• Title, Summary, Keyword: rye flour

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The Optimized Formulas of Rye Bread on the Sensory Properties using RSM (RSM을 적용한 관능 특성에 따른 Rye Bread의 최적 Formulas에 대한 연구)

  • Kwon Kyung-Soohn
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.278-285
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    • 2004
  • The effects of water, rye flour and vital gluten on the sensory properties of bread were studied by response surface methodology and sensory evaluations. A response surface model was used to evaluate the effects observed and to determine the optimum variations for rye bread. The study included 12 combinations of the following independent variables: Water(57, 62, 67%), Rye flour(0, 10, 30, 50%), and Vital gluten(0, 1, 3, 5%). Bread quality attributes determined were specific volume, color, texture, appearance, taste, chewiness, moisture, overall. Rye bread specific volume, sensory evaluation values and Instrumental testing results were significantly affected by variety (water, rye flour and vital gluten). Rye bread with a high specific volume was produced using water 67%, rye flour 10% and vital gluten 3%. Whereas, rye breads with a high overall sensory evaluation were water 62 %, rye flour 10 % and vital gluten 5%. And Specific volume predicted and overall preference also was shown high. It was shown that the experimental design used provided information about the rye bread of variation of water, rye flour and vital gluten and can be a useful supplement to standardized and optimized formulas in rye bread making. The results suggest that water, rye flour, vital gluten can be combined in rye bread making at various levels, contributing to optimize the functional properties of rye bread. These result represents that breads loaf volume related to directly consumer preference.

Quality Characteristics of Bread Containing Sourdough Using Various Grain Flours (다양한 곡류의 Sourdough를 첨가한 식빵의 품질특성)

  • Lee, Kyung Sook;Park, Geum Soon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.264-279
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    • 2015
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of sourdough to various grain flours in bread, specifically, in regards to the physicochemical characteristics of bread dough, sensory evaluation, and bread storage. As the incubation time of sourdough increased, the total titratable acidity increased. Viable yeast counts of sourdough increased consistently until the third day, while lactic acid bacteria counts increased until the second day. The weight of breads containing sourdough made with rye flour, strong flour, and Korean wheat flour were higher than that of the control. However, the height, volume, and specific volume of control were higher than those of the groups with sourdough made with various grain flours. The pH of breads containing sourdough was lower than that of the control, while the total titratable acidity and moisture content were higher than those of the control. In analyzing the visible mold colony during the five days of storage at $30^{\circ}C$, mold growth in breads containing sourdough made of Korean wheat flour, barely flour, and rye flour was retarded. In the color measurement, the L values of the control and bread containing sourdough made with barley flour were higher than that of the other groups after five days. The a value of bread containing sourdough made of rye flour was higher, and the b values of breads containing sourdough made of Korean wheat flour, barley flour and rye flour were higher than those of the other groups after five days. The hardness of breads containing sourdough increased as storage time increased, where as breads containing sourdough made of Korean wheat flour, Korean whole wheat flour, and rye flour revealed no significant differences with control group. Sensory evaluation scores in terms of after swallowing, taste, and overall preference of bread containing sourdough made of Korean wheat flour was higher than those of the control group.

Analysis of Rheological Properties of Rye Flour (호밀가루의 레올로지 특성분석)

  • Lee, Gwi-Hyun
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.408-412
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    • 2010
  • Rheological properties of cereals such as rye are great important for the design of die for extrusion and the development of models for extrusion process. Therefore, this study was carried out to analyze the rheological properties according to moisture content of rye flour and extrusion temperature. Rheological properties of rye flour were investigated by using a capillary rheometer for moisture content of three levels (30, 35, 40%) and extrusion temperature of three levels (120, 130, $140^{\circ}C$). Determination coefficients for the relationship between apparent shear stress ($\tau_{ap}$) and apparent shear velocity ($\gamma_{ap}$) were relatively high in the range of 0.973 ~ 0.997 under each extrusion condition. The values of consistency index (K) was decreased with increasing moisture content and extrusion temperature. However, the value of flow behavior index (n) presented the highest value at moisture content of 35%, but it was not affected by extrusion temperature.

Determining the Water Absorption and Rheological Properties of Rye Dough Made Using the Planetary Mixer P 600

  • Kim, Mun-Yong;Freund, Walter;Chun, Soon-Sil
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.456-462
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    • 2009
  • In comparison to processed wheat flour products, there is no established method for determining the water absorption of rye flour. The aim of this study was to work out a method using the Planetary mixer P 600 for the determination of water absorption (WA) and the rheological properties in rye dough made from rye flours of 4 different types (I-IV). In the correlation analysis showed that WA had positive correlation with ash, beginning of gelatinization, $125-160{\mu}m$ particles, sedimentation values at 20 and 25 min, bread yield, pH, and total titratable acidity, but had negative correlation with initial viscosity, gelatinization maximum, viscosities on swelling at 25, 28, and $31^{\circ}C$. The WA determined by the Planetary mixer P 600 agreed well with the experimental baking tests.

