• Title, Summary, Keyword: seismic behavior

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Response scaling factors for nonlinear response analysis of MDOF system (다층건물의 비선형 반응해석을 위한 반응수정계수)

  • 한상환;이리형
    • Computational Structural Engineering
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 1995
  • Evaluating nonlinear response of a MDOF system under dynamic stochastic loads such as seismic excitation usually requires excessive computational efforts. To alleviate this computational difficulty, an approximation is developed in which the MDOF inelastic system is replaced by a simple nonlinear equivalent system(ENS).Me ENS retains the most important properties of the original system such as dynamic characteristics of the first two modes and the global yielding behavior of the MDOF system. The system response is described by the maximum global(building) and local(interstory) drifts. The equivalency is achieved by two response scaling factors, a global response scaling factor R/sub G/, and a local response scaling factor R/sub L/, applied to the responses of the ENS to match those of the original MDOF system. These response scaling factors are obtained as functions of ductility and mass participation factors of the first two modes of structures by extensive regression analyses based on results of responses of the MDOF system and the ENS to actual ground accelerations recorded in past earthquakes. To develop the ENS with two response scaling factors, Special Moment Resisting Steel Frames are considered. Then, these response scaling factors are applied to the response of ENS to obtain the nonlinear response of MDOF system.

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Detection of Groundwater Table Changes in Alluvium Using Electrical Resistivity Monitoring Method (전기비저항 모니터링 방법을 이용한 충적층 지하수위 변동 감지)

  • 김형수
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.139-149
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    • 1997
  • Electrical resistivity monitoring methods were adopted to detect groundwater table change in alluvium. Numerical modelling test using finite element method(FEM) and field resisfivity monitoring were conducted in the study. The field monitoring data were acquired in the alluvium deposit site in Jeong-Dong Ri, Geum River where pumping test had been conducted continuously for 20 days to make artificial changes of groundwater table. The unit distance of the electrode array was 4m and 21 fixed electrodes were applied in numerical calculation and field data acquisition. "Modified Wenner" and dipole-dipole array configurations were used in the study. The models used in two-dimensional numerical test were designed on the basis of the simplifving geological model of the alluvium in Jeong Dong Ri, Geum River. Numerical test results show that the apparent resistivity pseudosections were changed in the vicinity of the pootion where groundwater table was changed. Furthermore, there are some apparent resistivity changes in the boundary between aquifer and crystalline basement rock which overlays the aquifer. The field monitoring data also give similar results which were observed in numerical tests. From the numerical test using FEM and field resistivity monitoring observations in alluvium site of Geum River, the electrical monitoring method is proved to be a useful tool for detecting groundwater behavior including groundwater table change. There are some limitations, however, in the application of the resistivity method only because the change of groundwater table does not give enough variations in the apparent resistivity pseudosections to estimate the amount of groundwater table change. For the improved detection of groundwater table changes, it is desirable to combine the resistivity method with other geophysical methods that reveal the underground image such as high-resolution seismic and/or ground penetrating radar surveys.

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Analysis on the Rigid Connections of the Drilled Shaft with the Cap for Multiple Pile Foundations (현장타설말뚝을 적용한 다주식 기초에서 말뚝과 캡의 강결합에 대한 분석)

  • Cho, Sung-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2008
  • Piles of a bridge pier are connected with the column through the pile cap (footing). Behavior of the pile foundation can be different according to the connection method between piles and the pile cap. Connection methods between pile heads and the pile cap are divided into two groups : rigid connections and hinge connections. Domestic design code has been specified to use rigid connection method for the highway bridge. In the rigid connection method, maximum bending moment of a pile occurs at the pile head and this helps the pile to prevent the excessive displacement. Rigid methods are also good to improve the seismic performance. However, some specifications prescribe that conservative results through investigations of both the fixed-head condition and the free-head condition should be reflected in the design. This statement may induce an over-estimated design for the bridge which has high-quality structures with casing covered drilled shafts and the PC-house contained pile cap. Because the assumption of free-head conditions (hinge connections) is unreal for the elevated pile cap system with multiple piles of the long span sea-crossing bridges. On the other hand, elastic displacement method to evaluate the pile reactions under the pile cap is not suitable for this type of bridges due to impractical assumptions. So, full modeling techniques which analyze the superstructure and the substructure simultaneously should be performed. Loads and stress state of the large diameter drilled shaft and the pile cap for Incheon Bridge which will be the longest bridge of Korea were investigated through the full modeling for rigid connection conditions.

Verification of Frequency-Dependent Equivalent Linear Method (주파수 의존성을 고려한 등가선형해석기법의 검증)

  • Jeong, Chang-Gyun;Kwak, Dong-Yeop;Park, Du-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2008
  • One-dimensional site response analysis is widely used to simulate the seismic site effects. The equivalent linear analysis, which is the most widely used type of site response analysis, is essentially a linear method. The method applies constant shear modulus and damping throughout the frequency range of the input motion, ignoring the dependence of the soil response on the loading frequency. A new type of equivalent linear analysis method that can simulate the frequency dependence of the soil behavior via frequency-strain curve was developed. Various forms of frequency-strain curves were proposed, and all curves were asserted to increase the accuracy of the solution. However, its validity has not been extensively proven and the effect of the shape of the frequency-strain curve is not known. This paper used two previously proposed frequency-strain curves and three additional curves developed in this study to evaluate the accuracy of the frequency-dependent equivalent linear method and the influence of the shape of the frequency-strain curves. In the evaluation, six recordings from three case histories were used. The results of the case study indicated that the shape of the frequency-strain curve has a dominant influence on the calculated response, and that the frequency dependent analysis can enhance the accuracy of the solution. However, a curve that results in the best match for all case histories did not exist and the optimum curve varied for each case. Since the optimum frequency-strain curve can not be defined, it is recommended that a suite of curves be used in the analysis.

