• Title, Summary, Keyword: river ice

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A Study on the Measurement of River Ice Thickness by Using X-band Scatterometer (X-밴드 산란계를 이용한 하천 얼음 두께 측정에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Hyang-Sun;Kim, Bum-Jun;Lee, Hoon-Yol
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we setup a ground-based scatterometer using an antenna of which the center frequency is 9.5 GHz (X-band), and measured radar backscatterings from air/ice and ice/water interfaces to extract ice thickness. Both of air/ice and ice/water interfaces make strong radar backscatterings and so we can clearly identify two peaks in measured data by scatterometer. By using the distance of two peaks and refractive index of ice, we confirmed that it is possible to measure ice thickness. Field survey was performed at the downstream of Jiam River flowing into Chuncheon Lake. We measured radar backscattering from river ice along a survey path and extracted ice thickness. The ice thickness map of the downstream of Jiam River was produced by using kriging which is one of well known interpolation methods. The ice thickness was about 50 cm along the mainstream while ice was thin as 30 ~ 40 cm at a fast-flowing meander. Ice thickness was particularly thinner at some locations than that of surrounding areas even in the mainstream region of constant flow. This was because of impurities in ice or artificially formed refrozen holes after fishing. We expect that this study helps to expand utilization field of X-band SAR and airborne scatterometer system.

Mechanism for Bank Erosion and Local Scouring in Estuary of the Hangang River

  • Lee, Samhee;Han, Hyeongjun;Choo, Jeongho
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.453-462
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    • 2014
  • The levee and bridge pier in estuary of the Hangang River are exposed in a dangerous condition due to bank erosion and local scouring occurred since the summer season in 2011. At first, it is presumed that the high sandbar formed in river channel of the study area was an important element in the occurrence of bank erosion and local scouring. It can be presumed that the record-breaking depth of freezing due to cold wave for the long term during the winter season between 2010 and 2011 as well as the heavy intensive rainfall of 2011 had a decisive effect on the first damage of A section. The second damage of B section mainly occurred around the bridge pier constructed on the high water channel before it was washed away during the winter season between 2011 and 2012. It is considered that the second damage was caused by ice formation and ice floes.

New insights about ice friction obtained from crushing-friction tests on smooth and high-roughness surfaces

  • Gagnon, Robert E.
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.361-366
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    • 2018
  • Ice crushing occurs in many situations that involve a sliding frictional component such as sports involving ice-contact, ice interaction with ship hulls, and ice-on-ice sliding/crushing within glaciers and between interacting sea ice floes. Ice crushing-friction tests were conducted in the lab at $-10^{\circ}C$ using a set of acrylic ice-crushing platens that included a flat smooth surface and a variety of high-roughness surfaces with regular arrays of small prominences. The experiments were part of Phase II tests of the Blade Runners technology for reducing ice-induced vibration. Ice was crushed against the platens where the ice movement had both a vertical and a horizontal component. High-speed imaging through the platens was used to observe the ice contact zone as it evolved during the tests. Vertical crushing rates were in the range 10-30 mm/s and the horizontal sliding rates were in the range 4.14-30 mm/s. Three types of freshwater ice were used. Friction coefficients were extraordinarily low and were proportional to the ratio of the tangential sliding rate and the normal crushing rate. For the rough surfaces all of the friction coefficient variation was determined by the fluid dynamics of a slurry that flowed through channels that developed between leeward-facing facets of the prominences and the moving ice. The slurry originated from a highly-lubricating self-generating squeeze film of ice particles and melt located between the encroaching intact ice and the surfaces.

Establishment present of fish-road in Kangwondo and Study to apply fish-road is ice harbor 1-type (강원도 어도의 설치 현황 및 I형 아이스하버식 어도 적용성 연구)

  • Choi, Han-Kuy;Choi, Young-Soo;Jeon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.26 no.B
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 2006
  • The concerned object of the construction industry is environment. It is one of the main purposes of today's construction that human can live reasonably in nature. This study is about the fish-road connecting hydraulic structure in the river with nature. Chapter 2, starting with the general investigation about fish-road and helps comprehension for relatively general fish-road such as necessity, establishment purpose, history, study example, relating domestic law, design condition, consideration and form of fish-road. Chapter 3, containing the present condition of fish-road facilities in Gangwon-Do and thoughts of the problems and general countermeasures of existing fish-road. Chapter 4, Having Examined compatibility by amount of flowing water through hydraulic model test in the Ice harbor I-type model. chapter 5, Analyzation and arrangement to efficient establishment plan of fish-road and the result of the hydraulic model experiment to be beaconed a little in forward fish-road study. In the hydraulic model test result, when we suppose establishment of 1~3 in slope of 1/20, could know that applicable drought flow of the river is $0.06{\sim}3.0m^3/sec$ in case of Ice harbor I-type which transforming Ice harbor that was invented as studying project of the Ministry of Environment.

