• Title, Summary, Keyword: sarcopenia

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Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic interventions in sarcopenia

  • Park, Sung Sup;Kwon, Eun-Soo;Kwon, Ki-Sun
    • Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 2017
  • Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of muscle mass and function with aging. Recently sarcopenia was recognized as a clinical disease by the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, Clinical Modification. An imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation causes a gradual loss of muscle mass, resulting in a decline of muscle function as a progress of sarcopenia. Many mechanisms involved in the onset of sarcopenia include age-related factors as well as activity-, disease-, and nutrition-related factors. The stage of sarcopenia reflecting the severity of conditions assists clinical management of sarcopenia. It is important that systemic descriptions of the disease conditions include age, sex, and other environmental risk factors as well as levels of physical function. To develop a new therapeutic intervention needed is the detailed understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms by which apoptosis, autophagy, atrophy, and hypertrophy occur in the muscle stem cells, myotubes, and/or neuromuscular junction. The new strategy to managing sarcopenia will be signal-modulating small molecules, natural compounds, repurposing of old drugs, and muscle-specific microRNAs.

Prevalence of Sarcopenia Among the Elderly in Korea: A Meta-Analysis

  • Choo, Yoo Jin;Chang, Min Cheol
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2021
  • Objectives: Sarcopenia is a common disease in the elderly population that causes disability, poor quality of life, and a high risk of death. In the current study, we conducted a meta-analysis to report basic knowledge about the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly in Korea. Methods: We searched for articles in the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Scopus databases published until December 28, 2020. Studies investigating the prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly Koreans aged ≥65 years were included. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Publication bias was evaluated using the Egger test and funnel plots. Results: In total, 3 studies and 2922 patients were included in the meta-analysis. All 3 studies used the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria for the diagnosis of sarcopenia. The total prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.1-14.9% in elderly men and 11.4% in elderly women. Conclusions: This meta-analysis is the first to estimate the pooled prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly Koreans, and its findings suggest that sarcopenia is common in this population. Therefore, attention should be paid to the prevention and control of sarcopenia.

Association Between Sarcopenia and Tooth Loss

  • Han, Chang Hoon;Chung, Jae Ho
    • Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.145-150
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    • 2018
  • Background: The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence and extent of periodontal disease and tooth loss are increased in participants with sarcopenia. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 8,053 males (sarcopenia, 2,772; nonsarcopenia, 5,281) and 10,729 females (sarcopenia, 3,085; nonsarcopenia, 7,644) ${\geq}18years$ of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011 and underwent assessments of oral health and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Muscle mass index was calculated as appendicular muscle mass divided by height squared. The cutoff values for sarcopenia were $7.0kg/m^2$ for males and $5.4kg/m^2$ for females. Results: The group with sarcopenia brushed their teeth less frequently. The presence of periodontitis was significantly higher in participants with sarcopenia (males, 30.3%; females, 45.9%) than in participants without sarcopenia (males, 18.3%; females, 17.4%) (p<0.001). The number of natural teeth was significantly lower in participants with sarcopenia. The adjusted odds ratio for sarcopenia in participants with <20 natural teeth compared to those with full dentition was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-2.48) in males and 2.86 (95% CI, 2.31-3.56) in females. Subgroup analysis of the adjusted odds ratio for sarcopenia in older (${\geq}65years$) individuals with <20 natural teeth was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.49-2.66) in males and 2.63 (95% CI, 2.25-3.64) in females. Conclusion: Loss of the natural teeth wass significantly associated with sarcopenia.

