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MR Spectoscopic Patterns Early and Late Cerebral Ischemic Infarct: Correlation with Clinical Findings (초기 및 지연기 허혈성 뇌경색의 양자 자기공명분광양상 : 임상소견과의 비교)

  • 이종석;장기현;송인찬;고영환;강동화;한문희;노재규
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.146-153
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : To evaluate the proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings of early and late ischemic infarcts and to compare these MRS findings with clinical symptoms. Materials and Methods : We obtained MRs spectra of 28 consecutive patients with early ischemic infarct (15 me, 13 women) between 2-10 (mean 6.2) days after stroke onset. Follow-up MRS was carried out between 20-32 (mean 25) days in 12 patients. The MRs spectra were acquired at 1.5T MR unit using single voxel technique with PRESS sequence, TR of 2000ms, TE of 288 (144)ms, and voxel size of 2cm x 2cm x 2cm in the three areas; an infarct lesion, the brain parenchyma adjacent to the lesion, and contralateral normal brain parenchyma. The NAA/creatine, choline/creatine, and lactate/creatine ratios were calculated in each spectrum. The spectra of MRS were compared with clinical symptoms. Results : In early infarct, decreased NAA/creatine ratio (n=22) and increased lactate/creatine ratio (n=25) were found in the infarct lesion. Choline/creastine ratio was within normal range (n=25). On follow-up MRS in late stage, NAA/creatine ratio in the infarct lesion decreased further (n=5), did not change (n=6), or increased (n=1). Lactate/creatine ratio became less elevated (n=10), or did not changed (n=2). Choline/creatine ratio had a trend for increase. The decreased NAA/creatine and increased lactate/creatine ratios were correlated well with the severity of symptoms, respectively. Conclusion : Decreased NAA/creatine and increased lactate/creatine ratios were common MRS findings characteristic in early ischemic infarct and correlated well with clinical severity. On follow-up MRS in late stage, NAA/creatine ratio decreased further or did not change, and lactate/creatine ratio became less elevated.

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IMPACT OF PARENTAL PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER ON OFFSPRING'S DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, SELF CONCEPT AND PERCEPTION OF FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP (정신과 환자 자녀의 우울, 불안, 자기 개념 그리고 가정환경의 특성에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Bum;Cho, Soo-Churl
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.54-66
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    • 1998
  • Objectives:This study was to investigate the impact of parental psychiatric disorder on offspring's depression, anxiety, self concept, perception of familial relationship compared with offspring of normal control. In offsprings of parents with psychiatric disorder, this study explored whether their psychopathology, self concept, and perception of familial relationship were influenced by parent’s sex, onset time of parent’s psychiatric disorder and parent’s psychiatric diagnosis. Methods:52 offsprings aged 10-18 years of 39 psychiatric outpatient were surveyed from June, 1997 to April, 1998 and completed several questionnaaire, including Korean from of the Family Environment Scale, Korean form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Korean form of Kovac’s Children’s Depression Inventory, and Korean form of Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale. Their score was compared with offsprings’ of normals. In offsprings of parents with psychiatric disorder, they were compared according to parent’s sex, onset time of parent's psychiatric disorder and parent’s psychiatric diagnosis. Results:The results were as follows:1) Offsprings of parents with psychiatric disorder reported higher level of state anxiety and lower level of the FES expressive subscale than offsprings of normals(p<0.05). But they reported higher level of PHCSCS intellectual & school status subscale and popularity subscale than normals(p<0.05). 2) There were no differences in anxiety, depression, self concept, and perception of familial relationship between patient’s sex. 3) Offsprings less than 3 years old when parent’s psychiatric disorder had developed showed higher level of trait anxiety and lower level of FES control subscale than offsprings more than 3 years old (p<0.05). 4) There were no diferences in anxiety, depression, self concept, and perception of familial relationship between patient’ diagnostic groups(schizophrenia spectrum disorder-mood disoderneurosis). Conclusion:The finding indicated that self reported scale of anxiety and depression showed no significant difference between offsprings of psychiatric patients and offsprings of normals. In offsprings of parents with psychiatric disorder, parent’s sex and psychiatiric diagnosis had no influence on offspring’s psychopathology. But the offspring’s age(before 3 years old) when the parent’s psychiatriric disorder developed had influence on higher level of offspring’s trait anxiety. For further high risk group study, direct interview and evaluation of parent-child agreement or teacher-child agreement will be needed in longitudinal study.