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Numerical and experimental investigation of the resistance performance of an icebreaking cargo vessel in pack ice conditions

  • Kim, Moon-Chan;Lee, Seung-Ki;Lee, Won-Joon;Wang, Jung-Yong
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.116-131
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    • 2013
  • The resistance performance of an icebreaking cargo vessel in pack ice conditions was investigated numerically and experimentally using a recently developed finite element (FE) model and model tests. A comparison between numerical analysis and experimental results with synthetic ice in a standard towing tank was carried out. The comparison extended to results with refrigerated ice to examine the feasibility of using synthetic ice. Two experiments using two different ice materials gave a reasonable agreement. Ship-ice interaction loads are numerically calculated based on the fluid structure interaction (FSI) method using the commercial FE package LS-DYNA. Test results from model testing with synthetic ice at the Pusan National University towing tank, and with refrigerated ice at the National Research Council's (NRC) ice tank, are used to validate and benchmark the numerical simulations. The designed ice-going cargo vessel is used as a target ship for three concentrations (90%, 80%, and 60%) of pack ice conditions. Ice was modeled as a rigid body but the ice density was the same as that in the experiments. The numerical challenge is to evaluate hydrodynamic loads on the ship's hull; this is difficult because LS-DYNA is an explicit FE solver and the FSI value is calculated using a penalty method. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are shown, and our main conclusions are given.

Characteristics of Ice Jam and flow in channel Bends (만곡수로에서의 Ice Jam과 흐름특성)

  • 윤세의
    • Water for future
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.399-406
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    • 1988
  • Presented in this paper is a brief summary of the basic theory and observation from a laboratory investigation aimed at determining flow characteristics and ice jam topography in a sinuous channel, and in a single-bend channel. The sinuous channel comprised thirteen $90^{\circ}$ bends and was of comparatively small s\aspect ratio. The single-bend channel was a $180^{\circ}$ bend, which was an order of magnitude large in width as well as aspect ratios than the sinuous channel. The simulated ices were polyethylene and polypropylene beads and block. The streamwise velocities near the bottom were larger than that of surface in sinuous channel and forming ice jam in sinuous channel, this phenoumena were found strongly. Jams were generally thicker along the inner bank of bends. The path of maximum-streamwise velocity was displaced towards approachs side of the inner bank of bends. Radial variation of jam thickness was to be regular by increasing size of ice fragments. The rate of jam head progression around outer bank of the single bend was faster than that of inner bank and its velocity was roughly steady. With increasing Froude number, jm thickness became less uniformly distributed; being generally thicker along the inner bank and near the jam's toe. Two-layer model might be adaptable for the computing the streamwise velocity in shallow river bends. Two cells of secondary flow cound be expected in ice covered-river bends.

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Friction correction for model ship resistance and propulsion tests in ice at NRC's OCRE-RC

  • Lau, Michael
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.413-420
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    • 2018
  • This paper documents the result of a preliminary analysis on the influence of hull-ice friction coefficient on model resistance and power predictions and their correlation to full-scale measurements. The study is based on previous model-scale/full-scale correlations performed on the National Research Council - Ocean, Coastal, and River Engineering Research Center's (NRC/OCRE-RC) model test data. There are two objectives for the current study: (1) to validate NRC/OCRE-RC's modeling standards in regarding to its practice of specifying a CFC (Correlation Friction Coefficient) of 0.05 for all its ship models; and (2) to develop a correction methodology for its resistance and propulsion predictions when the model is prepared with an ice friction coefficient slightly deviated from the CFC of 0.05. The mean CFC of 0.056 and 0.050 for perfect correlation as computed from the resistance and power analysis, respectively, have justified NRC/OCRE-RC's selection of 0.05 for the CFC of all its models. Furthermore, a procedure for minor friction corrections is developed.

Analysis of Hydraulic Passage Efficiency of Ice-Harbor Type Fishway for Flowrate Change (유량변화에 따른 아이스하버식 어도의 수리학적 이동효율 분석)

  • Jo, Jae An;Han, Eun Jin;Kim, Young Do;Baek, Kyong Oh
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.1841-1850
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    • 2013
  • The various types of fishways are installed at the multi-functional weirs in the four major rivers to minimize the negative effect due to the construction of the transverse structures. The movable weir was installed at the upstream of the ice-harbor type artificial fishway of the Dalseong weir in the Nakdong river, which can control the fishway flowrate regardless of the river flowrate. The incoming flowrate to the artificial fishway is closely related with the hydraulic characteristics that dominate the fish passage efficiency. Thus, it is crucial to find out the weir operation rule for properly sustaining efficient fish-passage, such as the optimized flowrate. In this study, the FLOW-3D was used to analyze and compare the various hydraulic characteristics associated with the passage efficiency, based upon the given different flowrate, and subsequently provide the optimized flowrate for the fishway movable weir to maintain the best efficient flow condition for the fish-passage.

The Influence on the Runoff Characteristics by the Land Use in Small Watersheds (소유역의 토지이용이 유출 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Ye-Hwan;Choi, Joong-Dae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.204-208
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    • 2004
  • In the forthcoming 21C, the barometer of cultural lives depends on that the water demand will increase or not. On the opposite site of that, the small watersheds will influence directly on how to cover the surface of watersheds with land use, no planning developing watersheds, and the rearrangement of small rivers. Espacially as the exordinary climatic phenomena, water resources and water content of the small watersheds will be confused oil exactly not to make a plan of water resources. This study area has four small watersheds groups in Gangwon-Do Province, that is, group I five small river watersheds including Changchoncheon etc., group II fiver rivers watersheds including to Hwalsanmogicheon etc., group III five small river watersheds including Singicheon etc., group IV including to Sabulanggolcheon etc. According to the land use such as dry field(or farm), ice field, forest land, building lot arid others, in small watersheds, the amount of runoff will be impacted by precipitation. The comparison between the runoff was getting from Kajiyama Formular and calculated runoff from multi-linear regressed equations by land use percentage was performed. Its correlation which was estimated by coefficient of correlation will be accepted or not, as approched 1.00000 values. As the monthly water resources amount is estimated by multi-linear regressed equations, we make a plan to demand and supply the water quantity from small river watersheds during any return periods.

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