Effect of Sarcopenia on Postoperative Mortality in Osteoporotic Hip Fracture Patients

  • Kim, You Keun;Yi, Seung Rim;Lee, Ye Hyun;Kwon, Jieun;Jang, Seok In;Park, Sang Hoon
    • Journal of Bone Metabolism
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2018
  • Background: Few studies have investigated the effects of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes including mortality rates following surgery for osteoporotic hip fractures. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and the relationship between sarcopenia and 1- and 5-year mortality rates in a consecutive series of patients with osteoporotic hip fractures. Methods: Among patients who underwent hip surgery for osteoporotic hip fractures, this study included 91 patients subjected to abdominal computed tomography within 1 year of hip surgery. We defined sarcopenia using sex-specific cut-off points for the skeletal muscle index at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. All patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of sarcopenia and the 1- and 5-year mortality rates were compared. To confirm factors affecting mortality in addition to sarcopenia, we examined patient age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, location of fracture, type of surgery, and bone mineral density. Results: The 1- and 5-year mortality rates were 20.9% and 67.2%, respectively. Among the 45 patients with sarcopenia, the 1- and 5-year mortality rates were 22.2% and 82.7%, respectively. Of the 46 patients without sarcopenia, the 1- and 5-year mortality rates were 19.6% and 52.7%, respectively. Results of the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that sarcopenia did not affect the 1-year mortality rate (P=0.793), but had a significant effect on the 5-year mortality rate (P=0.028). Both perioperative sarcopenia (P=0.018) and osteoporosis (P=0.000) affected the 5-year mortality rate. Conclusions: Sarcopenia increases the risk of 5-year mortality in patients with osteoporotic hip fractures.

Relationship between diet quality and sarcopenia in elderly Koreans: 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • Na, Woori;Kim, Jiyu;Chung, Bong Hee;Jang, Dai-Ja;Sohn, Cheongmin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.352-364
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing proportion of the Korean population that is aged 65 years and older, the present study analyzed the relationship between diet quality and sarcopenia in elderly persons by using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data for 3,373 persons aged 65 years and over (men: 1,455, 43.1%) were selected from the 2008-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia assessments are based on a formula that divides a subject's appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by their weight (wt) and multiplies that result by 100 ([ASM/wt] × 100). Sarcopenia is present if the subject's result was less than one standard deviation (SD) below the sex-specific mean for a young reference group. For evaluation of diet quality, data obtained via the 24-hour recall method were used to calculate the Diet Quality Index for Koreans (DQI-K). A general linear model was applied in order to analyze general information and nutritional intake according to sarcopenia status. For analysis of the relationship between diet quality and sarcopenia, a binominal logistic regression analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: The sarcopenia prevalence rate among the study subjects aged 65 years and over was 37.6%. The DQI-K of those without sarcopenia was 3.33 ± 0.04 points, while that of those with sarcopenia was 3.45 ± 0.04 points (P < 0.05). The relationship between diet quality and sarcopenia revealed that subjects aged 75 and older had a poor diet quality, and their odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia presence was significantly higher (OR: 1.807, 95% confidence interval: 1.003-3.254, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that poor diet quality was related to sarcopenia presence in Koreans aged 75 and older. In order to improve the diet quality of the elderly (aged 75 and older), it is necessary to develop dietary improvement guidelines.

Sarcopenia and Neurosurgery

  • Park, Seung Won
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2014
  • Aging process can be characterized as a spontaneous decrease of function in various organs with age. Muscle, as a big organ of human body, undergoes aging process presenting with loss of muscle mass, "sarcopenia". Recently, several working groups have tried to make consensus about sarcopenia for definition and diagnosis. Muscle mass is known to be closely related with bone, brain, fat, cardiovascular and metabolic systems. With increased understanding, clinical and basic researches about sarcopenia have been also increased rapidly from various areas of health science and technology. In this paper, the history and recent concepts of sarcopenia were reviewed and brief discussion of its prospect in the field of neurosurgery was done.

