• Title/Summary/Keyword: risk factors

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Risk Factors for Falls in Tertiary Hospital Inpatients: A Survival Analysis (상급종합병원 입원환자의 낙상 위험요인: 생존분석으로)

  • Cho, Young Shin;Lee, Young Ock;Youn, Young Sun
    • Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.57-70
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    • 2019
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for falls in tertiary hospital inpatients and to suggest data for developing a nursing intervention program for preventing falls. Methods: Data were collected between January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. Kaplan-Meier estimation was used to measure the survival rate, and the log-rank test was used for the differences between the fall group and the non-fall group. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the risk factors for falls. Results: The incidence rate of falls for the inpatients was 1.2 cases per 1,000 days of hospitalization. The risk factors for falls were more likely to be found among those who were aged ${\geq}81$, had not undergone surgery, had poor joint motion, had unsteady gait, needed help or supervision, used assistive devices, had comorbidity, and took at least two drugs. Conclusion: For the inpatients, the risk factors for falls included age, surgery, comorbidity, medication that could change mobility, joint motion, and use of patient care equipment. It is necessary to give special attention to inpatients who have any of these risk factors and to develop a falls risk assessment tool.

Analysis of the Project Risk Factors Using Modified Kano Model (수정된 Kano 모델을 이용한 프로젝트의 위험요인 연구)

  • Jang, Deok-Jae;Song, HaeGeun;Park, Young T.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.221-232
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This paper examines risk factors which affect project success, and proposes a method utilizing the average potential satisfaction index(API) to evaluate how much the satisfaction level of the personnel involved in the project can change by reducing the risk. Methods: The current study derives 11 risk factors affecting project success from literature review and conducts survey of 253 subjects who have project work experience. A modified Kano's questionnaire using 5-point Likert-scale is applied to investigate the amount of satisfaction or dissatisfaction when the risk factors are reducted or not, respectively. Results: The respondents consider that the risk factors which include the three elements of project management(schedule, quality, cost) is more important than other risk factors related to the project environment, and technology and profitability. Conclusion: The average potential satisfaction index proposed in this study can measure the perception on the risk factors of the personnel involved in the project, since it has a strong correlation with the perceived importance by the respondents in this study.

Emerging and Established Global Life-Style Risk Factors for Cancer of the Upper Aero-Digestive Tract

  • Gupta, Bhawna;Johnson, Newell W.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.5983-5991
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    • 2014
  • Introduction: Upper aero-digestive tract cancer is a multidimensional problem, international trends showing complex rises and falls in incidence and mortality across the globe, with variation across different cultural and socio-economic groups. This paper seeks some explanations and identifies some research and policy needs. Methodological Approach: The literature illustrates the multifactorial nature of carcinogenesis. At the cellular level, it is viewed as a multistep process involving multiple mutations and selection for cells with progressively increasing capacity for proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Established and emerging risk factors, in addition to changes in incidence and prevalence of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, were identified. Risk Factors: Exposure to tobacco and alcohol, as well as diets inadequate in fresh fruits and vegetables, remain the major risk factors, with persistent infection by particular so-called "high risk" genotypes of human papillomavirus increasingly recognised as also playing an important role in a subset of cases, particularly for the oropharynx. Chronic trauma to oral mucosa from poor restorations and prostheses, in addition to poor oral hygiene with a consequent heavy microbial load in the mouth, are also emerging as significant risk factors. Conclusions: Understanding and quantifying the impact of individual risk factors for these cancers is vital for health decision-making, planning and prevention. National policies and programmes should be designed and implemented to control exposure to environmental risks, by legislation if necessary, and to raise awareness so that people are provided with the information and support they need to adopt healthy lifestyles.

The Relationship between Adolescent Health Risk Factors and Experience of Oral Disease Symptoms (청소년의 건강위험요인과 구강질환증상 경험과의 관련성)

  • Kim, Ye-Hwang;Lee, Jung-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for the improvement of healthy habits and development of an oral health promotion program among Korean youth. Therefore, this study investigated adolescent health risk factors, oral health risk factors, and oral disease symptoms. Methods: This study used data from the Korea youth web-based survey, 2016. The subjects selected for the study were 61,086 persons who did not exhibit health risk factors, oral health risk factors, and oral disease symptoms. The statistical analyses were conducted by applying a complex sample analysis technique. Results: Those who drank carbonated beverages at least once a day were 1.15 times more likely to experience oral disease symptoms. The more sweet drinks they drank, the higher the risk of experiencing oral disease symptoms. Subjects who consumed alcohol had a 1.30 times greater risk of experiencing oral disease symptoms while subjects with smoking experience had a 1.13 times greater risk of experiencing oral disease symptoms. Conclusions: As a result, in order to maintain the physical and mental health of Korean adolescents, it is necessary to develop an oral health program for the prevention of unhealthy eating habits and oral diseases.

