• Title, Summary, Keyword: survivor

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Design of an Area-Efficient Survivor Path Unit for Viterbi Decoder Supporting Punctured Codes (천공 부호를 지원하는 Viterbi 복호기의 면적 효율적인 생존자 경로 계산기 설계)

  • Kim, Sik;Hwang, Sun-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3A
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    • pp.337-346
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    • 2004
  • Punctured convolutional codes increase transmission efficiency without increasing hardware complexity. However, Viterbi decoder supporting punctured codes requires long decoding length and large survivor memory to achieve sifficiently low bit error rate (BER), when compared to the Viterbi decoder for a rate 1/2 convolutional code. This Paper presents novel architecture adopting a pipelined trace-forward unit reducing survivor memory requirements in the Viterbi decoder. The proposed survivor path architecture reduces the memory requirements by removing the initial decoding delay needed to perform trace-back operation and by accelerating the trace-forward process to identify the survivor path in the Viterbi decoder. Experimental results show that the area of survivor path unit has been reduced by 16% compared to that of conventional hybrid survivor path unit.

Lifetime Prediction of Existing Highway Bridges Using System Reliability Approach (실제 교량의 시스템 신뢰성해석에 기초한 수명예측)

  • Yang, Seung Ie
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.365-373
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, the system reliability concept was presented to predict the lifespan of bridges. Lifetime distribution functions (survivor functions) were used to model real bridges to predict their remaining life. Using the system reliability concept and lifetime distribution functions (survivor functions), a program called LIFETIME was developed. The survivor functions give the reliability of component at time t. The program was applied to an existing Colorado state highway bridge to predict the failure probability of the time-dependent system. The bridge was modeled as a system, with failure probability computed using time-dependent deteriorating models.

Effects of Cervical Exercise with Sling Program on Sleep Disturbance and Headache, Neck Disfunction in Torture of Survivor : Single Case Study (슬링을 이용한 경부관절 운동이 고문생존자의 수면장애, 두통, 경부 기능장애에 미치는 영향 : 단일사례연구)

  • Yu, Seonghun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2017
  • Purpose : The purpose of this case study was to clinical effects of cervical exercise with sling program using on torture of survivor with sleep disturbance and Headache, neck disfunction. Methods : This study selects 1 subjects for 55 years old who were diagnosed with torture of survivor with sleep disturbance and headache. The Design is ABA of single-subject study design. Baseline(A) and TypeII Baseline(A : 6weeks) phases were received with musculoskeletal disease of prevention education, Intervention(B : 6weeks) phase provided with 65 minute exercise with sling program using in a session twice a week. In order to analyze the measure results of PSQI-K(korean version of the pittsburgh sleep quality index), VAS(visual analog scale), NDI(neck disability index), FABQ(fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire) in torture of survivor during baseline, intervention and typeII baseline phase. Result : A significant differences in PSQI-K during baseline, intervention, typeII baseline. A significant differences in VAS during baseline, intervention, typeII baseline. A significant differences in NDI during baseline, intervention, typeII baseline. A significant differences in FABQ during baseline, intervention, typeII baseline. Conclusion : In conclusion, The intervention method to applied cervical exercise with sling program on torture of survivor effectively improve on sleep disturbance and neck function, headache.

A New Survivor Path Memory Management Method for High-speed Viterbi Decoders (고속 비터비 복호기를 위한 새로운 생존경로 메모리 관리 방법)

  • 김진율;김범진
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.27 no.5C
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    • pp.411-421
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, we present a new survivor path memory management method and a dedicated hardware architecture for the design of high-speed Viterbi decoders in modern digital communication systems. In the proposed method, a novel use of k-starting node number deciding circuits enables to acheive the immediate traceback of the merged survivor path from which we can decode output bits, and results in smaller survivor path memory size and processing delay time than the previously known methods. Also, in the proposed method, the survivor path memory can be constructed with ease using a simple standard dual-ported memory since one read-pointer and one write-pointer, that are updated at the same rate, are required for managing the survivor path: the previously known algorithms require either complex k-ported memory structure or k-times faster read capability than write. With a moderate hardware cost for immediate traceback capability the proposed method is superior to the previously known methods for high-speed Viterbi decoding.

Comparison of Survival in Pelvic Bone Fractures with Arterial Embolization (골반골 골절로 인한 동맥 파열로 동맥 색전술을 시행받은 환자에서의 생존 비교)

  • Kim, Woo Youn;Hong, Eun Seok;Hong, Jung Seok;Ahn, Ryeok;Hwang, Jae Cheol;Kim, Sun Hyu
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was to evaluate the effect of arterial embolization on survival in patients with pelvic bone fractures and arterial bleeding. Methods: From January 2001 to December 2007, in all, 18 patients with pelvic bone fractures that had been treated with interventional arterial embolization were included in this retrospective study. The Injury Severity Score (ISS), the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), the initial hemodynamic status, the blood gas analysis, blood transfusion data, and mortality were the main outcome measurements. Results: Pelvic bone fractures were classified into lateral compression (LC), antero-posterior compression (APC), vertical shear (VS), and combined (CM) type according to the Young-Burgess classification. The Survivor group included 11 patients (61.1%), and the non-survivor group included 7 patients (38.9%). The mean ages for the survivor and the non-survivor groups were 40.0 and 45.6 years (p=0.517). The types of pelvic bone fractures were LC 11 (61.1%), APC 6 (33.3%), and VS 1 (5.6%): LC 7 (63.6%), and APC 4 (36.4%) in the survivor group and LC 4 (57.1%), APC 2 (28.6%), and VS 1 (14.3%) in the non-survivor group. The internal iliac artery was the predominant injured vessel among both the survivors (n = 5, 45.5%) and the non-survivors (n = 4, 57.1%). No differences in initial blood pressures, ISS, and RTS existed between the two groups, but the arterial pH was lower in the non-survivor group (pH 7.09 (${\pm}0.20$) vs 7.30 (${\pm}0.08$), p=0.018). The number of transfused 24-hour units of packed RBC was greater in the non-survivor group ($24.1{\pm}12.5$ vs $14.4{\pm}6.8$, p=0.046). Conclusion: No differences in initial blood pressure and trauma scores existed between survivors and non-survivors with pelvic bone fractures, who had been treated with arterial embolization, but arterial pH was lower the in non-survivors.

