• Title, Summary, Keyword: starch fractions

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Varietal Variations in Physicochemical Characteristics and Amylopectin Structure of Grain in Glutinous Rice

  • Choi, Hae-Chune;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Nahm, Baek-Hie
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 1999
  • Thirty-eight glutinous rice varieties were classified into nine groups on the scatter diagram by the upper two principal components (56% contribution to the total information) based on eleven physicochemical characteristics including the viscograms and physical properties of cooked rice. The first principal component was the factor mainly associated with the viscogram characteristics of rice flour emulsion and the second was the factor chiefly related to the physical properties of cooked rice and water absorbability of rice grain. Indica glutinous rices were clearly distinguished from japonica ones by the first principal component score. Javanica glutinous rices were widely distributed on the intermediate zone between indica and japonica or on several japonica rice groups. Significant positive or negative correlations were found among water absorption rates of rice grain, physical properties of cooked rice, and viscogram characteristics of rice flour. Especially in japonica glutinous rices, the breakdown and setback viscosities of rice flour were closely associated with the alkali digestion value of milled rice and the stickiness of cooked rice. The frequency ratio of short glucose chains (A-chain) to intermediate glucose chains (B-chain), the ratio of B- chains to long glucose chains (C-chain) and the relative frequency of A- or B-chain fractions representing the amylopection structure of rice starch was closely associated with the breakdown and setback viscosities of rice flour.

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Anti-diabetic Effects of CCCA, CMESS, and Cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris and the Immune Responses in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Mice

  • Yun, Yun-Ha;Han, Shin-Ha;Lee, Seung-Jeong;Ko, Sung-Kwon;Lee, Chong-Kil;Ha, Nam-Joo;Kim, Kyung-Jae
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2003
  • Anti-diabetic effect of various fractions of Cordyceps militaris (CM), CCCA (crude cordycepin containing adenosine), CMESS (ethanol soluble supernatant), and cordycepin were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice, CMESS showed potent inhibitory activity of 34.7% in starch-loaded mice (2 g/kg) while acarbose as a positive standard exhibited 37.8% of inhibition rate. After 3 days administration (50 mg/kg), cordycepin (0.2 mg/kg), and acarbose (10 mg/kg) dramatically reduced blood glucose level (inhibition ratio: 46.9%, 48.4% and 37.5% respectively). CCCA that has high contents of cordycepin (0.656 mg/4 mg) did not influence on reducing blood glucose level. The proliferation of splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages derived from STZ-induced diabetic mice administered samples were evaluated out by addition of mitogens to see the stability of the usage of these herbal medicines. Proliferation of T-lymphocyte was significantly decreased; while NO production was increased more than two fold to STZ control in the cordycepin-administered group. Changes of serum enzyme levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were also evaluated. Cordycepin administered group was appeared to acarbose. We conclude that CMESS and cordycepin may be useful tools in the control of blood glucose level in diabetes and promising new drug as an anti-hyperglycemic agent without defects of immune responses and other side effects.

Bifidus Fermentation Increases Hypolipidemic and Hypoglycemic Effects of Red Ginseng

  • Trinh, Hien-Trung;Han, Sang-Jun;Kim, Sang-Wook;Lee, Young-Chul;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.1127-1133
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    • 2007
  • Antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Red Ginseng (RG, steamed and dried root of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer, family Araliaceae), major component of which is ginsenoside Rg3, and Bifidodoterium-fermented RG (FRG), major component of which is ginsenoside Rh2, were investigated. Orally administered RG and FRG potently reduced the serum triglyceride levels in com-oil-induced hypertriglycemidemic mice as well as total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Of the saponin and polysaccharide fractions of RG and FRG, the polysaccharide fraction inhibited postprandial blood glucose elevation of maltose- or starch-loaded mice and reduced the blood triglyceride levels in com-oil-induced hypertriglycemidemic mice. The saponin fraction and its ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 reduced blood triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in Triton WR1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The inhibitory effect of FRG and its main constituents against hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice were more potent than those of RG. These findings suggest that hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of RG can be enforced by Bifidus fermentation and FRG may improve hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Barley Bran $\beta$-glucan (보리겨 $\beta$-glucan의 추출 및 이화학적 특성)