Rheology Control of Cement Paste for Applying ECC Produced with Slag Particles to Self-Consolidating and Shotcreting Process (고로슬래그 미분말이 혼입된 자기충전 및 숏크리트용 ECC의 개발을 위한 시멘트풀 레올로지 제어)

  • Park, Seung-Bum;Kim, Jeong-Su;Kim, Yun-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2008
  • An engineered cementitious composite produced with slag particles (Slag-ECC) had been developed based on micromechanical principle. Base grain ingredients were properly selected, and then the mixture proportion was optimized to be capable of achieving robust tensile ductility in the hardened state. The rheological design is performed in the present study by optimizing the amount of admixtures suitable for self-consolidating casting and shotcreting process in the fresh state. A special focus is placed on the rheological control which is directly applicable to the construction in field, using prepackaged product with all pulverized ingredients. To control the rheological properties of the composite, which possesses different fluid properties to facilitate two types of processing (i.e., self-consolidating and shotcreting processing), the viscosity change of the cement paste suspensions over time was initially investigated, and then the proper dosage of the admixtures in the cement paste was selected. The two types of mixture proportion were then optimized by self-consolidating & shotcreting tests. A series of self-consolidating and shotcreting tests demonstrated excellent self-consolidation property and sprayability of the Slag-ECC. The rheological properties altered through this approach were revealed to be effective in obtaining Slag-ECC hardened properties, represented by pseudo strain-hardening behavior in uniaxial tension, allowing the readily achievement of the desired function of the fresh Slag-ECC. These ductile composites with self-consolidating and shotcreting processing can be broadly utilized for a variety of applications, e.g., in strengthening seismic resistant structures with congested reinforcements, or in repairing deteriorated infrastructures by shotcreting process.

An Analytical Study for the Stair Joints Constructed with Prefabricated Form System (선시공 조립식 거푸집 공법을 이용한 계단 접합부의 접합방식에 따른 해석적 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Jin;Jin, Byung-Chang;Chang, Kug-Kwan
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.301-304
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    • 2008
  • The stair joints constructed with prefabricated system are general method doing structure design at hinge. If you regarded joints to come in contact with a flight of stairs and a slope of stairs as hinge, the moment performance of joints is not in the least moment, so as the bending moment of the stair case is increased, the reinforcement increase. Also the use is decreased because increasing the joint damage of the vibration & fatigue load. No less the reason constructed with pin the stair joints because the construction efficiency of field work is useable. Recently, they are considering the construction efficiency, while the semi-rigid detail for bending performance of joints is proposed, but for now they don't reflect the detail. Therefore, we proposed that reflecting the method at design semi-rigid joints. We compared the moment performance with the stair joints designed at the rigid joints, semi-rigid joints and pin joints. The nonlinear behavior of staircase core statically indeterminate structure. The result of research is that a bending stiffness modulus bring to reflect the semi-rigid performance, the performance of the semi-rigid joint is better than pin joints, and that is judged the system better seismic and vibration performance because have excellent ductility more than rigid joint.

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Flexural Test of H-Shape Members Fabricated of High-Strength Steel with Considering Local Buckling (국부좌굴을 고려한 고강도 조립 H형강 부재의 휨성능 실험)

  • Lee, Cheol-Ho;Han, Kyu-Hong;Park, Chang-Hee;Kim, Jin-Ho;Lee, Seung-Eun;Ha, Tae-Hyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.417-428
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    • 2011
  • Depending on the plastic deformation capacity required, structural steel design under the current codes can be classified into three categories: elastic, plastic, and seismic design. Most of the current steel codes explicitly forbid the use of a steel material with a yield strength higher than 450 MPa in the plastic design because of the concerns about its low plastic deformation capacity as well as the lack of test data on local and lateral torsional buckling behavior. In this study, flexural tests on full-scale H-shape members built with SM490A (ordinary steel or benchmark material) and HSB800 (high-strength steel) were carried out. The primary objective was to investigate the appropriateness of extrapolating the local buckling criterion of the current codes, which was originally developed for normal-strength steel, to the case of high-strength steel. All the SM490A specimens performed consistently with the current code criteria and exhibited sufficient strength and ductility. The performance of the HSB800 specimens was also very satisfactory from the strength perspective; even the specimens with a noncompact and slender flange developed the plastic moment capacity. The HSB800 specimens, however, showed an inferior plastic rotation capacity due to the premature tensile fracture of the beam bottom flange beneath the vertical stiffener at the loading point. The plastic rotation capacity that was achieved was less than 3 (or the minimum level required for a plastic design). Although the test results in this study indicate that the extrapolation of the current flange local-buckling criterion to the case of high-strength steel is conservative from the elastic design perspective, further testing together with an associated analytical study is required to identify the causes of the tensile fracture and to establish a flange slenderness criterion that is more appropriate for high-strength steel.