The Impact of Referral to Mental Health Services on Suicide Death Risk in Adolescent Suicide Survivors

  • Kim, Joonbeom;Hong, Sung Hee;Hong, Hyun Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study aims to examine the effect of adolescent suicide survivors' experience on suicide death risk, and the effect of referral to mental health services (hereafter referral) in this regard. Methods: This study used the data of 878 suicide-deceased and suicide-attempted adolescents aged 8-19 years, managed by the Suicide and School Mental Health Institute from 2016 to 2018. Results: Regression analysis for main effects showed that although suicide experience had no direct effect on suicide death, non-referral status was associated with a greater risk of death by suicide. While the "non-suicide survivor with non-referral" and "suicide survivor with non-referral" groups showed 1.87 [adjusted odds ratio=1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.21-2.89] and 4.59 (adjusted odds ratio=4.59, 95% CI=2.02-10.42) times higher odds of suicide death, respectively, the "suicide survivor with referral" group showed no difference compared to the "non-suicide survivor with referral" group. Conclusion: From these findings, there is a need to strengthen referral to mental health services and apply complicated grief treatment to improve the mental health of adolescent suicide survivors.

Fractals and Fragmentation of Survivor Grains within Gouge Zones along Boundary Faults in the Tertiary Waeup Basin (제3기 와읍분지 경계단층을 따라 발달하는 단층비지 내 잔류입자의 프랙탈과 파쇄작용)

  • Chang, Tae-Woo
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 2010
  • Fault gouge samples were collected from the fault cores of the boundary faults between the Cretaceous Basement and the Tertiary Waeup Basin. Fractal dimensions (D) were obtained by using survivor grains which were analysed from six thin sections of the gouges under the optical microscope. The elliptical survivor grains show a shape preferred orientation almost parallel to clay foliation in matrix, suggesting that it was formed by the rotation of the survivor grains in abundant fine-grained matrix during repeated fault slips. The size distributions of the survivor grains follow power-laws with fractal dimensions in the 2.40-3.02 range. D values of all samples but one are higher than a specific D value equal to 2.58 which predicts the self similarity of fragmentation process in constrained comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987), which indicates large fault slip and multiple faulting. Probably the higher D values than 2.58 mean the non-self-similar evolution of cataclastic rocks where fragmentation mechanism changed from constrained comminution to the grain abrasion accompanying selective fracture of larger grains.

Psychosocial aspects of childhood cancer survivors

  • Seo, Jong-Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.471-476
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    • 2010
  • The majority of childhood cancer survivors and their families will be psychologically healthy, but may desire and benefit from preventive care. A significant portion of the survivor population will be psychosocially distressed in various aspects by their harsh experience of long cancer treatment, and may warrant professional intervention and treatment. Pediatricians should be aware of the late psychological effects that can occur a year or 2 after treatment, possibly in many aspects of a survivor's life. Not only the cancer diagnosis, but also treatments such as chemotherapy, irradiation, and surgical intervention may exert different long-term effects on the psychosocial outcomes of survivors. Pediatricians need to be more concerned with maintaining and improving the psychological health of this growing number of childhood cancer survivors through long-term follow-up clinics, community support, or self-help groups. Research on all of the psychosocial aspects of childhood cancer survivors is important to recognize the reality and problems they face in Korea.

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for an Adjusted Survivor Function under the Dependent Censoring Model

  • Lee, Seung-Yeoun;Sok, Yong-U
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, we consider a simple method for testing the assumption of independent censoring on the basis of a Cox proportional hazards regression model with a time-dependent covariate. This method involves a two-stage sampling in which a random subset of censored observations is selected and followed-up until their true survival times are observed. Lee and Wolfe(1998) proposed an adjusted estimate of the survivor function for the dependent censoring under a proportional hazards alternative. This paper extends their result to obtain a bootstrap confidence interval for the adjusted survivor function under the dependent censoring. The proposed procedure is illustrated with an example of a clinical trial for lung cancer analysed in Lee and Wolfe(1998).

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A Study on the Estimation of Economic Service Life on Semiconductor Equipments (반도체 제조설비의 경제적 내용연수 산정)

  • Oh, Hyun-Seung;Kim, Chong-Su;Suh, Jung-Yul;Cho, Jin-Hyung
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2007
  • The estimation of mortality characteristics of industrial property is an important adjunct to engineering valuation and depreciation estimation. Once the important of depreciation estimation is determined, it is desirable to understand the processes upon which these estimates are based. The Iowa type survivor curves are a set of generalized retirement dispersion models. These curves were based on analysis of actual retirement experience and represent typical retirement behavior patterns likely to be encountered. The retirement rate of Iowa type survivor curves on the semiconductor equipments in Korea industry was estimated by the life estimation process. In this paper, estimates of service lives based on directly observed data of the domestic semiconductor equipments are presented.