42
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    • 2006
  • This is a study of the digital archives of Culturecontent.com where 'Cultural Archetype Contents' are currently in service. One of the major purposes of our study is to point out problems in the current system and eventually propose improvements to the digital archives. The government launched a four-year project for developing the cultural archetype content sources and establishing its related business with the hope of enhancing the nation's competitiveness. More specifically, the project focuses on the production of source materials of cultural archetype contents in the subjects of Korea's history. tradition, everyday life. arts and general geographical books. In addition, through this project, the government also intends to establish a proper distribution system of digitalized culture contents and to control copyright issues. This paper analyzes the digital archives system that stores the culture content data that have been produced from 2002 to 2005 and evaluates the current system's weaknesses and strengths. The summary of our findings is as follows. First. the digital archives system does not contain a semantic search engine and therefore its full function is 1agged. Second, similar data is not classified into the same categories but into the different ones, thereby confusing and inconveniencing users. Users who want to find source materials could be disappointed by the current distributive system. Our paper suggests a better system of digital archives with text mining technology which consists of five significant intelligent process-keyword searches, summarization, clustering, classification and topic tracking. Our paper endeavors to develop the best technical environment for preserving and using culture contents data. With the new digitalized upgraded settings, users of culture contents data will discover a world of new knowledge. The technology we introduce in this paper will lead to the highest achievable digital intelligence through a new framework.

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