  • 김선영;유정희
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.616-623
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    • 2003
  • Waxy barley brans were collected during the pearling process. The extraction of $\beta$-glucan from barley bran was effected by the extraction conditions. The $\beta$-glucan content increased with temperature, but not with pH. The highest yield, 6.5%, was achieved at pH 7.0 and 55$^{\circ}C$. At pH 10 and 45$^{\circ}C$, 48.5% of the $\beta$-glucan in barley bran was recovered in the gum product, with 54.6% purity. The protein and starch contaminations were high, reaching 13.6 and 23.7%, respectively. The $\beta$-glucan content was greatest in the subaleurone and aleurone regions (bran fractions 1, 2, 3 and 4), and declined considerably toward the inner layers. A monosaccharide analysis of the purified, $\beta$-glucan, from bran fractions 1, 2, 3 and 4, indicated that glucose constituted the majority of the gum. The small amounts of the arabinose and xylose found in the gum may indicate the presence of arabinoxylans as minor constituents. The molecular weights of the $\beta$-glucans isolated from bran fractions 1,2 and 3 were found to be 4.09${\times}$10$^{5}$ ∼-4.41${\times}$10$^{5}$ . The major glycosidic linkages of the $\beta$-glucans demonstrated the presence of 2, 4, 6-Me-Glc and 2, 3, 6-Me-Glc. When flow behaviors of barley bran $\beta$-glucan were examined, $\beta$-glucan exhibited pseudoplastic fluid properties.

Non-Starch Polysaccharides of Cell Walls in Glutinous Rice, Rice and Black Rice (점미, 백미, 흑미 세포벽의 비전분성 다당류의 성분분석)

  • ;;Kimiko Othani
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.91-102
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    • 2001
  • The non-starch polysaccharides in the cell wall of rice, glutinous rice, and black rice, were analyzed. They were fractionated into fractions; water-soluble, hot writer-soluble, ammonium oxalate-soluble, sodium hydroxide-soluble, potassium hydroxide-soluble, and the alkali-insoluble, according to the solvent solubility. The dietary fiber contents were 5.4% in glutinous rice, 4.2% in rice and 7.5% in black rice. The sodium hydroxide soluble fibers were abundant in each kind of rice, especially 4.01% in black rice. The water soluble fibers were 80% of dietary fiber in glutinous rice, 66% in rice, 86% in black rice. It was supposed that the content of the water soluble fibers in rice was increased by pounding. Pectic substances in water soluble fibers, hot water soluble fibers, and ammonium oxalate soluble fibers fraction, were 2.4% in glutinous rice fraction,1.59% in rice, and 1.12% in black rice. Alkali soluble fibers were considered as hemicellulose. Black rice contained 5.80% of hemicellulose, which was more than twice as much as glutinous rice(2.58%) and rice(2.22%). Alkali insoluble fibers were considered as cellulose, which showed no considerable difference. Among samples content of uronic acid in glutinous rice, rice and black rice were 0.9%, 0.66%, 1.8% respectively. Uronic acid of black rice was twice more than other samples tested. The fraction of black rice that uronic acid was extracted at most was the fraction of sodium hydroxide. Mono saccharides of the fraction was the glucose, the arabinose, the xylose.

