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Growth, Development, and Reproduction of Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Conifers Fed to Larvae (북방수염하늘소 유충의 이목 침엽수 종류에 따른 성장과 발육 및 생식)

  • Hwang, In-Cheon;Kim, Ju-Huyn;Park, Jong-Bin;Shin, Sang-Chul;Chung, Young-Jin;Cho, Sae-Youll;Park, Yong-Chul
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.385-394
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    • 2008
  • Larvae of Monochamus saltuarius showed normal growth and development on conifers of Pinus koraiensis, P. densiflora, Abies holophylla, Larix leptolepsis, P. bungeana, and P. rigida, respectively, but the conifers influenced significantly the body weight and the survival rate of larvae. Though the larval body weights were in a wide spectrum among treatments, growth curves of them were very similar from each other, showing continuous increase from the early larval stage to about 3 months old. The body weight was decreased slightly after the feeding period of the early 3 months. The size of larvae and adults became the largest from P. bungeana fed larvae. The mid-sized ones were from P. koraiensis, P. densiflora and A. holophylla. Small ones came from L. leptolepsis and P. rigida. The larval growth was retarded without water supply. Overall survival rates from the early stage of a larva to a fertile adult were 53.6% from P. koraiensis; 51.8%, P. densiflora; 34.7%, A. holophylla; 17.8%, P. bungeana; 16.7%, L. leptolepsis; and 12.3%, P. rigida. Adults from larvae fed the 6 species of conifers, respectively, were grown into the reproductively potent adults, which laid viable eggs. A few of overwintered larvae did not pupate and remained still as a larva until the late October of the year. Data from the field survey, the head width emerged from P. koraiensis was larger than that of L. leptolepsis. The adult emergence hole in P. koraiensis was larger also. While, the size of the emergence hole was larger in the artificially innoculated log of P. koraiensis, which was kept for a larva to be with a minimized food competition and sufficient water supply, than that of the field.

Measurement and Assessment of Absolute Quantification from in Vitro Canine Brain Metabolites Using 500 MHz Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Preliminary Results (개의 뇌 조직로부터 추출한 대사물질의 절대농도 측정 및 평가: 500 MHz 고자장 핵자기공명분광법을 이용한 예비연구결과)

  • Woo, Dong-Cheol;Bang, Eun-Jung;Choi, Chi-Bong;Lee, Sung-Ho;Kim, Sang-Soo;Rhim, Hyang-Shuk;Kim, Hwi-Yool;Choe, Bo-Young
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to confirm the exactitude of in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(NMRS) and to complement the defect of in vivo NMRS. It has been difficult to understand the metabolism of a cerebellum using in vivo NMRS owing to the generated inhomogeneity of magnetic fields (B0 and B1 field) by the complexity of the cerebellum structure. Thus, this study tried to more exactly analyze the metabolism of a canine cerebellum using the cell extraction and high resolution NMRS. In order to conduct the absolute metabolic quantification in a canine cerebellum, the spectrum of our phantom included in various brain metabolites (i.e., NAA, Cr, Cho, Ins, Lac, GABA, Glu, Gln, Tau and Ala) was obtained. The canine cerebellum tissue was extracted using the methanol-chloroform water extraction (M/C extraction) and one group was filtered and the other group was not under extract processing. Finally, NMRS of a phantom solution and two extract solution (90% D2O) was progressed using a 500MHz (11.4 T) NMR machine. Filtering a solution of the tissue extract increased the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The metabolic concentrations of a canine cerebellum were more close to rat’s metabolic concentration than human’s metabolic concentration. The present study demonstrates the absolute quantification technique in vitro high resolution NMRS with tissue extraction as the method to accurately measure metabolite concentration.

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Surgical Treatment for Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis (하행성 괴사성 종격동염에 대한 수술)

  • Ryu, Kyoung-Min;Seo, Pil-Won;Park, Seong-Sik;Kim, Seok-Kon;Lee, Jae-Woong;Ryu, Jae-Wook
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2008
  • Background: Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a serious disease originating in odontogenic or oropharyngeal infection with high mortality despite adequate antibiotics and aggressive surgery. We analyzed results of treatment for DNM. Material and Method: We studied 8 cases diagnosed as DNM from 1998 to 2007. All patients received emergent surgical drainage and debridement with broad spectrum antibiotics just after diagnosis. Antibiotics were changed after bacterial susceptibility testing. The surgical approach included 2 cases of cervicotomy, 6 cases of cervicotomy, and a thoracotomy. Result: The interval between symptom onset and hospitalization was $4.6{\pm}1.8$ days ($1{\sim}9$ day). DNM originated in 4 cases of odontogenic infection (50%), 2 cases of oropharyngeal infection (25%), and 2 cases of unknown origin (25%). Causative organisms were found in 6 cases; Streptococcus in 4 cases, Staphylococcus in 1 case, and Klebsiella in 1 case. The Endo DNM classification was type I (2 cases), IIA (3 cases), and IIB (3 cases). The incidence of thoracotomy was 75%. The surgical mortality rate was 25% (2/8). The cause of death was multiple organ failure caused by septic shock. All mortality cases received only cervicotomy and aggravated infections after initial drainage. Conclusion: Early diagnosis, immediate surgical drainage, and adequate antibiotics, including covered anaerobes, are required. Thoracotomy should be performed with cervicotomy even for localized DNM.