Quality Characteristics of Rye Mixed Bread Prepared with Substitutions of Naturally Fermented Raisin Extract and Sourdough (건포도 천연 발효액과 Sourdough를 이용한 호밀 혼합빵의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Mun-Yong;Chun, Soon-Sil
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2008
  • In this study, a nanatural fermentation starter formulation was developed for manufacturing bread products by substituting baker's yeast with naturally fermented raisin extract and sourdough. Four experimental groups containing 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10% naturally fermented raisin extract per 2,000 g of flour were compared based on quality characteristics, including the fermentation power on dough expansion, specific volume, baking loss, water activity, color, textural characteristics, and internal surface appearance. The activities of the naturally fermented raisin extract were examined in terms of pH changes, total titratable acidity, brix, and viable yeast counts. The raisin extract, which was cultured for 7 days at 30$^{\circ}C$, smelled of alcohol and produced $CO_2$. Yeast were also found in the extract after separation. As the incubation time of the raisin extract and sourdough increased, pH decreased, while total titratable acidity increased. The brix of the raisin extract increased until the $2^{nd}$ day of fermentation, and viable yeast counts increased until the $5^{th}$ day however, these gradually decreased by the $7^{th}$ day. The fermenting power on dough expansion increased in the bread with increasing incubation time. The bread samples containing 7.5% and 10% raisin extract had significantly higher specific volumes than the other samples. Baking loss was minimal with the 2.5% extract substitution. In analyzing the crumb, water activity, redness, and yellowness were highest in the 10.0% raisin extract bread samples, and lightness was maximal in the 5.0% group. In terms of textural characteristics, hardness was lowest with the 2.5% extract substitution. Gumminess, springiness, and chewiness were not significantly different among the bread samples. Cohesiveness was highest at the 7.5% extract substitution level, and resilience was lowest at the 10% level. In conclusion, based on the results, a natural fermentation starter formulated with 2.5% naturally fermented raisin extract (1 part raisins and 1.5 parts water) and 70% sourdough (1 part rye flour and 1 part water) has high potential as a baker's yeast substitute for making naturally fermented bread.

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Effects of Sourdough on the Quality Characteristics of Rye-Wheat Mixed Bread (Sourdough 대체가 호밀-밀 혼합빵의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Mun-Yong;Chun, Soon-Sil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.625-632
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    • 2008
  • Rye-wheat mixed bread samples made with substitutions of 20, 40, 60 and 80% sourdough, and control made with the addition of naturally fermented raisin extract, were examined for quality characteristics such as pH, total titratable acidity, fermentation power of dough expansion, specific volume, baking loss, water activity, color, texture, external and internal surface appearance, and sensory qualities, in order to determine the optimal ratio of sourdough in the formulation. As the incubation time of sourdough increased, pH decreased, while total titratable acidity increased. The pH of rye-wheat mixed doughs decreased with increasing sourdough content, but total titratable acidity increased. The rye-wheat mixed breads prepared with substitutions of sourdough had higher pH and lower total titratable acidity than the control group. Fermentation power of dough expansion of rye-wheat mixed doughs increased with increasing incubation time. Specific volume was maximum on the 20% substitution sourdough. Baking loss was inferior with the 80% substitution sourdough. Water activity and lightness was minimum on the control group. The higher amounts of sourdough showed the higher tendency of lightness, redness and yellowness. In the texture characteristics, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness was minimum on the control group and tended to increase with higher substitution of sourdough. Substitution of sourdough showed decrease adhesiveness. Fracturability, cohesiveness, and resilience of all rye-wheat mixed breads were not significantly different. Springiness was maximum on the 20% substitution sourdough and minimum on the 40%. A side of loaf of rye-wheat mixed breads, except for 20%, had a poor break and shred. In sensory evaluation, as substitution amount of sourdough increased, the scores of color and consistency of crumb, uniformity of crumb pore, gumminess, and overall acceptability decreased; while the density of crumb pore, springiness of crumb, aroma of rye flour, sourness, and bitterness showed the reverse effect; the 20, 40, and 60% sourdough samples obtained fairly good scores. In conclusion, these results indicated that $20{\sim}60%$ of sourdough could be very useful as a substitute for baker's yeast in developing rye-wheat mixed bread.

