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A Study on the Paper Clothing -on the basis of handmade paper- (종이 의상에 관한 연구 - 수제지를 중심으로 -)

  • 이주실;김정혜
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.44
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    • pp.181-199
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    • 1999
  • The industry of modern clothing has deviated from the overflow of commercialism and the standardization and nowadays is going toward pursuing art, creativity, and high added value. This trend brings the return of the natural materials from the synthetic textiles and increases the value of old and handmade fabrics. Finally, the handmade-paper, which is a natural material, comes to be reconsidered as a new material for the clothing. Therefore, as the natural materials and the manufacture of handmade clothing are rising again, the qualitative improvement and globalization of clothing industry should be first realized through the developments of creative and various clothing materials and new expressing techniques. The above investigation and study have been synthesized and analyzed as follows: First, through the study on the origin of the paper clothing, its historical background and the process of its development, we've learned these two facts following : the paper clothing of the East in the past mostly had practiced meanings. On the other hand, in the West it had meanings which were raised the artist's emotions and beauty-consciousness to the artistic level by the various kinds of expressing methods. Second, handmade-paper was manufactured by the embedding method, which mixed mulberry pulp, gauze, corn, hair, sisal, silk and so on. It was found that handmade-paper had the affluent and proper texture as the clothing material and was be able to control the clarity through the variation of thickness. It was also confirmed that the creative and original texture with hand-worked molding beauty was obtained by the use of handmade-paper. Third, when the handmade-paper is used, the molding beauty of plane, relievo, and solid can be freely pursued, and various and effective molding conformation can be constructed by the effect of superposition and repetition. Also, because the maximum discretion from the various optional manufacturing methods is allowed, the molding beauty can be maximized when the clothes are manufactured with handmade-paper. Fourth, the gauze with strong drape was combined to overcome the stiffness and the tearing of the paper. As a result, the durability and the wearability of the paper were strengthened and thus the thus the applications as the clothing material were enlarged. In conclusion, in order to enhance the value, creativity, practicality, and artistic sense of the design for modern clothing, the clothes made of handmade-paper should be more studied. Moreover, for the generalization of paper clothes, the studies on the development of practical paper with paper with water resistance, post-treatment after dyeing, flexibility, and durability should be done. I really hope that this study will be the motive to provoke the possibility of handmade-paper as new clothing material in not only practical sense but also artistic sense.

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Development of Rustling Sound Generator Using Reciprocating Motion and Evaluation of Its Fabric Sound (왕복운동에 의한 직물마찰음발생장치의 개발 및 이를 이용한 직물소리 평가)

  • Kim Chun-Jeong;Cho Gil-Soo
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2006
  • In order to investigate the sensation of the fabric sound simulating the real wear-condition, the fabric sound simulator using reciprocating friction was developed. Fabric sounds from 5 specimen were generated by the fabric sound simulator and recorded using high performance microphone. Physical sound parameters of fabrics including level pressure of total sound (LPT), level range (${\Delta}L$), and frequency differences (${\Delta}f$) were calculated. For psychological evaluation, seven adjectives for sound (softness, loudness, sharpness, clearness, roughness, highness, and pleasantness) were used as the semantic differential scale. Fabric sounds by reciprocating friction of nylon taffeta and polyester leno had the highest value of LPT and evaluated as loud, sharp, rough, and unpleasant while polyester ultra suede and silk crepe de chine haying the lower LPT and ${\Delta}f$ were perceived as soft and quite. Comparing with fabric sound by one-way friction, fabric sound by reciprocation friction was perceived as more sharp, loud, and rough. LPT was also the most important factor affecting the sensation of the fabric sound by reciprocating friction.