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Molecular Genetic Analysis in Dystroglycanopathy with the Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Phenotype (Fukuyama 선천성 근이영양증에서의 분자유전학적 분석)

  • Cha, Lily Myung-Jin;Shin, Jae Eun;Kim, Se Hoon;Lee, Min Jung;Lee, Chul Ho;Lee, Young-Mock
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is a rare, autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia associated with brain malformations in dystroglycanopathy. Although the wide spectrum of congenital muscular dystrophies causes difficulty in diagnosis, correlating the genotype with the clinical phenotype can help diagnose FCMD. Here, we evaluated the correlation of targeted molecular genetic analysis of FKTN gene mutation with the FCMD phenotype. Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively with 9 subjects. Inclusion criteria included clinical symptoms characterized by early-onset hypotonia with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) featuring brain malformations. FKTN gene-alteration analysis was performed using various FKTN gene-analysis methods, including sequencing. Results: Among the 9 subjects studied, 4 (44.4%) were male and 5 (55.6%) were female. The median age of onset of the first symptom was 3.1 months. The first symptom was a delayed milestone in 6 cases (66.7%). All 9 subjects (100%) presented with early-onset hypotonia and global delayed development. All subjects presented with cortical malformation in their brain MRIs. Of the 9 subjects, 6 subjects had previously undergone muscle biopsy and 4 cases (4/6; 66.7%) showed dystrophic or myopathic features. Pathogenic mutations causing FCMD were identified in 3 cases. Conclusions: In this study, all 3 subjects with FKTN mutations showed important MRI findings (pachygyria and cerebellar dysplasia). These data suggest that patients with characteristic phenotypes who show pachygyria and cerebellar abnormalities in brain MRIs may have a high probability of being diagnosed with FCMD.

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Seismic Response Evaluation of NPP Structures Considering Different Numerical Models and Frequency Contents of Earthquakes (다양한 수치해석 모델과 지진 주파수 성분을 고려한 원전구조물의 지진 응답 평가)

  • Thusa, Bidhek;Nguyen, Duy-Duan;Park, Hyosang;Lee, Tae-Hyung
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the application of various numerical models and frequency contents of earthquakes on the performances of the reactor containment building (RCB) in a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with an advanced power reactor 1400. Two kinds of numerical models are developed to perform time-history analyses: a lumped-mass stick model (LMSM) and a full three-dimensional finite element model (3D FEM). The LMSM is constructed in SAP2000 using conventional beam elements with concentrated masses, whereas the 3D FEM is built in ANSYS using solid elements. Two groups of ground motions considering low- and high-frequency contents are applied in time-history analyses. The low-frequency motions are created by matching their response spectra with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1.60 design spectrum, whereas the high-frequency motions are artificially generated with a high-frequency range from 10Hz to 100Hz. Seismic responses are measured in terms of floor response spectra (FRS) at the various elevations of the RCB. The numerical results show that the FRS of the structure under low-frequency motions for two numerical models are highly matched. However, under high-frequency motions, the FRS obtained by the LMSM at a high natural frequency range are significantly different from those of the 3D FEM, and the largest difference is found at the lower elevation of the RCB. By assuming that the 3D FEM approximates responses of the structure accurately, it can be concluded that the LMSM produces a moderate discrepancy at the high-frequency range of the FRS of the RCB.

Comparisons of 1-Hour-Averaged Surface Temperatures from High-Resolution Reanalysis Data and Surface Observations (고해상도 재분석자료와 관측소 1시간 평균 지상 온도 비교)

  • Song, Hyunggyu;Youn, Daeok
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.95-110
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    • 2020
  • Comparisons between two different surface temperatures from high-resolution ECMWF ReAnalysis 5 (ERA5) and Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS) observations were performed to investigate the reliability of the new reanalysis data over South Korea. As ERA5 has been recently produced and provided to the public, it will be highly used in various research fields. The analysis period in this study is limited to 1999-2018 because regularly recorded hourly data have been provided for 61 ASOS stations since 1999. Topographic characteristics of the 61 ASOS locations are classified as inland, coastal, and mountain based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. The spatial distributions of whole period time-averaged temperatures for ASOS and ERA5 were similar without significant differences in their values. Scatter plots between ASOS and ERA5 for three different periods of yearlong, summer, and winter confirmed the characteristics of seasonal variability, also shown in the time-series of monthly error probability density functions (PDFs). Statistical indices NMB, RMSE, R, and IOA were adopted to quantify the temperature differences, which showed no significant differences in all indices, as R and IOA were all close to 0.99. In particular, the daily mean temperature differences based on 1-hour-averaged temperature had a smaller error than the classical daily mean temperature differences, showing a higher correlation between the two data. To check if the complex topography inside one ERA5 grid cell is related to the temperature differences, the kurtosis and skewness values of 90-m DEM PDFs in a ERA5 grid cell were compared to the one-year period amplitude among those of the power spectrum in the time-series of monthly temperature error PDFs at each station, showing positive correlations. The results account for the topographic effect as one of the largest possible drivers of the difference between ASOS and ERA5.

