• Title, Summary, Keyword: storey isolation system

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Semi-active storey isolation system employing MRE isolator with parameter identification based on NSGA-II with DCD

  • Gu, Xiaoyu;Yu, Yang;Li, Jianchun;Li, Yancheng;Alamdari, Mehrisadat Makki
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.1101-1121
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    • 2016
  • Base isolation, one of the popular seismic protection approaches proven to be effective in practical applications, has been widely applied worldwide during the past few decades. As the techniques mature, it has been recognised that, the biggest issue faced in base isolation technique is the challenge of great base displacement demand, which leads to the potential of overturning of the structure, instability and permanent damage of the isolators. Meanwhile, drain, ventilation and regular maintenance at the base isolation level are quite difficult and rather time- and fund- consuming, especially in the highly populated areas. To address these challenges, a number of efforts have been dedicated to propose new isolation systems, including segmental building, additional storey isolation (ASI) and mid-storey isolation system, etc. However, such techniques have their own flaws, among which whipping effect is the most obvious one. Moreover, due to their inherent passive nature, all these techniques, including traditional base isolation system, show incapability to cope with the unpredictable and diverse nature of earthquakes. The solution for the aforementioned challenge is to develop an innovative vibration isolation system to realise variable structural stiffness to maximise the adaptability and controllability of the system. Recently, advances on the development of an adaptive magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) vibration isolator has enlightened the development of adaptive base isolation systems due to its ability to alter stiffness by changing applied electrical current. In this study, an innovative semi-active storey isolation system inserting such novel MRE isolators between each floor is proposed. The stiffness of each level in the proposed isolation system can thus be changed according to characteristics of the MRE isolators. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm type II (NSGA-II) with dynamic crowding distance (DCD) is utilised for the optimisation of the parameters at isolation level in the system. Extensive comparative simulation studies have been conducted using 5-storey benchmark model to evaluate the performance of the proposed isolation system under different earthquake excitations. Simulation results compare the seismic responses of bare building, building with passive controlled MRE base isolation system, building with passive-controlled MRE storey isolation system and building with optimised storey isolation system.

Seismic evaluation and retrofitting of reinforced concrete buildings with base isolation systems

  • Vasiliadis, Lazaros K.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.293-311
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    • 2016
  • A parametric study on the nonlinear seismic response of isolated reinforced concrete structural frame is presented. Three prototype frames designed according to the 1954 Hellenic seismic code, with number of floor ranging from 1 to 3 were considered. These low rise frames are representative of many existing reinforced concrete buildings in Greece. The efficacy of the implementation of both lead rubber bearings (LRB) and friction pendulum isolators (FPI) base isolation systems were examined. The selection of the isolation devices was made according to the ratio $T_{is}/T_{fb}$, where Tis is the period of the base isolation system and $T_{bf}$ is the period of the fixed-base building. The main purpose of this comprehensive study is to investigate the effect of the isolation system period on the seismic response of inadequately designed low rise buildings. Thus, the implementation of isolation systems which correspond to the ratio $T_{is}/T_{fb}$ that values from 3 to 5 is studied. Nonlinear time history analyses were performed to investigate the response of the isolated structures using a set of three natural seismic ground motions. The evaluation of each retrofitting case was made in terms of storey drift and storey shear force while in view of serviceability it was made in terms of storey acceleration. Finally, the maximum developed displacements and the residual displacements of the isolation systems are presented.

Seismic performance of a resilient low-damage base isolation system under combined vertical and horizontal excitations

  • Farsangi, Ehsan Noroozinejad;Tasnimi, Abbas Ali;Yang, T.Y.;Takewaki, Izuru;Mohammadhasani, Mohammad
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.383-397
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    • 2018
  • Traditional base isolation systems focus on isolating the seismic response of a structure in the horizontal direction. However, in regions where the vertical earthquake excitation is significant (such as near-fault region), a traditional base-isolated building exhibits a significant vertical vibration. To eliminate this shortcoming, a rocking-isolated system named Telescopic Column (TC) is proposed in this paper. Detailed rocking and isolation mechanism of the TC system is presented. The seismic performance of the TC is compared with the traditional elastomeric bearing (EB) and friction pendulum (FP) base-isolated systems. A 4-storey reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame (RC-MRF) is selected as the reference superstructure. The seismic response of the reference superstructure in terms of column axial forces, base shears, floor accelerations, inter-storey drift ratios (IDR) and collapse margin ratios (CMRs) are evaluated using OpenSees. The results of the nonlinear dynamic analysis subjected to multi-directional earthquake excitations show that the superstructure equipped with the newly proposed TC is more resilient and exhibits a superior response with higher margin of safety against collapse when compared with the same superstructure with the traditional base-isolation (BI) system.