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A study on the Process Characteristics of the N/P Micro-fiber Fancy yarn and fabrics (N/P 분할사를 이용한 Fancy 가공사 직물의 공정특성 및 물성에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Sang-Gi;Park, Seong-Woo;Park, Jang-Hwan;Lee, Yeong-Hyeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Dyers and Finishers Conference
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    • pp.90-90
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    • 2012
  • 극세섬유는, 1970년대 말부터 일본의 합섬업체들이 천연소재인 Silk를 모방하기 위해 개발을 시작하였으며, 개발된 섬유의 굵기가 0.5d(1denier=1g/9,000m)이하인 것을 말한다. 이후 극세사에 대한 끊임없는 노력으로, 1980년대에는 천연스웨이드 풍의 인조피혁의 제조가 가능한 0.1d이하급 초극세사가 N/P(Nylon/Polyester) 복합방사된 형태로 개발되었으며, 일본, 및 한국 등에서 이들 소재로 제조된 직편물 제품이 첨단 고부가소재로서 호황을 누려왔다. 이러한 초극세사는 다양한 형태로 발전되어왔는데, 해도형(Islands-in-a-Sea Type), N/P(Nylon/PET), P/N(PET/Nylon) 등이 대표적인 형태이며, 가공공정 중에서 분할이 되면서 그 특성을 발현한다고 하여 분할사, 형태에 따라서 N/P 분할사라 하기도 한다. 최근들어 이러한 N/P 분할사는 기존의 의류용 용도뿐만 아니라, Wiping Cloth, 극세사 타울, 항진드기용 침장 등 다양한 비의류용 소재로도 확대 전개되고 있으며, 이렇게 다양화 되어가고 있는 용도에 따른 공정별 최적 가공 방법에 대한 연구가 진행 중이다. 사가공 공정에 있어서는 텍스쳐링 방법이 적용되기도 하는데, 가장 보편화된 텍스쳐링 방법으로는 DTY(Draw Texturing Yarn), ATY(Air Texturing Yarn) 등의 형태가 있으며, 이러한 텍스쳐링 방법은 물성에 민감한 N/P 분할사의 강도, 신도, 분할도에 영향을 미치게 된다. 본 연구에서는 기존의 텍스쳐링 방법이 아닌 Fancy사 형태로 사가공을 하였으며, 직물로 제직하고, 분할 가공하여 직물로써의 물성까지 분석하였다. Fancy사는 색이나 형의 변화로 디자인효과를 준 실을 말하는데, 심사, 부사, 압사로 이뤄지며 의장사, 장식사 등으로 불려지기도 한다. 주요 공정을 보면, 크릴형성용 부사를 500-600T/M으로 가연한 연사를 얻는 제1공정과, 이 가연된 부사와 심사를 합사하는 제2공정 및 합사된 크릴의 뒤틀림을 방지하기 위하여 압사로 크릴을 고정하여 주는 제3공정으로 이루어진다. 사용된 N/P 분할사는 NP30/36dty, NP50/36dty를 사용하였으며, 부사의 오버피드 및 피드되는 사에 따라 각각 8종, 7종의 Fancy사를 제조하여 섬도(Denier), 강도(Tenacity), 신도(Elongation)를 측정하였다. 또한, 이들 사들로 제직 및 분할가공을 하여 인장강도, 인장신도, 인열강도, 마모강도, 공기투과도 등의 물성과 중량, 두께를 측정하였으며, 온도, NaOH 농도, 시간 등의 분할 가공조건에 따른 직물의 인열강도 변화도 측정하였다. 이렇게 공정별 조건에 따른 물성의 변화분석을 통해 추후 N/P의 제품화 전개에 도움이 되고자 하였다.

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Effects of the Wet Cleaning to the Color Change of the Dyed Fabrics with Natural Dyes (천연염색포의 습식세척에 의한 색상변화)

  • Baek, Young-Mee;Goto-Doshida, Sumiko;Saito, Masako
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2012
  • In the Chosun period, the noble class usually buried the dead bodies in the lime-covered tomb. Recently their costumes are excavated while maintaining the shape. However, the textiles discovered from the inside have been degradated by a body and moisture. To conserve these textiles one of the most important thing is how to clean these textiles right after the excavation. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of wet cleaning to minimize the color change of textile remains. For this purpose, silk and cotton were dyed with natural dyes (7 red, 1 blue, 6 yellow, 4 green and 4 purple colors), then they were kept for 6 months with pork meat at $10^{\circ}C$, and were washed by four cleaning solutions (water, anionic surfactant (SDS), non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) and natural surfactant (saponin)) at $20^{\circ}C$ and $40^{\circ}C$. The color change was evaluated by color difference (${\Delta}E$) between non-treated and after washed samples. From the results, it was found that the color changes are significantly different depending on the washing temperature, textile material, the cleaning agents and the type of dyes.

