• Title/Summary/Keyword: soil culture

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Effects of Culture Media and Nutrient Solutions on the Yield and Quality of Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.) and Tomato (Lyocpersicon esculentum MILL.) (배지(培地) 및 양액(養液)의 차이(差異)가 오이와 토마토의 수량(收量)과 품질(品質)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Kuen-Woo;Lee, Yong-Beom;Choi, Nam-Hoon;Jeong, Jin-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 1990
  • This study was carried out to investigate the influence of different types of nutrient solutions and culture media on the growth and quality of cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The results are summarized as follows : 1. The growth and yield of cucumber and tomato were best in rockwool culture with Cooper solution. 2. In sand-sack culture, growth and yield of cucumber and tomato were higher with compound fertillzer solution. 3. Growth and yield of cucumber and tomato were more effective in rockwool culture than in soil culture in early growth stages, and vice versa in later growth stages. 4. Vitamin C contents of cucumber and tomato showed no differences between soil cultures and hydroponics, except rockwool culture with compound fertilizer solution. 5. The dry weight, total-N, and mineral content of cucumber and tomato showed no differences among all types of hydroponics.

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Physiological Responses of Water Stress at Seedling Stage in Barley (보리 유묘기의 수분부족이 몇가지 생리적 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Won-Yul;Kwon, Yong-Woong;Soh, Chang-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.189-195
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    • 1997
  • To cope with increasing importance of water stress in food crop production, characteristics and cultivar differences in physiological responses of winter barley plants to water stress during seedling stage were studied employing three covered-barley, Milyang 12, Durubori, and Olbori, one naked-barley, Baekdong, and one two-row beer-barley, Hyangmaeg. Water stress was given to barley plants by withholding watering in soil-culture pots or by adding P.E.G. (polyethylene glycol, M. W. 4,000) to the nutrient culture solution. When water stress was imposed by withholding watering for 10 days to the seedlings grown in pot-soil for 10 days after emergence, leaf water potential of 5 cultivars was decreased almost to the same degree, from control -3.5 bar to the water stressed -26.6 bar. However, growth and some physiological responses were differently affected by cultivars: The plant height was decreased by 16-26% : seedling dry weight by 25∼42% ; chlorophyll content by 21∼39% ; second leaf survival rate by 8∼18% ; and free proline content per gram of leaf dry weight was increased from control 0.2∼0.5mg to the water stressed 5.8∼13.2mg. Drought resistances of 5 barley cultivars, based on the leaf survival rate and the decreased rate in seedling dry weight at the end of stress treatment, were high in the order of 3 covered-barley>naked-barley>two-row barley.

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Damage and Seasonal Occurrence of Major Insect Pests by Cropping Period in Environmentally Friendly Lettuce Greenhouse (친환경 시설상추에서 작기별 주요 해충의 피해와 발생소장)

  • Jeon, Heung-Yong;Kim, Hyeong-Hwan
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2006
  • Insect pests attacking the leaf of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were surveyed in environmentally frendly leaf-lettuce-greenhouses in Hwaseong, Namyangju, and Suwon from 2003 to 2004. Sixteen insect species of eleven families in eight orders were collected in greenhouses. Among them, Acyrthosiphon solani, Frankliniella occidentalis, and Autographa nigrisigna were the most serious pest species because of their damage ratio was over 30%. Population of Acyrthosiphon solani showed the highest peak one or two times between mid-April and early June in both the second and the third cropping period. Frankliniella occidentalis reached the highest peak one or two times, the first peak between mid-June and the late July, and the second peak between the mid-August and the mid-October.Autographa nigrisigna reached the highest peak one or times between early June and late July and in the mid-August to late October. The highest peak occurrence of A. solami was observed in early June as many as 4,836 nymphs and adults per 100 leaves. And for F. occidentalis it was in early July occurring 437 larvae and adults per 100 leaves, for A. nigrisigna in early October occurring 42 larvae per 100 leaves. The density of F. occidentalis and its damage as well was greater in soil culture than in hydroponic culture, but in case of both A. solani and A. nigrisigna no such difference between cropping systems was found.