The study to develope of optical glass(LaF, KzFS1, LBO) (광학유리(LaF, KzFS1, LBO) 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, Jung Won;Park, Moon Chan
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2000
  • LaF, KzFS1, LBO glass were manufactured successfully by using platinum crucible in LaF and using clay crucible in the KzFS1 and LBO. There was optically transparent and the refractive indexes were measured by minum deviation method of prism. LaF, KzFS1, LBO show that the refrective indexes are $n_d$ = 1.770 in LaF, $n_d$ = 1.603 in KzFS1, $n_d$ = 1.560 in LBO. The transmittance were obtained that LaF has 85%, and KzFS1 has 83% and LBO has 89% in visible range. These glasses have no any absorption spectrum under visible range. Therefore it has no any color.

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Changes in Allergenicity and Quality of Nuruk during Fermentation (전통 누룩 발효과정 중 품질 및 항원성 변화)

  • Lee, Hyo-Hyung;Lee, Jin-Hyeong;Ko, Yu-Jin;Park, Mi-Hwa;Lee, Jeong-Ok;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.76-82
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    • 2009
  • Wheat is the most widely cultivated cereal and an important source of dietary protein worldwide. Wheat allergy, defined as an adverse immunologic reaction to wheat, encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders with different pathomechanisms and clinical manifestation. The Nuruk, a traditional Korean Koji for brewing, was made with wheat flour and fermenting microbes such as bacteria, yeast and mold. The strains grown on Nuruk secrete various enzymes as amylase and protease. By the activation of such enzymes, starch and proteins in Nuruk are hydrolyzed to sugar and amino acid. Therefore, it is supposed to reduce allergic proteins in wheat. To study quality properties and degradation degree of allergenicity in Nuruk by fermentation, we investigated the changes of general ingredients and allergenicity in Nuruk during fermentation. Moisture contents was decreased from 24.2% to 13.6% during fermentation. Crude lipid and protein contents were gradually increased during fermentation. After 15 days of fermentation, reducing sugar and total sugar contents were reached its maximum level, and they were 27.45% and 39.00%, respectively. Acid and neutral protease activity were significantly increased during fermentation, but alkaline protease activity was not detected. ${\alpha}$-amylase activity was gradually increased and showed maximum level about 2,833.00 U/g after 15 days of fermentation. Glucoamylase activity was the highest level about 497.9 U/g after 10 days of fermentation. The increase of these proteolytic and saccharogenic enzyme activities will provide efficient condition for production of rice wine. Also, protein fractions were isolated from Nuruk, and degradation of these proteins during fermentation were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. IgE immunoblotting using patient's sera with wheat allergy was performed to confirm allergenic protein in Nuruk. These results as fermentation of Nuruk will provide a useful tool for developing safer wheat products to prevent wheat allergy.

Analysis on the source characteristics of three earthquakes nearby the Gyeongju area of the South Korea in 1999 (1999년 경주 인근에서 3차례 발생한 지진들의 지진원 특성 분석)