Analysis of Risk Factors for Patient Safety Management (환자안전 관리를 위한 위험요인 분석)

  • Ahn, Sung-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.373-384
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This is a pilot study to identify patient safety risk factors and strategies for patient safety management perceived by nurses. Methods: Data were collected and analyzed with an open questionnaire from April to May 2005, targeted on 100 nurses working in two hospitals. The issues were 'what are risk factors for patients, nurses, and other medical practitioners? How do they prevent with the aftermath of risk factors, causes of incidents?' For data analysis, types and frequency of risk factors were worked out, using the Australian Incident Monitoring System Taxonomy. Results: The types of patient safety risk factor perceived by nurses were as follows ; therapeutic devices or equipment, infrastructure and services (29.5%), nosocomial infections (16.3%), clinical processes or procedures (15.4%), behavior, human performance, violence, aggression, security and safety (12.2%), therapeutic agents (9.7%), injuries and pressure ulcers (8.7%), logistics, organization, documentation, and infrastructure technology (5.6%). Strategies for patient safety included training of prevention of infection, education about safety management for patients and medical professionals, establishment of reporting system, culture of care, pre-elimination of risk factors, cooperative system among employees, and sharing information. Conclusion: These results will be used to provide evidences for patient safety management and educational program.

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Identification of risk factors and development of the nomogram for delirium

  • Shin, Min-Seok;Jang, Ji-Eun;Lee, Jea-Young
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.339-350
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    • 2021
  • In medical research, the risk factors associated with human diseases need to be identified to predict the incidence rate and determine the treatment plan. Logistic regression analysis is primarily used in order to select risk factors. However, individuals who are unfamiliar with statistics outcomes have trouble using these methods. In this study, we develop a nomogram that graphically represents the numerical association between the disease and risk factors in order to identify the risk factors for delirium and to interpret and use the results more effectively. By using the logistic regression model, we identify risk factors related to delirium, construct a nomogram and predict incidence rates. Additionally, we verify the developed nomogram using a receiver operation characteristics (ROC) curve and calibration plot. Nursing home, stroke/epilepsy, metabolic abnormality, hemodynamic instability, and analgesics were selected as risk factors. The validation results of the nomogram, built with the factors of training set and the test set of the AUC showed a statistically significant determination of 0.893 and 0.717, respectively. As a result of drawing the calibration plot, the coefficient of determination was 0.820. By using the nomogram developed in this paper, health professionals can easily predict the incidence rate of delirium for individual patients. Based on this information, the nomogram could be used as a useful tool to establish an individual's treatment plan.

The Effects of Early Cumulative Risk Factors on Children's Development at Age 3 - The Mediation of Home Learning Environment - (유아기 발달에 대한 생애 초기 가족 누적위험요인의 영향 - 가정학습환경을 매개로 -)

  • Chang, Young Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Child Welfare
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    • no.54
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    • pp.79-111
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the structural models in which early cumulative risk factors affect children's language(indicated by expressive vocabularies) and social development(indicated by peer competence) at age 3 thorough their effects on the home learning environment. To examine the hypothesized models, the data of 1,725 families from the second and the fourth waves of the Panel Study of Korean Children was used. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were conducted to test the models. First, the cumulative risk factors at age 1 and 3 were highly correlated, implying the stability of the risk factors over time. The more cumulative risk factors at age 1 predicted the lower level of the home learning environment at age 3, which, in turn, was significantly related to both language and social development at age 3. However, the early cumulative risk factors did not directly influence later developmental outcomes. Moreover, the cumulative risk factors at age 3 were directly related to the child's language development, but neither social development northe home learning environment. In addition, the mediational role of the home learning environment (i.e., cumulative risk factors at age 1${\rightarrow}$home learning environment${\rightarrow}$language and social development) was statistically supported. In conclusion, the early cumulative risk factors in infancy indirectly predicted children's development at age 3 through the home learning environment. The practical implications for the early intervention and support for the families with infants who are experiencing multiple risk factors were discussed.