Analysis of the Geological Structure of the Hwasan Caldera Using Potential Data (포텐셜 자료해석을 통한 화산칼데라 구조 해석)

  • Park, Gye-Soon;Yoo, Hee-Young;Yang, Jun-Mo;Lee, Heui-Soon;Kwon, Byung-Doo;Eom, Joo-Young;Kim, Dong-O;Park, Chan-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2008
  • A geophysical mapping was performed for Hwasan caldera which is located in Euisung Sub-basin of the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. In order to overcome the limitation of the previous studies, remote sensing technic was used and dense potential data were obtained and analyzed. First, we analyzed geological lineament for target area using geological map, digital elevation model (DEM) data and satellite imagery. The results were greatly consistent with the previous studies, and showed that N-S and NW-SE direction are the most dominant one in target area. Second, based on the lineament analysis, highly dense gravity data were acquired in Euisung Sub-basin and an integrated interpretation considering air-born magnetic data was made to investigate the regional structure of the target area. The results of power spectrum analysis for the acquired potential data revealed that the subsurface of Euisung Sub-basin have two density discontinuities at about 1 km and 3-5 km depth. A 1 km depth discontinuity is thought as the depth of pyroclastic sedimentary rocks or igneous rocks which were intruded at the ring vent of Hwasan caldera, while a 3-5 km depth discontinuity seems to be associated with the depth of the basin basement. In addition, three-dimensional gravity inversion for the total area of Euisung Sub-basin was carried out, and the inversion results indicated two followings; 1) Cretaceous Palgongsan granite and Bulguksa intrusion rocks, which are located in southeastern part and northeastern part of Euisung Sub-basin, show two major low density anomalies, 2) pyroclastic rocks around Hwasan caldera also have lower density when compared with those of neighborhood regions and are extended to 1.5 km depth. However, a poor vertical resolution of potential survey makes it difficult to accurately delineate the detailed structure caldera which has a vertically developed characteristic in general. To overcome this limitation, integrated analysis was carried out using the magnetotelluric data on the corresponding area with potential data and we could obtain more reasonable geologic structure.

Alteration Analysis of Normal Human Brain Metabolites with Variation of SENSE and NEX in 3T Multi Voxel Spectroscopy (3T Multi Voxel Spectroscopy에서 SENSE와 NEX 변화에 따른 정상인 뇌 대사물질 변화 분석)

  • Seong, Yeol-Hun;Rhim, Jae-Dong;Lee, Jae-Hyun;Cho, Sung-Bong;Woo, Dong-Chul;Choe, Bo-Young
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2008
  • To evaluate the metabolic changes in normal adult brains due to alterations SENSE and NEX (number of excitation) by multi voxel MR Spectroscopy at 3.0 Tesla. The study group was composed of normal volunteers (5 men and 8 women) with a mean ($\pm$ standard deviation) age of 41 (${\pm}11.65$). Their ages ranged from 28 to 61 years. MR Spectroscopy was performed with a 3.0T Achieva Release Version 2.0 (Philips Medical System-Netherlands). The 8 channel head coil was employed for MRS acquisition. The 13 volunteers underwent multi voxel spectroscopy (MVS) and single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) on the thalamus area with normally gray matter. Spectral parameters were as follows: 15 mm of thickness; 230 mm of FOV (field of view); 2000 msecs of repetition time (TR); 288 msecs of echo time (TE); $110{\times}110$ mm of VOI (view of interest); $15{\times}15{\times}15$ mm of voxel size. Multi voxel spectral parameters were made using specially in alteration of SENSE factor (1~3) and 1~2 of NEX. All MRS data were processed by the jMRUI 3.0 Version. There was no significant difference in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio between MVS and SVS likewise the previous results by Ross and coworkers in 1994. In addition, despite the alterations of SENSE factor and NEX in MVS, the metabolite ratios were not changed (F-value : 1.37, D.F : 3, P-value : 0.262). However, line-width of NAA peak in MVS was 3 times bigger than that in SVS. In the present study, we demonstrated that the alterations of SENSE factor and NEX were not critically affective to the result of metabolic ratios in the normal brain tissue.