Study on the Effective Stiffness of Base Isolation System for Reducing Acceleration and Displacement Responses

  • Kim, Young-Sang
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.586-594
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    • 1999
  • To limit both the large displacement and acceleration response of the structure efficiently, the relationships between acceleration and displacement responses of the structure under several earthquakes are investigated for various horizontal stiffness of the base isolation system to determine the effective stiffness of the base isolation system in this paper. An example structure is a five-storey steel frame building as the primary structure and the secondary structures are assumed to be located on the fifth floor of the primary structure. Input motions used in the structural analysis are El Centre 1940, Taft 1952, Mexico 1985, San Fernando 1971 Pacoima Dam, and artificially generated earthquakes. The relationships of the absolute peak acceleration and the displacement at the top of the structure are calculated for various natural periods of base isolators under various earthquakes. The peak acceleration response of the fifth floor in the base isolated structure is significantly reduced by a factor of 2.1 through 6.25. Also, the relative displacement response of the floor to the base of the superstructure is very small. The results of this study can be utilized to determine the effective stiffness of the base isolation system.

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Optimal design of bio-inspired isolation systems using performance and fragility objectives

  • Hu, Fan;Shi, Zhiguo;Shan, Jiazeng
    • Structural Monitoring and Maintenance
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.325-343
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to propose a performance-based design method of a novel passive base isolation system, BIO isolation system, which is inspired by an energy dissipation mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length'. Fragility functions utilized in this study are derived, indicating the probability that a component, element, or system will be damaged as a function of a single predictive demand parameter. Based on PEER framework methodology for Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE), a systematic design procedure using performance and fragility objectives is presented. Base displacement, superstructure absolute acceleration and story drift ratio are selected as engineering demand parameters. The new design method is then performed on a general two degree-of-freedom (2DOF) structure model and the optimal design under different seismic intensities is obtained through numerical analysis. Seismic performances of the biologically inspired (BIO) isolation system are compared with that of the linear isolation system. To further demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method, the BIO isolation system of a 4-storey reinforced concrete building is designed and investigated. The newly designed BIO isolators effectively decrease the superstructure responses and base displacement under selected earthquake excitations, showing good seismic performance.

Performance of multi-storey structures with high damping rubber bearing base isolation systems

  • Karabork, Turan
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.399-410
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    • 2011
  • Base isolation, having quite simple contents, aims to protect the buildings from earthquake-induced damages by installing structural components having low horizontal stiffness between substructure and superstructure. In this study, an appropriate base isolation system for 2-D reinforced concrete frame is investigated. For different structural heights, the structural systems of 2, 3 and 4 bays are modeled by applying base isolation systems and results are compared with conventional structural systems. 1999 Marmara earthquake data is used for applying the model by time history method in SAP2000 package. Results of various parameters such as base shear force, structure drift ratio, structure period and superstructure acceleration are discussed for all models.

On the response of base-isolated buildings using bilinear models for LRBs subjected to pulse-like ground motions: sharp vs. smooth behaviour

  • Mavronicola, Eftychia;Komodromos, Petros
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.1223-1240
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    • 2014
  • Seismic isolation has been established as an effective earthquake-resistant design method and the lead rubber bearings (LRBs) are among the most commonly used seismic isolation systems. In the scientific literature, a sharp bilinear model is often used for capturing the hysteretic behaviour of the LRBs in the analysis of seismically isolated structures, although the actual behaviour of the LRBs can be more accurately represented utilizing smoothed plasticity, as captured by the Bouc-Wen model. Discrepancies between these two models are quantified in terms of the computed peak relative displacements at the isolation level, as well as the peak inter-storey deflections and the absolute top-floor accelerations, for the case of base-isolated buildings modelled as multi degree-of-freedom systems. Numerical simulations under pulse-like ground motions have been performed to assess the effect of non-linear parameters of the seismic isolation system and characteristics of both the superstructure and the earthquake excitation, on the accuracy of the computed peak structural responses. Through parametric analyses, this paper assesses potential inaccuracies of the computed peak seismic response when the sharp bilinear model is employed for modelling the LRBs instead of the more accurate and smoother Bouc-Wen model.