Development of Competitive Indirect ELISA for the Detection of Buckwheat in Processed Foods (가공식품 중 메밀 검출을 위한 경합 ELISA의 개발)

  • Back, Su-Yeon;Do, Jeong-Ryong;Shon, Dong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.269-275
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    • 2014
  • We developed a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for determining the buckwheat content in processed foods by using rabbit polyclonal antibodies against buckwheat proteins (BWP). The detection limit of this assay was $0.05-100{\mu}g/mL$. The cross-reactivities of the anti-BWP antibodies toward BWP, buckwheat flour, whole buckwheat, and cereals (wheat flour, whole wheat, black bean, mung bean, red bean, brack rice, brown rice, glutinous rice, white rice, millet, African millet, nonglutinous millet, adlay, and rye) were 100, 17.9, 11.8, and 0%, respectively. Thus, the antibodies were found to be specific for buckwheat only. When buckwheat flour was heated for 30 min, the mean assay recoveries of BWP were 83.0% at $60-90^{\circ}C$ and 44.5% at $100^{\circ}C$. The spike test showed that the mean assay recoveries of buckwheat from raw noodle, boiled noodle, starch gel, and cereal flour were 99.1, 98.6, 81.1, and 104%, respectively. For the 22 commercial items tested, the qualitative coincidence ratio of assay result and the corresponding value indicated on the item's package label was 100%. However, the average quantitative coincidence ratios from 12 commercial items were 31.6%. Thus, the results suggest that ciELISA is an efficient tool to detect buckwheat in processed foods.

Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread by Pomegranate with Added Pomegranate Powder (석류 분말을 첨가한 식빵 반죽의 물리적 특성)

  • Shin, Soon-Rye;Shin, Sol;Shin, Gil-Man
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.492-498
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of the white pan bread prepared with pomegranate powder. Three different powder concentration levels of 1%, 2% and 3% were added to flour to make the bread. The contents of moisture and crude fat contents of the bread added with to which pomegranate powder was added were lower than that of the control group. However, the ash content was not did not significantly different differ significantly among groups. The pH increased with increasing concentrations of pomegranate powder concentration. The weight of bread increased with increasing concentrations of pomegranate powder concentration, while whereas the volume and baking loss rate of bread concomitantly decreased. In terms of color values, with increase increases in of the concentration of pomegranate powder concentration, induced a reduction in the L value decreased, but and a concomitant increase in the a and b values increased. The water activity in the bread decreased by with increasing pomegranate powder concentration, and was the highest in the control group. In the Upon texture analyzer measurement analysis, the hardness of the bread was shown to increased increase with increases of in the concentration of pomegranate powder concentration, but the springiness decreased. In the With regard to the results of sensory evaluation, the quality of the 1% pomegranate powder bread showed the evidenced the highest in taste, flavor, and overall acceptability. The color, appearance, mouth feel, and texture of the bread decreased with the increasing pomegranate powder content concentrations. From According to the results of this study, the white bread prepared with 1% pomegranate powder content was shown judged to have the best highest quality.

Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

  • Lee, Jae Eun;Lee, Jae Young;Kim, Hong Rye;Shin, Hyun Young;Lin, Tao;Jin, Dong Il
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.788-795
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    • 2015
  • Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum.

A Study on Quality Characteristics of Sourdough Breads with Addition of Red Yeast Rice (홍국(Red Yeast Rice)을 이용한 Sourdough Bread의 품질특성 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Hoon;Kwak, Eun-Jung;Kim, Ji-Sang;Lee, Kwang-Suck;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.785-793
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of red yeast rice addition on the physical characteristics of sourdough starters ($SD1{\sim}4$) and the quality characteristics of sourdough bread (CSB, $SDB1{\sim}3$). Moisture contents of red yeast rice, wheat flour, and rye flour were 6.15, 12.53, and 8.56%; ash contents were 0.15, 0.44, and 1.64%; protein contents were 7.30, 12.57, and 11.18%; crude lipid contents were 0.97, 1.16, and 2.49%, respectively. The pH decreased with increasing red yeast rice addition. Reducing sugar and total sugar increased with increasing red yeast rice addition. Lactic acid bacteria were not detected from 0 day for all samples and was maximum on the 2nd day. The yeast counts of SD1 were not detected from $0{\sim}4th$ day, but $SD2{\sim}4$ increased until the 3rd day. Peak time, peak value, and width of tail of CSB were higher than $SDB1{\sim}3$, and they increased with increasing red yeast rice contents of sourdough. The fermentation expansive power of $SDB1{\sim}3$ was higher than that of CSB. Baking loss and specific volume of SDB1 were higher than other samples and when baking loss of CSB and SDB1${\sim}$3 increased, the specific volume increased. L values decreased with increasing red yeast rice contents of sourdough bread whereas, a and b values increased. Springiness and brittleness of CSB and gumminess of SCB1 were lower than other samples. Springiness, brittleness, and gumminess increased with increasing red yeast rice content of sourdough bread. The sensory evaluation indicated that color, hardness, springiness, sweetness, and sourness increased with increasing red yeast rice content of sourdough bread. Aircell non-uniformity of SDB1 was lower than other samples, whereas off-flavor was higher than other samples.