Association between nutritional status, sarcopenia, and frailty in rural elders (농촌 지역 노인의 영양 상태, 근감소증과, 노쇠의 연관성)

  • Lee, Su-Hyeon;Park, Ki-soo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2021
  • Objectives: Frailty and sarcopenia are recent important concepts in elder health care. Sarcopenia is the most important factor influencing frailty, and exercise and nutritional status are known to affect sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between nutritional status, sarcopenia, and frailty. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional design. The subjects of this study were 411 elderly people aged 65 or older from 10 villages in Gyeongnam. The survey tools were the K-FRAIL for frailty, the GDS-SF for depression, the SARC-F questionnaire for sarcopenia, and the DETERMINE for nutritional status. Frequency analysis, the chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed using the SPSS 25.0 program. Results: As a result of the chi-square test, there was a significant difference in the nutritional status and the frailty proportion (p<0.001), and there was a significant difference between frailty and suspected sarcopenia (p<0.001). After adjustment, nutritional status was significantly associated with sarcopenia (OR=2.946, p<0.001). In addition, nutritional status was significantly associated with frailty (OR=2.958, p<0.001), and sarcopenia also had a significant effect on frailty (OR=5.898, p<0.001). Finally, even after including sarcopenia, nutritional status had a significant effect on frailty (OR=2.246, p=0.002). Conclusions: Nutritional status can have both a direct effect on frailty and an indirect effect through sarcopenia, and it was found that sarcopenia also affects frailty. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate sarcopenia and nutritional status and to evaluate their levels in the elderly and to take appropriate interventions.

Sarcopenia in Cancer Patients

  • Chindapasirt, Jarin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8075-8077
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    • 2016
  • Sarcopenia, characterized by a decline of skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance, has emerged to be an important prognostic factor for advanced cancer patients. It is associated with poor performance status, toxicity from chemotherapy, and shorter time of tumor control. There is limited data about sarcopenia in cancer patients and associated factors. Moreover, the knowledge about the changes of muscle mass during chemotherapy and its impact to response and toxicity to chemotherapy is still lacking. This review aimed to provide understanding about sarcopenia and to emphasize its importance to cancer treatment.

Associations between Sarcopenia and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Du, Yang;Oh, Chorong;No, Jaekyung
    • Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.175-185
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    • 2018
  • Background: Metabolic risk factors can impact sarcopenia, but the direct relationship of metabolic risk factors with sarcopenia has not been examined. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of metabolic risk factors on sarcopenia in older adults. Methods: Sixteen studies were found through a search of electronic databases and were subjected to a meta-analysis to investigate the differences in metabolic risk factors between patients with sarcopenia and controls. The random-effects standardized mean difference ${\pm}95%$ confidence interval was calculated as the effect size. Results: The results showed that body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides (TG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol (d=3.252, d=2.039, d=2.956, d=2.579, d=2.123, d=1.195, d=-0.991, and d=1.007, respectively) all had relationships with sarcopenia. In addition, the effect sizes of all male groups for all variables were higher than those of the female groups. However, only the between-sex effect size of HOMA-IR (P<0.01) was significant, while those for BMI, fasting glucose, SBP, DBP, TG, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol were not. Finally, the metabolic risk factors appeared to be significantly related to loss of skeletal muscle. Conclusion: Nutrition and appropriate exercise to enhance muscle strength and quality in the elderly reduce the occurrence of sarcopenia, thereby reducing the incidence of metabolic diseases.

Pre-clinical Models and Exercise Effects for Sarcopenia and Frailty (근감소증과 노쇠의 전임상 모델 및 운동 효과)

  • Jee, Hyunseok;Huh, Jung Bin;Kim, Jong-Hee
    • 한국체육학회지인문사회과학편
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.423-433
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding animal sarcopenia and frailty models and their diagnosis indexes. In addition, we introduce the effects of exercise interventions on sarcopenia and frailty syndrome. Data collection and analysis (fifteen published articles from 2005~2017) were conducted by using keywords' sarcopenia index, frailty index, exercise and mice, and so on' in academic search engines such as Google scholar and Pubmed. Sarcopenia and frailty are the representative syndromes in elderly peoples which those symptoms can be effectively prevented or delayed by extremely adjusted long term exercise interventions (The combined oxidative and resistant exercise program might be ideal.).