  • Choi, Ho-Seon;Shim, Taek-Mo
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.509-515
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    • 2009
  • Three earthquakes with local magnitude ($M_L$) greater than 3.0 occurred on April 24, June 2 and September 12 in 1999 nearby the Gyeongju area. Redetermined epicenters were located within the radius of 1 km. We carried out waveform inversion analysis to estimate focal mechanism of June 2 event, and P and S wave polarity and their amplitude ratio analysis to estimate focal mechanisms of April 24 and September 12 events. June 2 and September 12 events had similar fault plane solutions each other. The fault plane solution of April 24 event included those of other 2 events, but its distribution range was relatively broad. Focal mechanisms of those events had a strike slip faulting with a small normal component. P-axes of those events were ENE-WSW which were similar to previous studies on the P-axis of the Korean Peninsula. Considering distances between epicenters, similarities of seismic waves and sameness of polarities of seismic data recorded at common seismic stations, these events might occurred at the same fault. The seismic moment of June 2 event was estimated to be $3.9\;{\times}\;10^{14}\;N{\cdot}m$ and this value corresponded to the moment magnitude ($M_W$) 3.7. The moment magnitude estimated by spectral analysis was 3.8, which was similar to that estimated by waveform inversion analysis. The average stress drop was estimated to be 7.5 MPa. Moment magnitudes of April 24 and September 12 events were estimated to be 3.2 and 3.4 by comparing the spectrum of those events recorded at common single seismic station.

Contribution of Oswald Veblen to AMS and its meaning in Korea (Oswald Veblen이 미국수학계에 미친 영향과 한국에서의 의미)

  • Lee, Sang-Gu;Ham, Yoon-Mee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.27-52
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    • 2009
  • This article discusses the contributions of the leader Oswald Veblen, who was the president of AMS during 1923-1924. In 2006, Korea ranked 12th in SCIE publications in mathematics, more than doubling its publications in less than 10 years, a successful model for a country with relatively short history of modern mathematical research. Now there are 192 four-year universities in Korea. Some 42 of these universities have Ph.D. granting graduate programs in mathematics and/or mathematical education in Korea. Rapid growth is observed over a broad spectrum including a phenomenal performance surge in International Mathematical Olympiad. Western mathematics was first introduced in Korea in the 17th century, but real significant mathematical contributions by Korean mathematicians in modern mathematics were not much known yet to the world. Surprisingly there is no Korean mathematician who could be found in MaC Tutor History Birthplace Map. We are at the time, to have a clear vision and leadership for the 21st century. Even with the above achievement, Korean mathematical community has had obstacles in funding. Many people thinks that mathematical research can be done without funding rather unlike other science subjects, even though they agree fundamental mathematical research is very important. We found that the experience of early American mathematical community can help us to give a vision and role model for Korean mathematical community. When we read the AMS Notice article 'The Vision, Insight, and Influence of Oswald Veblen' by Steve Batterson, it answers many of our questions on the development of American mathematics in early 20th century. We would like to share the story and analyze its meaning for the development of Korean Mathematics of 21st century.

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Investigation of Scatter and Septal Penetration in I-131 Imaging Using GATE Simulation (GATE 시뮬레이션을 이용한 I-131 영상의 산란 및 격벽통과 보정방법 연구)

  • Jung, Ji-Young;Kim, Hee-Joung;Yu, A-Ram;Cho, Hyo-Min;Lee, Chang-Lae;Park, Hye-Suk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.72-79
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    • 2009
  • Scatter correction for I-131 plays a very important role to improve image quality and quantitation. I-131 has multiple and higher energy gamma-ray emissions. Image quality and quantitative accuracy in I-131 imaging are degraded by object scatter as well as scatter and septal penetration in the collimator. The purpose of this study was to estimate scatter and septal penetration and investigate two scatter correction methods using Monte Carlo simulation. The gamma camera system simulated in this study was a FORTE system (Phillips, Nederland) with high energy, general-purpose, parallel hole collimator. We simulated for two types of high energy collimators. One is composed of lead, and the other is composed of artificially high Z number and high density. We simulated energy spectrum using a point source in air. We estimated both full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) using line spread function (LSF) in cylindrical water phantom. We applied two scatter correction methods, triple energy window scatter correction (TEW) and extended triple energy window scatter correction (ETEW). The TEW method is a pixel-by pixel based correction which is easy to implement clinically. The ETEW is a modification of the TEW which corrects for scatter by using abutted scatter rejection window, which can overestimate or the underestimate scatter. The both FWHM and FWTM were estimated as 41.2 mm and 206.5 mm for lead collimator, respectively. The FWHM and FWTM were estimated as 27.3 mm and 45.6 mm for artificially high Z and high density collimator, respectively. ETEW showed that the estimation of scatter components was close to the true scatter components. In conclusion, correction for septal penetration and scatter is important to improve image quality and quantitative accuracy in I-131 imaging. The ETEW method in scatter correction appeared to be useful in I-131 imaging.

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