Analysis of Well Water Quality for Hydroponic Farms in Chollabuk-do Area (전북지역 양액재배 농가의 원수 수질 분석)

  • 배종향;이용범
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 1996
  • This analysis has been conducted to get some basic data of the composition of culture solution mostly in inorganic ions, and water quality in hydroponic farms in Chollabuk - do. pH range was shown from 6.00 to 7.65 and the average was 6.58. EC range was shown from 0.01 to 0.94 mS/cm and the average was 0.28 mS/cm. Na concentration ranged from 4.71 to 145.44 ppm and Cl concentration ranged from 0 to 171.80 ppm were shown and their average were 24.24 ppm and 26.33 ppm, respectively. Na and Cl concentrations were higher as 7.7%, compared to those of other farms, which could cause the salt accumulation in the substrate mats. K, Ca and Mg concentrations were ranged from 0.93 to 17.38 ppm, 2.29 to 34.30 ppm and 0.70 to 18.61 ppm, respectively. Average concentrations were 3.06 ppm in K, 13.00 ppm in Ca and 4.91 ppm in Mg. 50, and PO$_4$ concentration ranged from 0.63 to 59.79 ppm and 0 to 4.28 ppm were shown and their average were 18.11 and 0.51 ppm. Cu concentration was ranged from 0 to 0.32 ppm and 0 to 6.22 ppm in Zn concentration. Their average were 0.02 ppm and 0.52ppm, respectively.

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Effect of Daytime Temperature on Fruit Cracking of Paprika Cultivars (착색단고추 품종별 주간온도가 열과 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • 최영하;권준국;이재한;강남준;조명환;손병구
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of daytime temperature on fruit crack-ing in the paprika cv. Fiesta and cv. Jubilee under soil culture experiment of vinyl house for two years from 2003 to 2004. The rate of cracked fruit was higher in cv. Fiesta than cv. Jubilee and was the highest at the high daytime temperature of $34\pm$$1^{\circ}C$. and then rapidly increased after April becomes better weather conditions. The flesh hardness and the rate of flesh dry weight were lower in cv. Fiesta than cv. Jubilee and were the lowest at the high daytime temperature of $34\pm$1$^{\circ}C$. but the thickness of flesh was thicker in cv. Fiesta than cv. Jubilee and was the thinnest at the high daytime temperature of $34\pm$$1^{\circ}C$. Inorganic matter contents of flesh was observed no difference to the cultivars and also the temperature treatments. Root condition in harvesting time was better in cv. Fiesta than cv. Jubilee and was not difference in temperature treatments. Therefore, the rate of cracked fruit showed up a positive correlation to the flesh hardness, flesh dry weight, flesh firmness and root condition, and has not correlation to the flesh thickness and inorganic matter con-tents. In conclusion, differences in cultivar sensitivity and the highest rate of cracked fruit in daytime temperature of $34\pm$$1^{\circ}C$ may be partly due to difference in flesh characteristic and root condition but additional factors may be involved.

Effect of Ammonium Nitrate Plus Potash in Comparison with Urea Plus Potash on the Yield and Content of Some Mineral Nutrient Elements of Chinese Cabbage (요소+칼리에 대비(對備)한 질산암모늄+칼리가 배추의 수량(數量) 및 무기성분함량(無機成分含量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Oh, Wang-Keun;Kim, Sung-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.407-412
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    • 1985
  • The effect of potash applied with different sources of nitrogen was experimented in pot soil culture on chinese cabbage (Brassica Pekinensis Rupr, Var. Fall 1984: Sammi Garak, Spring 1985: Jungang Summer lab.) in the fall, 1984 and in the spring, 1985. Results obtained are as follows; 1. Ammonium nitrate increased the yield of chinese cabbage more than urea did, and the effect of yield increase by ammonium nitrate was greater in the fall cultivation than in the spring. 2. The yield of chinese cabbage was positively correlated with the contents of K in the first (May 17, 1985) and second (June 9, 1985) thined cabbages (dry matter). It was also positively correlated with $NO_3-N$ content of the first thined cabbage and with K/Ca+Mg m.e, ratio of outer leaves of the harvested (June 27, 1985) cabbage, but negatively affected with Mg content of the outer leaves. 3. Correlations between K and $NO_3-N$ contained in the dry matter of first and second thined, and inner leaves of the harvested cabbage were learnt to be $r;0.9998^{**}$, r;0.4439, and $r;-0.7135^*$ respectively. The higher $NO_3-N$ content in the inner leaves of harvested cabbage was observed at K omitted ammonium nitrate plot where K was deficient, Ca and Mg contents were low. 4. The nutrient absorption and growth of chinese cabbage may take the following process. Nitrate nitrogen increases vegetative growth of the plant with enhanced K uptake and movement in to inner leaves and followed by replacement of Ca uptake and finally Mg uptake and its movement in to inner leaves.