A Study on Soviet Constructive Fashion in 1920s (1920년대 소비에트 구성주의 패션에 관한 연구)

  • 조윤경;금기숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.36
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    • pp.183-203
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    • 1998
  • The wave of Avant-garde swept away all in the unique social background so called 'October Revolution' and the early 1900 Russian society which was able to absorb and accept anything. The Russian avant-garde has been affected by the Cubism and the Futurism those had peculiarly appeared in the early twentieth century, spreaded out to three spheres: the Suprematism, the Rayonism and the Constructivism. The Russian Constructivism has appeared in this background, concretely and ideally ex-pressed the ideology of the revolution into the artistic form and made an huge influence to the whole Russian society. The Constructivist like Tatlin, naum Gabo, Pevaner, Rodchenko, Stepanova, Popova and Exter gave great effect on the Soviet Constructive fashion design in 1920's after the Revolution. The Soviet costume in 1920s hold in common the characteristicss of the Constructive graphic as it is, geometrical and abstractive form, energetic and motility. In fashion design, these graphic qualities have been showed as the application of geometrical form and architectural image, physical distortion and transformation. And in textile design, the simple, dynamical presentation has been appeared. We can classify the Soviet costume at this time into three occasions. The first term is from late 1910 th mid 1920, and it is altered from folk costume design to modern one. With Lamanova as the first on the list, using the folk mitif, the Constructive expression of simple form has been gradually revealed in design. Designers like Makarova, Pribylskaia and Mukhina produced the plane, simple chemise style with the decoration of the Russian traditional motif. From early to late 1920 is the second term, and it is at the pick of the most active processing of the Constructive design. Not only at the costume in daily life but also at the theatrical costume and textile, the con-structive design has been represented all avail-able fields. Many Constructivists including Stepanova, Popova, Exter and Rodchenko took part in the textile design and costume design so as to evlvo their aesthetic concept. The third term is from late 1920 to early 1930. The socialistic realism has dominated over the whole culture and art, the revolutionary dynamic motif has been presented also in textile design. The formative features of Soviet Constructive fashion design are; silhouette, from, motif, color and fabric. The first, the silhouette : a straight rectangular silhouetted has been expressed through the whole period and a volumed one with distorted human body shape has introduced in the theatrical costume design. The second, the form: many lengthened rectangular forms have been made at beginnings, but to the middle period, geometrical, architectural forms have been more showed and there are energy and movement in design. At the last period, only a partial feature-division has been seen. The third, the motif; no pattern or ethnic motif has been partly used at beginnings, a figure like circle, tri-angle has gradually appeared in textile design. At latter period, a real-existent motif like an airplane has been represented with graphing and simplicity. The fourth, the color ; because of insufficient dyeing, neutral color like black or grey color has been mainly covered, but after middle term, a primary color or pastel tone has been seen, contrast of the fabric; without much development of textile industry after the Revolution, thick and durable fabrics have been the main stream, but as time had going to the last period, fabrics such as linen, cotton, velvet and silk have been varously choesn. At the theatrical costume, new materials like plastics and metals that were able to accentuate the form. The pursuit of popularity, simplicity and functionalism that the basic concept of Constructive fashion is one of the "beauty" which has been searching in modern fashion. And now we can appreciate how innovative and epochal this Soviet Constructive fashion movement was.ement was.

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A Study on the Costumes in the Dong A II Bo - $1920{\sim}1945$ - (동아일보(東亞日報)에 나타난 복식연구(服飾硏究))