Clustering of Metabolic Risk Factors and Its Related Risk Factors in Young Schoolchildren (초등학교 저학년 어린이에서의 대사위험요인 군집의 분포와 관련 위험요인)

  • Kong, Kyoung-Ae;Park, Bo-Hyun;Min, Jung-Won;Hong, Ju-Hee;Hong, Young-Sun;Lee, Bo-Eun;Chang, Nam-Soo;Lee, Sun-Hwa;Ha, Eun-Hee;Park, Hye-Sook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: We wanted to determine the distribution of the clustering of the metabolic risk factors and we wanted to evaluate the related factors in young schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study of metabolic syndrome was conducted in an elementary school in Seoul, Korea. We evaluated fasting glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, blood pressures and the body mass index, and we used parent-reported questionnaires to assess the potential risk factors in 261 children (136 boys, 125 girls). We defined the metabolic risk factors as obesity or at risk for obesity ($\geqq$ 85th percentile for age and gender), a systolic or diastolic blood pressure at $\geqq90th$ percentile for age and gender, fasting glucose at $\geqq110mg/dl$, triglyceride at $\geqq110mg/dl$ and HDL cholesterol at $\leqq40mg/dl$. Results: There were 15.7% of the subjects who showed clustering of two or more metabolic risk factors, 2.3% of the subjects who showed clustering for three or more risk factors, and 0.8% of the subjects who showed clustering for four or more risk factors. A multivariate analysis revealed that a father smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day, a mother with a body mass index of = $25kg/m^2$, and the child eating precooked or frozen food more than once per day were associated with clustering of two or more components, with the odds ratios of 3.61 (95% CI=1.24-10.48), 5.50 (95% CI=1.39-21.73) and 8.04 (95% CI=1.67-38.81), respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that clustering of the metabolic risk factors is present in young schoolchildren in Korea, with the clustering being associated with parental smoking and obesity as well as the child's eating behavior. These results suggest that evaluation of metabolic risk factors and intervention for lifestyle factors may be needed in both young Korean children and their parents.

Comparing validity of using Body Mass Index, Waist to Hip Ratio, and Waist Circumference to Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Middle Aged Koreans (한국중년층에서 체질량지수, 허리-엉덩이둘레비, 및 허리둘레의 심장혈관계질환 위험인자 타당도 비교)

  • Mun, Hyeon-Gyeong;Kim, Yu-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.365-374
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to compare the validity of obese index among body mass index(BMI), waist to hip ratio(WHR), and waist circumference(WC) and to determine which is the best in relation to cardiovascular risk factors of middle aged Korean(40-64yr).Data from the 1998 Korean Health and Nutrition Survey were used(N=3380). Anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors were measured. Chi-square test, analysis of variance following duncan's multiple range test, partial correlation analysis, and Receiver Operator characteristic(ROC) curves were used in the analysis. There was a significant increasing trend in WHR, systolic blood pressure(SBP), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL), and fasting blood sugar(FBS) with age categories of male and in BMI, WC, WHR, diastolic blood pressure(DBP), SBP, total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL), triglycerol(TG), and FBS with those of female. Specially female had the characteristics of upper body fat and systolic blood pressure risk(p<0.05). Proportions of subjects with lifestyle factors related to cardiovascular risk in overweight or upper body fat group were higher than that of normal group. Higher proportions of subjects were practiced exercise in upper body fat group of male than in other groups. Among 7 cardiovascular risk factors in partial correlation analysis, BMI had the highest correlation coefficient in 6 risk factors in male, whereas WC in 4 risk factors in female. Mean of each obese index according to cardiovascular risk groups except smoker was higher than that of normal(p<0.05). These trends were shown in upper body fat group and female. In ROC analysis of 12 risk factors and health conditions, the largest area under curve among obese indices for risk factors were BMI in male and WHR in female. The optimal cutoff values of each index(BMI: WHR: WC) for one or more cardiovascular risk factors were 23.13: 0.89: 85.35 in male and 23.57: 0.84: 78.35 in female. The results showed that cardiovascular risk factors were prevalent in middle aged Koreans within normal limits of obese indices like another Asians. For the identification of cardiovascular risk factors of middle aged Koreans, BMI for men and WHR for women are appropriate indices. But it is recommended that BMI, WHR, and WC, all three indices should be considered, when using these indices.

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Relationships Between Risk Factors and R&D Output: Approach to New Product Development process (위험요인과 R&D성과 간의 관계: 신제품개발단계별 접근)

  • Han, Sang Rog;Cho, Kuen Tae
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.165-198
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of the study is to identify risk factors and analyze risk impacts to increase R&D outcome by taking into consideration the activities undertaken in each phase of New Product Development(NPD) process. The paper builds on survey research that has been developed new IT products within the past 5 years at SAMSUNG and LG subsidiaries in the Republic of Korea. This study identified risk factors in accordance with NPD process and evaluated the identified risk factors with survey questionnaires. To analyze the risk impacts were used to perform a logistic regression analysis based on R&D output. The impact of risk factors were higher for the low-output group. High-output group took a risk into consideration unique undertakings in project management and managed risk factors effectively in order to increase R&D output. Consequently, with the aim of improving output of R&D, a risk management is necessary to identify the risk factors for each phase of NPD and focus on managing risk factors with great effect.

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