Site-response effects on RC buildings isolated by triple concave friction pendulum bearings

  • Ates, Sevket;Yurdakul, Muhammet
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.693-715
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    • 2011
  • The main object of this study is to evaluate the seismic response effects on a reinforced concrete building isolated by triple concave friction pendulum (TCFP) bearings. The site-response effects arise from the difference in the local soil conditions at the support points of the buildings. The local soil conditions are, therefore, considered as soft, medium and firm; separately. The results on the responses of the isolated building are compared with those of the non-isolated. The building model used in the time history analysis, which is a two-dimensional and eight-storey reinforced concrete building with and without the seismic isolation bearings and/or the local soil conditions, is composed of two-dimensional moment resisting frames for superstructure and of plane elements featuring plane-stress for substructure. The TCFP bearings for isolating the building are modelled as of a series arrangement of the three single concave friction pendulum (SCFP) bearings. In order to investigate the efficiency of both the seismic isolation bearings and the site-response effects on the buildings, the time history analyses are elaborately conducted. It is noted that the site-response effects are important for the isolated building constructed on soft, medium or firm type local foundation soil. The results of the analysis demonstrate that the site-response has significant effects on the response values of the structure-seismic isolation-foundation soil system.

Effects of the isolation parameters on the seismic response of steel frames

  • Deringol, Ahmet H.;Bilgin, Huseyin
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.319-334
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, an analytical study was carried out to propose an optimum base-isolated system for the design of steel structures equipped with lead rubber bearings (LRB). For this, 5 and 10-storey steel moment resisting frames (MRFs) were designed as Special Moment Frame (SMF). These two-dimensional and three-bay frames equipped with a set of isolation systems within a predefined range that minimizes the response of the base-isolated frames subjected to a series of earthquakes. In the design of LRB, two main parameters, namely, isolation period (T) and the ratio of strength to weight (Q/W) supported by isolators were considered as 2.25, 2.5, 2.75 and 3 s, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The Force-deformation behavior of the isolators was modelled by the bi-linear behavior which could reflect the nonlinear characteristics of the lead-plug bearings. The base-isolated frames were modelled using a finite element program and those performances were evaluated in the light of the nonlinear time history analyses by six natural accelerograms compatible with seismic hazard levels of 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The performance of the isolated frames was assessed in terms of roof displacement, relative displacement, interstorey drift, absolute acceleration, base shear and hysteretic curve.

Nonlinear response of r.c. framed buildings retrofitted by different base-isolation systems under horizontal and vertical components of near-fault earthquakes

  • Mazza, Fabio;Mazza, Mirko;Vulcano, Alfonso
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 2017
  • Near-fault ground motions are characterized by high values of the ratio between the peak of vertical and horizontal ground accelerations, which can significantly affect the nonlinear response of a base-isolated structure. To check the effectiveness of different base-isolation systems for retrofitting a r.c. framed structure located in a near-fault area, a numerical investigation is carried out analyzing the nonlinear dynamic response of the fixed-base and isolated structures. For this purpose, a six-storey r.c. framed building is supposed to be retrofitted by insertion of an isolation system at the base for attaining performance levels imposed by current Italian code in a high-risk seismic zone. In particular, elastomeric (e.g., high-damping-laminated-rubber bearings, HDLRBs) and friction (e.g., steel-PTFE sliding bearings, SBs, or friction pendulum bearings, FPBs) isolators are considered, with reference to three cases of base isolation: HDLRBs acting alone (i.e., EBI structures); in-parallel combination of HDLRBs and SBs (i.e., EFBI structures); FPBs acting alone (i.e., FPBI structures). Different values of the stiffness ratio, defined as the ratio between the vertical and horizontal stiffnesses of the HDLRBs, sliding ratio, defined as the global sliding force divided by the maximum sliding force of the SBs, and in-plan distribution of friction coefficient for the FPs are investigated. The EBI, EFBI and FPBI base-isolation systems are designed assuming the same values of the fundamental vibration period and equivalent viscous damping ratio. The nonlinear dynamic analysis is carried out with reference to near-fault earthquakes, selected and scaled on the design hypotheses adopted for the test structures.