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A Series of Biographies of The Collectors of Modern Archaic Art Objects of Korea 1: Jang, Taek Sang (한국 근대의 고미술품 수장가 1: 장택상)

  • Kim, Sang-yop
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.34
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    • pp.415-447
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    • 2009
  • It is encouraging fact that people are more interested in collecting modern archaic art objects of Korea with broadening spectrum of research these days. For the research in this area is significant in that it makes us learn the level of collection and appreciation which were prevalent at the end of the Josen Age by trend of preferring Occidental pictures as well as modern change in the form of collection, and enables us to reconstruct the history of modern art objects in East Asia. Except Jeon, Hyung-Pil(全鎣弼: 1906-1962), the modern collectors of Korea were not studied in details with respect to the course or contents of collection. Besides Jeon, Hyung Pil, the main modern collectors of Korea were Park, Young-cheol(朴榮喆: 1879-1939), Kim, Yong-jin(金容鎭: 1882-1968), Ham, Seok-tae(咸錫泰: 1889-?), Kim, Sung-soo(金性洙: 1891-1955), Choi, Chang-hak(崔昌學: 1891-?), Jang, Taek-sang(張澤相: 1893-1969), Kim, Chan-young(金瓚泳: 1893-?), Lee, Han-bok(李漢福: 1897-1940), Park, Chang-hun(朴昌薰: 1898-1951), Baek, In-je(白麟濟: 1898-?), Lee, Byung-jik(李秉直: -1973), et al. The object of this publication in serial form is to trace and identify the life, collected articles and contents of collection of Korean collectors who intensively collected archaic art objects in the modern age of Korea, especially, under the rule of Japanese imperialism. The first person to be introduced in this publication in serial form is Jang, Taek Sang, a leading figure in the political history of Korea. Born as the son of wealthy man, he ascended to the position of prime minister, leading a dramatic life. Being a distinguished orator, Jang, Taek Sang was well known as an appreciator and collector of picture, calligraphy and pottery. As one of the collectors of main cultural property under the rule of Japanese imperialism, Jang, Taek Sang collected countless distinguished heritages, most of which were lost during the Korean War. As he became a candidate for president to compete with Lee, Seung Man later, he sold main heritages. Thus, nearly all of the collected articles were scattered.

A Mid-late Maturing Rice Cultivar with High-Quality and Bacterial Blight Resistance "Jinbaek" (벼 중만생 고품질 흰잎마름병 신균계(K3a) 저항성 품종 "진백")

  • Kim, Ki-Young;Shin, Mun-Sik;Kim, Bo-Kyeong;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Ha, Ki-Yong;Ko, Jong-Cheol;Kim, Woo-Jae;Nam, Jeong-Kwon;Baek, Man-Gee;Noh, Gwang-Il;Park, Hyun-Su;Baek, So-Hyeon;Shin, Woon-Chul;Mo, Young-Jun;Choung, Jin-Il;Kim, Young-Doo;Kang, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Chung-Kon;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Kim, Je-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.314-318
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    • 2009
  • A new rice cultivar "Jinbaek" carrying Xa3 and xa5 was derived from the cross between 'HR15204-38-3' with xa5 gene resistant to bacterial blight K1, K2, K3 and K3a, and F1 plant derived from the cross between Junam and Sindongjin with Xa3 gene. "Jinbaek" has approximately 125 days of growth duration from transplanting to harvesting in the west-southern coastal and Honam plain of Korea. Culm length of "Jinbaek" is 71 cm. In reaction to biotic stresses, it shows moderate resistance to blast, and wide spectrum resistance to bacterial blight pathogen, K1, K2, K3, and K3a but susceptible to rice stripe virus and blast. The milled rice of "Jinbaek" exhibits translucent, relatively clear non-glutinous endosperm and midium short grain. It has lower amylose content (18.8%) and protein content (6.2%) compared with Nampyeong. The milled rice yield of this cultivar was 5.30 MT/ha in local adaptability test of three years from 2006 to 2008. This cultivar would be adaptable to the bacterial blight-prone area in the south-western coast and Honam plain of Korea.

A Convenient Radiolabeling of [$^{11}$C](R)-PK11195 Using Loop Method in Automatic Synthesis Module ($^{11}$C 표지 자동합성장치에서 루프법을 이용한 ($^{11}$C)(R)-PK11195의 간편한 합성법)