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Growth of Kale Seedlings Affected by the Control of Light Quality and Intensity under Smart Greenhouse Conditions with Artificial Lights (인공광 스마트온실에서 광질 및 광강도 제어가 케일 실생묘의 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Heo, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Jae-Su;Lee, Gong-In;Kim, Hyun-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND: Plant growth under smart greenhouse (that is plant factory system) conditions of an artificial light type is significantly depending on the artificial light sources such as a fluorescent lamps or Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with specific spectral wavelengths regardless of the outside environmental changes. In this experiment, characteristics on the growth and compound synthesis of kale seedlings affected by light qualities and intensities provided by LEDs were mentioned. METHODS AND RESULTS: The kale seedlings which developed 3~4 true leaves were exposed by fluorescent lamps or LEDs lights of red (R), blue+white (BW), blue+red (BR) with 50 (L) or $100(H){\mu}mol/m^2/s^1$ photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) under hydroponic culture system of deep flow technique for 50 days. Shoot fresh weight increased under the RH, BWH, and BRH treatments with higher PPF. Shoot elongation of the seedlings decreased, and polyphenol synthesis promoted by the higher light intensity conditions. Sugar synthesis in the leaves was above 2 times greater under the RH treatment of monochromic red light quality with $100{\mu}mol/m^2/s^1\;PPF$ than $50{\mu}mol/m^2/s^1\;PPF$. CONCLUSION: The results show that the control of light quality and intensity in the smart greenhouse conditions with artificial lights significantly affects the growth and compound synthesis in the fresh kale leaves with higher culture efficiency compared to the conventional soil culture under greenhouse or field conditions. Researches on the optimum light intensities of the LEDs with special spectral wavelengths are necessary for maximum growth and metabolism in the seedlings.

Effects of Different EC in Nutrient Solution on Growth and Quality of Red Mustard and Pak-Choi in Plant Factory (식물공장내 양액의 EC가 적겨자와 청경채의 생육 및 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang Gyu;Choi, Chang Sun;Lee, Jun Gu;Jang, Yoon Ah;Nam, Chun Woo;Yeo, Kyung-Hwan;Lee, Hee Ju;Um, Young Chul
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.322-326
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    • 2012
  • Recently, researches related to plant factory system has been activated and production of Ssam-vegetables using artificial lighting has been increasing. In South Korea, Ssam-vegetables are very popular and the consumption is increasing every year. Because leaf vegetables cultivated under hydroponic systems are more preferable rather than those cultivated by soil culture in Korea, the plant factory system would be more effective in production of Ssam-vegetables. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to analyze the yield and vitamin C contents in red mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and pak-choi (Brassica campestris var. chinensis), which are used a lot for the Ssam-vegetables in South Korea, as influenced by different concentrations of the nutrient solution in a plant factory system. As a results, there was no significant differences in the plant height among the treatment of EC in the nutrient solution, but for red mustard plants, the number of leaves tended to decrease in the treatment with higher EC. Leaf area of pak-choi plants was significantly increased in the higher EC, while the fresh weight had a tendency to increase along with increasing EC in the nutrient solution for both crops. The photosynthetic rates did not show a distinct tendency by EC levels for red mustard plants, but for pak-choi plants, it tended to be higher at the high EC. The contents of ascorbic acid in leaves were higher with decreasing EC concentration in the nutrient solution for red mustard plants, while the content was the highest at EC $2.0dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ for pak-choi plants. In summary, considering the marketable yields and vitamin C at different nutrient concentrations in a plant factory, the optimal concentration for red mustard and pak-choi plants was thought to be EC $2.0{\sim}2.5dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$.

