• Title/Summary/Keyword: small states

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Strategic Choices of Small States in Asymmetric Dependence: Myanmar - China Relations through the case of the Myitsone Dam

  • Eszterhai, Viktor;Thida, Hnin Mya
    • Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.157-173
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    • 2021
  • In the transition to a multipolar international system, the literature has focused on great power competition while little attention has been given to the strategic possibilities of smaller states. However, as a result of globalization, states are so closely interconnected that the primary strategies of even major powers are not to achieve zero-sum solutions but to create asymmetric dependency through which they can influence the behavior of other states and non-state actors. States are assisted in this effort by a variety of tools, including setting up institutions, direct economic influence and through building different forms of infrastructure connectivity networks. By discussing asymmetric dependency situations from the perspective of the great powers, the literature presents smaller states primarily as passive actors, paralyzed by their dependence on great powers. Our paper argues that interdependence allows smaller states to effectively influence larger actors and examines strategies from which smaller states can choose in order to influence the behavior of larger states. Despite an extremely asymmetric relationship between Myanmar and China, actors in Myanmar have sought to influence China's Myanmar policy. We examine a case study of the Myitsone Dam, including Myanmar's strategic aims, chosen strategy and limitations in maneuvering space. Semi-structured interviews with local decision-makers and stakeholders are conducted in order to portray the full picture. Our study concludes that further research on the influencing strategies of small states in response to asymmetric dependence can contribute to a better understanding of the interdependence of states.

Impact Assessment of First Wave of Covid-19 Pandemic on Goods and Services Tax (GST) Revenue Collection & Distribution in India

  • NAIK, Dr. Maithili;HALDANKAR, Gajanan B.
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.43-54
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    • 2021
  • Purpose: The restrictions posed by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected the normal functioning of the economy. A country like India is facing a lot of concerns in all its sectors especially, in its fiscal system. This paper makes an attempt to examine the impact of COVID-19 first wave on Goods and Service Tax revenue collection and distribution in India and also studies the impact of COVID-19 first wave on the state wise GST revenue of the country. Research Design, Data and Methodology: Our study is based on published GST revenue data. Tools such as Paired Sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test are employed to analyze the data. Results: Our results provide evidence that there is a sharp decline in the GST revenue in the months after the lockdown announcement. The large states show no significance impact of COVID-19 pandemic on GST collection. Whereas, small states like Manipur and Goa show significant difference in GST revenue collection & distribution between the pre and post lockdown period. Conclusion: The outcome of this study will help the policymakers to analyze the extent of the GST revenue loss to the government treasury and will allow them to take appropriate measures in the future.