  • Lee, Hak-Jeong;Jeong, Jae-Min;Lee, Yun-Sang;Kim, Hyung-Woo;Choi, Jae-Yeon;Lee, Dong-Soo;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.337-343
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: ((R)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-1-[$^{11}$C]methyl-N(1-propyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide ((R)-PK11195) is a specific ligand for the peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor and a marker of activated microglia, used to measure inflammation in neurologic disorders. We report here that a direct and simple radiosynthesis of [$^{11}$C](R)-PK11195 in mild condition using NaH suspension in DMF and one-step loop method. Materials and Methods: (R)-N-Desmethyl-PK11195 (1 mg) in DMSO (0.1 mL) and NaH suspension in DMF (0.1 mL) were injected into a semi-prep HPLC loop. [$^{11}$C]methyl iodide was passed through HPLC loop at room temperature. Purification was performed using semi-preparative HPLC. Aliquots eluted at 11.3 min were collected and analyzed by analytical HPLC and mass spectrometer. Results: The labeling efficiency of [$^{11}$C](R)-PK11195 was 71.8$\pm$8.5%. The specific activity was 11.8:$\pm$6.4 GBq/$\mu$mol and radiochemical purity was higher than 99.2%. The mass spectrum of the product eluted at 11.3 min showed m/z peaks at 353.1 (M+1), indicating the mass and structure of (R)-PK11195. Conclusion: By the one-step loop method with the [$^{11}$C]CH3l automated synthesis module, [$^{11}C$](R)-PK11195 could be easily prepared in high radiochemical yield using NaH suspension in DMF.

Estimation for Red Pepper(Capsicum annum L.) Biomass by Reflectance Indices with Ground-Based Remote Sensor (지상부 원격탐사 센서의 반사율지수에 의한 고추 생체량 추정)

  • Kim, Hyun-Gu;Kang, Seong-Soo;Hong, Soon-Dal
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2009
  • Pot experiments using sand culture were conducted in 2004 under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the effect of nitrogen deficiency on red pepper biomass. Nitrogen stress was imposed by implementing 6 levels (40% to 140%) of N in Hoagland's nutrient solution for red pepper. Canopy reflectance measurements were made with hand held spectral sensors including $GreenSeeker^{TM}$, $Crop\;Circle^{TM}$, and $Field\;Scout^{TM}$ Chlorophyll meter, and a spectroradiometer as well as Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. Canopy reflectance and dry weight of red pepper were measured at five growth stages, the 30th, 40th, 50th, 80th and 120th day after planting(DAT). Dry weight of red pepper affected by nitrogen stress showed large differences between maximum and minimum values at the 120th DAT ranged from 48.2 to $196.6g\;plant^{-1}$, respectively. Several reflectance indices obtained from $GreenSeeker^{TM}$, $Crop\;Circle^{TM}$ and Spectroradiometer including chlorophyll readings were compared for evaluation of red pepper biomass. The reflectance indices such as rNDVI, aNDVI and gNDVI by the $Crop\;Circle^{TM}$ sensor showed the highest correlation coefficient with dry weight of red pepper at the 40th, 50th, and 80th DAT, respectively. Also these reflectance indices at the same growth station was closely correlated with dry weight, yield, and nitrogen uptake of red pepper at the 120th DAT, especially showing the best correlation coefficient at the 80th DAT. From these result, the aNDVI at the 80th DAT can significantly explain for dry weight of red pepper at the 120th DAT as well as for application level of nitrogen fertilizer. Consequently ground remote sensing as a non-destructive real-time assessment of plant nitrogen status was thought to be a useful tool for in season nitrogen management for red pepper providing both spatial and temporal information.

Characterization and Purification of the Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Soybean Sauce (간장에서 분리한 Bacillus licheniformis가 생산하는 박테리오신의 특성 및 정제)

  • Jung, Sung-Sub;Choi, Jung-I;Joo, Woo-Hong;Suh, Hyun-Hyo;Na, Ae-Sil;Cho, Yong-Kweon;Moon, Ja-Young;Ha, Kwon-Chul;Paik, Do-Hyeon;Kang, Dae-Ook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.994-1002
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    • 2009
  • A bacteriocin-producing bacterium identified as Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from soybean sauce. Antibacterial activity was confirmed by paper disc diffusion method, using Micrococcus luteus as a test organism. The bacteriocin also showed antibacterial activities against Bacillus sphaericus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus planiarum, Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Pediococcus dextrinicus. Optimal culture conditions for the production of bacteriocin was attained by growing the cells in an MRS medium at a pH of 6.5~ 7.0 and a temperature of 37$^\circ$C for 36$\sim$48 hr. Solvents such as chloroform, ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile had little effect on bacteriocin activity. However, about 50% of bacteriocin activity diminished with treatment of methanol and isopropanol at the final concentration of 50% at 25$^\circ$C for 1 hr. It was stable against a pH variation range from 3.0 and 7.0, but the activity reduced to 50% at a pH range from 9.0 to 11.0. It's activity was not affected by heat treatment at 100$^\circ$C for 30 min and 50% of activity was retained after heat treatment at 100$^\circ$C for 60 min, showing high thermostability. The bacteriocin was purified to a homogeneity through ammonium sulfate precipitation, SP-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The entire purification protocol led to a 75-fold increase in specific activity and a 13.5% yield of bacteriocin activity. The molecular weight of purified bacteriocin was estimated to be about 2.5 kDa by tricine-SDS-PAGE.