Effect of Night and Daytime Temperatures on Growth and Yield of Paprika 'Fiesta' and 'Jubilee' (주${\cdot}$야 온도가 착색단고추의 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi Young Hah;Kwon Joon Kook;Lee Jae Han;Kang Nam Jun;Cho Myeong Whan;Kang Jum Soon
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of night and daytime temperatures on growth and yield of paprika 'Fiesta' and 'Jubilee' under soil culture experiment in the vinyl houses during the 2003 and 2004 season. Total fruit yield was greater in 'Fiesta' than 'Jubilee' Marketable yield was not different between two cultivars, due to lower $\%$ marketable fruits in 'Fiesta'. mean Fruit weight was not different between two cultivars. Difference of yield between cultivars was due to fruit number, harves time and root condition. It was caused by cracked fruits to decrease $\%$ marketable fruits. Total yield was greater in nighttime temperature of $18^{\circ}C\;than\;15^{\circ}C$ and marketable yield was considerably greater because of $\%$ marketable fruits was higher. Mean fruit weight was slightly greater in nighttime temperature of $15^{\circ}C\;than\;18^{\circ}C$. Difference of fruit yield in treatments of nighttime temperature was due to fruit number and harvest time. There was not significant difference of yield between daytime temperature of $28^{\circ}C\;and\;31^{\circ}C$, but in $34^{\circ}C$, total and marketable yields were the least and mean fruit weight was the smallest because of decreased $CO_2$ concentration in the house, accerated vegetative growth, and the least chlorophyll content. There were no significant difference in photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, maximal photochemical efficiency and antioxidant enzyme activities of all temperature treatments in this experiment. However it was clear that a little difference in error range of these results affects the source of crops in any case. It was not acknowledged that compensation effect by high temperature in daytime to the low temperature treatment in nighttime.

Perspective of breaking stagnation of soybean yield under monsoon climate

  • Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.8-9
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    • 2017
  • Soybean yield has been low and unstable in Japan and other areas in East Asia, despite long history of cultivation. This is contrasting with consistent increase of yield in North and South America. This presentation tries to describe perspective of breaking stagnation of soybean yield in East Asia, considering the factors of the different yields between regions. Large amount of rainfall with occasional dry-spell in the summer is a nature of monsoon climate and as frequently stated excess water is the factor of low and unstable soybean yield. For example, there exists a great deal of field-to-field variation in yield of 'Tanbaguro' soybean, which is reputed for high market value and thus cultivated intensively and this results in low average yield. According to our field survey, a major portion of yield variation occurs in early growth period. Soybean production on drained paddy fields is also vulnerable to drought stress after flowering. An analysis at the above study site demonstrated a substantial field-to-field variation of canopy transpiration activity in the mid-summer, but the variation of pod-set was not as large as that of early growth. As frequently mentioned by the contest winners of good practice farming, avoidance of excess water problem in the early growth period is of greatest importance. A series of technological development took place in Japan in crop management for stable crop establishment and growth, that includes seed-bed preparation with ridge and/or chisel ploughing, adjustment of seed moisture content, seed treatment with mancozeb+metalaxyl and the water table control system, FOEAS. A unique success is seen in the tidal swamp area in South Sumatra with the Saturated Soil Culture (SSC), which is for managing acidity problem of pyrite soils. In 2016, an average yield of $2.4tha^{-1}$ was recorded for a 450 ha area with SSC (Ghulamahdi 2017, personal communication). This is a sort of raised bed culture and thus the moisture condition is kept markedly stable during growth period. For genetic control, too, many attempts are on-going for better emergence and plant growth after emergence under excess water. There seems to exist two aspects of excess water resistance, one related to phytophthora resistance and the other with better growth under excess water. The improvement for the latter is particularly challenging and genomic approach is expected to be effectively utilized. The crop model simulation would estimate/evaluate the impact of environmental and genetic factors. But comprehensive crop models for soybean are mainly for cultivations on upland fields and crop response to excess water is not fully accounted for. A soybean model for production on drained paddy fields under monsoon climate is demanded to coordinate technological development under changing climate. We recently recognized that the yield potential of recent US cultivars is greater than that of Japanese cultivars and this also may be responsible for different yield trends. Cultivar comparisons proved that higher yields are associated with greater biomass production specifically during early seed filling, in which high and well sustained activity of leaf gas exchange is related. In fact, the leaf stomatal conductance is considered to have been improved during last a couple of decades in the USA through selections for high yield in several crop species. It is suspected that priority to product quality of soybean as food crop, especially large seed size in Japan, did not allow efficient improvement of productivity. We also recently found a substantial variation of yielding performance under an environment of Indonesia among divergent cultivars from tropical and temperate regions through in a part biomass productivity. Gas exchange activity again seems to be involved. Unlike in North America where transpiration adjustment is considered necessary to avoid terminal drought, under the monsoon climate with wet summer plants with higher activity of gas exchange than current level might be advantageous. In order to explore higher or better-adjusted canopy function, the methodological development is demanded for canopy-level evaluation of transpiration activity. The stagnation of soybean yield would be broken through controlling variable water environment and breeding efforts to improve the quality-oriented cultivars for stable and high yield.

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