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Inhibitory Effects of Sasa borealis Leaves Extracts on Carbohydrate Digestive Enzymes and Postprandial Hyperglycemia (조릿대잎 추출문의 탄수화물 소화효소활성 저해 및 식후혈당강하효과)

  • Hwang, Ji-Young;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.989-994
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to investigate whether Sasa borealis leaves extracts (SLE) may inhibit yeast ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ activities and postprandial hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Freeze-dried SLE was extracted with 70% methanol and followed by a sequential fractionation with dicholoromethan, ethylacetate, butanol, and water. Both ethylacetate and butanol fractions showed high inhibitory activities against the ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ enzymes. The $IC_{50}$ of ethylacetate and butanol fractions against ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ were 0.54 and 0.63 mg/mL, respectively, indicating a greater inhibition effect than acarbose (0.68 mg/mL) (p<0.05). Likewise, the two fractions exhibited a smaller $IC_{50}$ against ${\alpha}-amylase$, compared with acarbose (p<0.05). However, the yield of ethylacetate fraction of SLE was relatively small. Postprandial blood glucose testing of normal mice and STZ-induced diabetic mice by starch soln. loading (2 g/kg B.W.) showed that postprandial blood glucose level at 30, 60, and 120 min were markedly decreased by single oral administration of SLE butanol fraction (200 mg/kg B.W.) in both normal (p<0.0l) and diabetic mice (p<0.0l). Furthermore, the incremental area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lowered via SLE administration (5,745 versus 12,435 $mg{\cdot}mim/dL$) in the diabetic mice (p<0.0l). The incremental AUC in normal mice corroborated the hypoglycemic effect of SLE (p<0.0l) found in the diabetic mice. These results suggest that SLE may delay carbohydrate digestion and thus glucose absorption. In addition, SLE may have the potential to prevent and treat diabetes via its ability on lowering postprandial hyperglycemia.

Changes of Sugars and Nitrogeneous Compounds in Ginseng Extracts by Extracting Conditions (인삼의 추출조건에 따르는 Extract의 당류 및 질소화합물의 변화)

  • 우상규
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.80-93
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    • 1986
  • The tail portion of dried 6-year old white ginseng was extracted and sugars and nitrogen compounds were also evaluated for chemical properties depending on varying conditions of extractions. The factors studied were extraction temperature in the range of 70-$100^{\circ}C$, ethanol concentration of 0-90% and the times of extractions which was taken 8 hours per each extraction in water at $80^{\circ}C$. For the effect of ethanol concentration in the extraction solvent, it was found that the amounts of free, reducing and total sugars and starch recovered in extract were almost linearly decreased along with the increase of concentration and the nonprotein nitrogen accounted over 84% of total nitrogen in extract. As ethanol concentration became increased, extractions of total nitrogen and water souluble nonprotein nitrogen were decreased especially in 90% ethanol. For the extraction temperature, all the sugar fractions with water and 70% ethanol except free sugar have tended to increase along with the temperature raised from 70 to $100^{\circ}C$ and it was found there is little changes of nitrogen compounds in the temperature range except a rapidly increase in water soulble protein at $100^{\circ}C$. For the times of extractions, showed that most of extractable compounds were extracted in 3 times of extractions with water at $80^{\circ}C$. It was shown that more than 95f) of sugars and 80% of nitrogen compounds were yielded with water extraction. Accordingly it was efficient to extract with water or 70% ethanol in 3 times in terms of !actor and energy consumption.

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Antioxidative Activity of Gallic Acid in Acorn Extract (도토리 Gallic Acid의 항산화성)

  • Lee, Mi-Hyun;Jeong, Jae-Hong;Oh, Man-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.693-700
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    • 1992
  • As an approach to study a new natural antioxidant for edible fats and oils, antioxidative fractions from acorn powder were characterized. The oxidative stabilities of soybean, palm, beef tallow, and lard oil containing the acorn active fraction extracted with various organic solvents were studied by determining the peroxide value during the storage at $60^{\circ}C.$ And this effective antioxidative components were isolated and identified by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The proximate compositions of acorn powder were water 11.9~12.0%, protein 7.1~7.4%, starch 65.5~69.4%, fat 2.1~2.6%, fiber 2.1~3.6%, ash 2.4~2.6%, and total tannin 4.6~6.8%, respectively. The final yield of fraction extracted by sequential order of acetone : $H_2O$(1 : 1) and ethylacetate was 2.8~3.1%. Gallic acid, digallic acid and gallotannin were contained this final fraction. The main antioxidative activity was speculated due to the presence of gallic acid in acorn powder extract. The antioxidative activity was more effective in fat water emulsion than just fat system. Antioxidative activities measured by peroxide value were quite high in beef tallow and soybean emulsion, but low in lard and palm oil emulsion in the concentration of 200ppm acorn extract. Therefore, the addition of 200ppm acorn extract was suggested to expect effective antioxidation concentration in the reaction system.