  • Son, Myong-Im;Kim, Jin-Goo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.14
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    • pp.145-165
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    • 1990
  • This study examine closely conditions of costume between the Modernized period and Liberation with newspaper materials. Because newspaper generally appear society conditions in those days on rapid and across-the boad basis. The Modernized period is extremely change among history of costum (ordinance prohibiting top knots, allowance of foreign clothes putting on). Because this change have been spontaneously not by internal desired but Western input by the strong nation of imperialism to enclose Chosun, they was accepted by the general public later under the rule of Japaneses Imperialism. Consequently, study of costume play an important part periods between the Japanese annexation of Korea and Liberation. This study apply to newspaper characteric for costume, and closely examine an important costum condition of those days next time, and present costume material in those days that composed the account catalog appeared periods between the first publication(1920) of the Dong A II Bo, and in the year 1945, it is as follows. 1. Foreign clothes of men generally accept the general public on look at from form change, in the 1920's had come short Jackets and narrow throusers into fashion, in the 1930's had come trousers of generous waist band with broads shoulder and long Jackets. Catalog of Major clothes is as follows; Spring coat, Jacket, Vest, Shirt, etc. While pants had come trousers into fashion 2. Functional characteric of Foreign clothes was the possible acceptance of women's foreign clothes. It relate with much discussion to improve Korean development in those days and substitute foreign clothes for Korean clothes because of institence in those days to improve functional clothes life. 3. An improvement women's Korean clothes generally take aim at women's nipple liberation, substitute vest waist for skirt waist, appear seamless one-piece skirt of shade length, and long dress length of Jacket. 4. Children's clothes give an account of functional and sanitary conditions, handling method, washing method. 5. Clothes materials give account of foreign clothes material, artificial silk, furs, cotton fabrics, and etc. 6. Clothes management give an account of washing, keeping method, washing method of foreign clothes, and keeping of furs. 7. The hair generaly had come short hair into fashion in men's case, while accounts on long hair fashion of foreign nation effect in case of women. 8. Describing on beauty care manage primary beauty care, reform, plastic operation, and shade beauty care. Ideal beauty care deal with natural and dignified buauty care. 9. Accesaries (hat, handbag, handkerchief, gloves) change with fashion of clothes, it rapid more than clothes fashion. 10. On encouragement of abolition of white clothes and putting on dyeing clothes, because of economic defect of white clothes, psychology and beauty consequently, white clothes is on the rise abolition. In national level almost substitute dyeing clothes for control and improvement of people of all social standings consequently, dress and its ornaments conditions in those days analyzed account of Dong-A II Bo accept the foreign clothes that introduced internal country of the whole century, and substitute dyeing for white clothes. Costume condition in those days appear the mixed conditions of Korean clothes and Foreign clothes. In the 1920's is the first consideration dress and its ornaments form of Korean clothes. As later goes on foreign is given much weight in the whole clothes life. Account of foreign clothes managemental ways appear in the 1920's, while those facts prove the point that appeared the account that always dealed with concrete content of foreign fashion in the 1930's.

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Distribution of Heavy metals in Soil at Iksan 1st Industrial Complex Area (익산 제 1 공단 토양의 중금속 함량 분포 조사)

  • Kim, Seong-Jo;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Moon, Kwang-Hyun;Jang, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Su-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to compare heavy metal concentrations in uncontaminated soil with those in soil influenced by industrial activities, and to investigate the relationship between change of heavy metal content and the kind of industry at the Iksan 1st Industrial Complex that has started since 1975. Soils sampled in 0-3㎝ and 3-6㎝ soil depth, respectively were analized for content of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Change of heavy metal content in soil of the industrial complex were more accumulated 16 to 25% of Cd and Cu, 93% of Pb and Zn, respectively in samples compared with natural soil uncontaminated. But there was no different in Ni content between two soil. Distribution of Cd in soil layer of 0 to 3cm was the highest concentration of 5 ppm more at the textile industries, and then higher at the chemicals and the food processing industries. In 3 to 6㎝ soil layer Cd content was the highest concentration of 5 ppm more at the metal processing industries, and then higher at the textile industries. Cd accumulation in soil was different according to a kind of industry and soil depth. Cu content was the highest value of 400 ppm more in soil layer of 0 to 3cm at the manufacturing electric wires industry area and showed the accumulation phenomenon in soil layer 3 to 6cm at the ohmmeter, machines and electric wires industry area. Ni content was 35 ppm more in soil of the metal plating and processing industries regardless of soil sampling layer. Then it was 25 ppm more in soil of the building stones and semiconductor industries. Pb content was from 400 to 1000 ppm in soil of the chemicals and textiles industries regardless of soil sampling layer. Zn content was 1200 ppm more in soil of the chemicals and silk fabrics industries regardless of soil depth, and then lower in order to soil of leather processing${\le}$metal plating industries. In conclusion, changes of heavy metal kinds and content in soil of this industrial complex area were caused by the type or kinds of industrial activities. Changes of Pb and Zn content in soil were dominated at this area.

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