The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between children's dietary self-efficacy, general characteristics and mother's parenting self-efficacy among elementary school students. Mother's parenting self-efficacy was significantly higher as parents' educational levels increased (p<0.001), as family monthly income level increased (p<0.001), and when father's job was professional or managing work (p<0.001). Children's dietary self-efficacy was meaningfully higher when parents' educational levels were higher (p<0.01), and family income level was higher (p<0.01). Mother's parenting self-efficacy showed a correlation with children's dietary self-efficacy (p<0.001). All factors comprising parenting self-efficacy, such as 'general parenting self-efficacy' (p<0.001), 'healthy parenting self-efficacy' (p<0.001), 'communication parenting self-efficacy' (p<0.001), 'educational parenting self-efficacy' (p<0.001), and 'control parenting self-efficacy' (p<0.001) showed correlation with children's dietary self-efficacy. It is suggested that in order to improve children's dietary self-efficacy and mothers' parenting self-efficacy, families, schools, and communities must put forth a concerted effort. By complementing existing nutritional programs focusing on nutritional knowledge, one can develop a education program and social support to enhance children's dietary self-efficacy and mothers' parenting self-efficacy.
Recently, self-efficacy is one of the critical constructs that have been found to influence human decisions about behavior selection and the performance associated with the selected behavior. The construct has been widely adopted and tested In the fields of social psychology and/or other behavioral sciences. In information systems field, however, it has been hardly studied, although computer self-efficacy could have been an important factor explaining and predicting human computer usage behaviors. From this perspective, main purposes of the study is to understand causal relation among the factors influencing computer self- efficacy, computer usage behavior and computer self-efficacy. The research reported in this study have several objectives; 1) to develop a measure of computer self-efficacy, 2) to Identify the factors influencing self-efficacy, and 3) to reveal the relationship between self-efficacy and computer usage behavior and then 4) to explain the causal model of computer self-efficacy. By reviewing the literature, past experience, others' use, encouragement by others, and anxiety are selected as the factors influencing computer self-efficacy. Four hypotheses concerning the relationship between each of the variables and computer self-efficacy are tested by LISREL. One more hypothesis about the relationship between computer self-efficacy and computer usage is also tested. The results show that computer self-efficacy is significantly influence by computer anxiety, encouragement by others, and computer experience, and that it is closely correlated with computer usage behavior.
This article reviewed and analyzed 39 studies on self efficacy theory applied to health related behavior. The following analysis was done : 1) study subjects 2) measurement tools 3) analysis according to the type of research design(intervention re-search, explanatory research). Some findings are summarized as follows : The study subjects were both healthy people in various developmental stages and patients with various illnesses. The health related behaviors examined in the studies were also various including exercise, smoking cessation, self care behaviors, etc. The measurement of self efficacy was done with specific tools in most studies. In the tools, activities that measured the health behavior domain were listed according to increasing difficulty or contexual arrangement or in combination of both of them The analysis of 17 intervention research studies showed that generally the intervention program increased the self efficacy level of subjects and then the increased strongly self efficacy influenced behavioral changes. Most studies used more than one intervention method for increasing the self efficacy level. these were derived from sources of self efficacy suggested by Bandura. The analysis of 21 explanatory research studies showed that self efficacy strongly influenced behavior change and persistence. The major independent variable to affect the self efficacy was performance accomplishment in the past. Self efficacy explained more of the variance in health related behavior when it was applied with the variables in the health belief model, health promotion model, and reasoned action theory. On the basis of the above findings, the following suggestions are made : 1. For a desirable research design, self efficacy should be the intervening variable. That is, desirable designs would include intervention-self efficacy-behavior in intervention research studies and antecedent-self efficacy-behavior in explanatory research studies. 2. More prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to test the effect of self efficacy on persistence in health related behavior. 3. Studies comparing the effects of intervention methods are needed for each health related behavior, subject group, and context. 4. It is necessary to develop a reliable, valid measurement tool for self efficacy for each health related behavior. 5. Studies to differenciate the effect of self efficacy from that of outcome expectation on the health related behavior are necessary. 6. The antecedents of self efficacy should be investigated further.
Purpose: This study was conducted to find out the effects of self-efficacy on job stress symptoms and coping strategies depending on perceived job stress. Method: The subjects were 447 workers employed in a manufacturing company. Demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, job stress, job stress symptoms and coping strategies were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Each envelope to keep the secret sealed completed questionnaires. Result: Job stress and job stress symptoms in workers with a high level of self-efficacy were lower than those of a low level of self-efficacy. Active coping strategies in workers with a high level of self-efficacy group were higher than those of a low level of self-efficacy. In multiple regression analysis, job stress symptoms were significantly higher in increasing job stress, increasing self-efficacy, office workers, manager group and increasing age. Active coping strategies were significantly higher in increasing self-efficacy, increasing career, males and decreasing job stress. Whereas passive coping strategies were significantly higher in females, increasing job stress and increasing self-efficacy. Conclusion: This study suggests that self-efficacy is a significant factor on job stress, job stress symptoms and coping strategies. Therefore, developing a job stress management program to increase self-efficacy and verifying its effects are needed.
This study analyzed the impact of sense of self-efficacy on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among technical designers in order to acquire information needed for human resources management in the field of technical design. The study was implemented through a normative-descriptive survey method using a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 217 technical designers working at vendors and agents located in Seoul. The results revealed that there were significant differences in the sense of self-efficacy levels among technical designers according to age and work experience. Personal self-efficacy had a positive influence on both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, but also on affective, continuance, and normative organizational commitment. In addition, personal self-efficacy had a greater influence on extrinsic job satisfaction than social self-efficacy. Both personal and social self-efficacy influenced continuance commitment while there was no relationship between social self-efficacy and affective organizational commitment. However, a clear relationship was found between both social and personal self-efficacy and normative organizational commitment. Nevertheless, social self-efficacy had a greater influence on normative organizational commitment than personal self-efficacy. This fact demonstrates the need to exert more effort to promote the sense of personal self-efficacy of technical designers. These results could be used to provide appropriate proposals for human resources management in the field of technical design.
Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify gender differences in predictors on dietary self-efficacy in fifth and sixth grade elementary school children. Methods: The data were collected by a questionnaire given to the 408 children between June 7 to June 17, 2011. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Results: There were gender differences in dietary self-efficacy, exercise self-efficacy, dietary practice and depression. Dietary self-efficacy had a significant positive correlation with exercise self-efficacy and dietary practice and negative correlation with depression for both girls and boys. The predictors of dietary self-efficacy for boy were exercise self-efficacy and dietary practice, these factors explained 37.1% of the total variance. In girls, exercise self-efficacy and dietary practice were significant predictors and explained 38.7% of dietary self-efficacy. Conclusion: Based on the finding of this study, it is needed to develop a nursing intervention for dietary self-efficacy in elementary school children including to promote exercise self-efficacy and dietary practice.
The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
The purpose of this study was to explore and investigate: the direct impact of training on entrepreneurial performance and self-efficacy, the direct impact of leadership attitudes on entrepreneurial performance, and self-efficacy, the direct impact of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial performance, self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of training on entrepreneurial performance, and self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of leadership attitudes on entrepreneurial performance. This study purposively involved 131 entrepreneurs in Village-Owned Enterprises, Kuningan, Indonesia. The data was collected using a questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed using Path Analysis with SPSS statistical software. This study has several findings. First, training has a significant effect on entrepreneurial performance and self-efficacy. Second, leadership attitudes have a significant effect on entrepreneurial performance and self-efficacy. Third, self-efficacy has a significant effect on entrepreneurial performance. Fourth, self-efficacy mediates the effect of training on entrepreneurial performance. Fifth, self-efficacy mediates the effect of leadership attitudes on entrepreneurial performance. The findings demonstrated that using self-efficacy-based training and leadership attitudes can enhance entrepreneurial self-confidence and assist them to improve their performance.
Since self-efficacy was suggested by Bandura(1977) as the most important factor that affects human behavior, preceding studies about self-efficacy are frequently related with children, and it is a main stream that only personal factors are chosen as related factors of these studies. Considering we don't have enough studies about family factors that reflect qualitative and relational factors of adolescents' home background, this study was aimed to seize the actual condition of self-efficacy meaning perceived and emotional faith about their own ability. These are our major concerns: 1. What kind of tendency does self-efficacy and appearance stress of adolescents, family functioning show? 2. How strong are relative influences of variables on self-efficacy of adolescents? This study was operated on July and August, 2002, aimed 378 middle school and high school students in Jeon-Nam, Mokpo area. 378 question sheets were used for analysis. Followings are results of this study. First, aimed students' average mark of self-efficacy was 2.09, which meant a normal level. And in low-ranked part, self-control-efficacy was the highest, and confidence task difficulty preference was following. Furthermore, whole self-efficacy showed a little difference from the demographic factor of adolescents. In low-ranked part, however, confidence and self-efficacy showed a somewhat difference. As students grew up, confidence decreased, and male students showed higher self-control-efficacy than female ones. Second, appearance stress and family functioning degree had a strong relation with self-efficacy. Family functioning, had important interrelation not only with whole self-efficacy but also with low-ranked part of self-efficacy. In low-ranked part, self-control-efficacy and task difficulty preference were proportional to the family functioning degree. From these results, we can find that the appearance stress was an actual factor that affected the self-efficacy of adolescents, and their self-efficacy was strongly related with family functioning degree. Accordingly, affirmative emotion in family, harmonic communication among family members and sharing housekeeping works had an immediate influence on elevation of self-efficacy.
Purpose: This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of a self-efficacy promoting program and analyze its components. Method: The material used for this study were 18 self-efficacy promoting program studies carried out from Jan. 1980 to Oct. 2003. The studies were analyzed in differen categories: 1) types of dependent variables 2) sample characteristics 3) types of experimental treatment conditions 4) types of self-efficacy source and 5) total amount of time Result: 1) The weighted mean of a self-efficacy promoting program ranged from 1.383 to 0.015 2) for the experimental treatment condition, exercise had a much larger effect in increasing general self-efficacy and self-care than education 3) the studies using 3 sources had a much larger effect in increasing self-care than the studies using 4 sources 4) a time period longer than 900 minutes had a much larger effect in increasing specific self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and self-care than in a time period shorter than 900 minutes. 5) effect size of specific self-efficacy was significantly higher than general self-efficacy. Conclusion: These results can be used to guide the development of a self-efficacy promoting program for nursing practice.
Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
The purpose of this study was to help children with poor learning capacity to enhance their sense of self-efficacy by providing them the tea-culture education program. It had been executed for the target participants of 11 in 2012, 19 in 2013 and 24 in 2014 respectively during 3 years the participants who were recruited by 00 District office Dream start. The scores of pretest and posttest for the item of self-efficacy by gender did not show a significant meaning in 2012, while the scores of self-efficacy of female students were identified as higher than those of male students in 2013 and 2014. As the result of applying the tea-culture education program, there was no meaningful difference in the item of social self-efficacy among the sub-components of typical self-efficacy in 2013, but all has been revealed as improved in 2012, 2013, and 2014 including sub-variables such as learning self-efficacy, social self-efficacy and emotional self-efficacy as well as the general self-efficacy. Thus, the results of this investigation show that the tea-culture education program were effective in developing the self-efficacy of learning maladjusted children.
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