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Effects of Protein Supply from Soyhulls and Wheat Bran on Ruminal Metabolism, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal and Omasal Concentrations of Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen of Steers

  • Kim, Jeong-Hoon;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Choi, Chang-Won;Hong, Seong-Koo;Seol, Yong-Joo;Kim, Do-Hyung;Ahn, Gyu-Chul;Song, Man-Kang;Park, Keun-Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1267-1278
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    • 2009
  • Three beef steers fitted with permanent cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used to determine the effects of protein supply from soyhulls (SH) and wheat bran (WB) on ruminal metabolism, blood metabolites, nitrogen metabolism, nutrient digestion and concentrations of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD). In a 3${\times}$3 Latin square design, steers were offered rice straw and concentrates formulated either without (control) or with two brans to increase crude protein (CP) level (9 vs. 11% dietary DM for control and bran-based diets, respectively). The brans used were SH and WB that had similar CP contents but different ruminal CP degradability (52 vs. 80% CP for SH and WB, respectively) for evaluating the effects of protein degradability. Ruminal ammonia concentrations were higher for bran diets (p<0.01) than for the control, and for WB (p<0.001) compared to the SH diet. Similarly, microbial nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were significantly increased (p<0.05) by bran and WB diets, respectively. Retained nitrogen tended (p<0.082) to be increased by SH compared with the WB diet. Intestinal and total tract CP digestion was enhanced by bran diets. In addition, bran diets tended (p<0.085) to increase intestinal starch digestion. Concentrations of SNAN fractions in RD and OD were higher (p<0.05) for bran diets than for the control, and for WB than for the SH diet. More rumendegraded protein supply resulting from a higher level and degradability of CP released from SH and WB enhanced ruminal microbial nitrogen synthesis and ruminal protein degradation. Thus, free amino acids, peptides and soluble proteins from microbial cells as well as degraded dietary protein may have contributed to increased SNAN concentrations in the rumen and, consequently, the omasum. These results indicate that protein supply from SH and WB, having a low level of protein (13 and 16%, respectively), could affect ruminal metabolism and nutrient digestion if inclusion level is relatively high (>20%).

Hypoglycemic Effect of the Methanol Extract of Soybean Sprout in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨쥐에 있어서 콩나물 메탄올 추출물의 헐당강하효과)

  • 김정인;강민정;배세연
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.921-925
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    • 2003
  • To control blood glucose level as close to normal is the major goal of treatment of diabetes mellitus. $\alpha$-glucosidase is the enzyme to digest dietary carbohydrate and inhibition of $\alpha$-glucosidase could suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. The methanol extract of soybean sprout was tested for the inhibitory activities against $\alpha$-glucosidase in vitro. Soybean sprout extract inhibited yeast $\alpha$-glucosidase activity by 24.5% at the concentration of 5 mg/mL. The methanol extract of soybean sprout was subsequently subjected to sequential fractionation with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Among the fractions tested ethyl acetate-soluble fraction showed relatively strong inhibition against $\alpha$-glucosidase by 36.3% at the concentration of 5 mg/mL. Acarbose, standard $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitor, inhibited $\alpha$-glucosidase activity by 40.1%. The ability of soybean sprout extract to lower postprandial glucose was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Starch solution (1 g/kg) with and without the methanol extract of soybean sprout (500 mg/kg) was administered to diabetic rats after an overnight-fast by gastric intubation. A single oral dose of soybean sprout extract inhibited the increase in blood glucose levels significantly at 60, 90, 120, 180 min (p<0.05) and decreased incremental response areas under the glycemic response curve significantly (p<0.05). These results suggest that soybean sprout might exert hypoglycemic effect by inhibiting $\alpha$-glucosidase activity.