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Establishment of Choline Analysis in Infant Formulas and Follow-up Formulas by Ion Chromatograph (이온크로마토그래프를 이용한 조제유류 및 영아용·성장기용 조제식 중 콜린 함량 분석법 연구)

  • Hwang, Kyung Mi;Ham, Hyeon Suk;Lee, Hwa Jung;Kang, Yoon Jung;Yoon, Hae Seong;Hong, Jin Hwan;Lee, Hyoun Young;Kim, Cheon Hoe;Oh, Keum Soon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.411-417
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to establish the analysis method for the contents of choline in infant formulas and follow-up formulas by ion chromatograph (IC). To optimize the method, we compared several conditions for extraction, purification and instrumental measurement using spiked samples and certified reference material (CRM; NIST SRM 1849a) as test materials. IC method for choline was established using Ion Pac CG column and 18 mM $H_2SO_4$ mobile phase. The parameters of validation were specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, recovery, accuracy, precision and repeatability. The specificity was confirmed by the retention time and the linearity, $R_2$ was over 0.999 in range of 0.5~10 mg/L. The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.14, 0.43 mg/L. The accuracy and precision of this method using CRM were 95%, 2.1% respectively. Optimized methods were applied in sample analysis to verify the reliability. All the tested products were acceptable contents of choline compared with component specification for nutrition labeling. The standard operating procedures were prepared for choline to provide experimental information and to strengthen the management of nutrient in infant formula and follow-up formula.

Body-Weight-Loss and Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Cheonggukjang (a Fermented Soybean Paste) Given to Rats Fed a High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet (청국장이 고지방-고콜레스테롤식이를 급여한 흰쥐에서 체중감소 및 콜레스테롤 저하효과)

  • Kim, Ah-Ra;Lee, Jae-Joon;Lee, Hwan;Chang, Hae-Choon;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.688-697
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the cholesterol-lowering and body-weight loss effects of Cheonggukjang fermented using Bacillus subtilis DJI in rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. Weight-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: a normal diet group (N), a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet group (HFC), a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet with DJI Cheonggukjang group (HFC-SCK), and a high-fat/high-cholesterol with commercial Cheonggukjang group (HFC-CCK). All of body weight and liver and adipose tissue weights increased in animals fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, but decreased significantly in rats fed Cheonggukjang powder, compared with the HFC group. Food intake was lower in the HFC group than in the N group, and that of the HFC-CCK group was the lowest among the four groups. Serum total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the Cheonggukjang-powder fed groups than the other groups. Serum phospholipid and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased in HFC animals and were markedly increased upon feeding of a Cheonggukjang-containing-diet. Levels of serum LDL-cholesterol, the atherogenic index, and cardiac risk factor assessment indications tended to be decreased in Cheonggukjang powder-fed groups, compared with the HFC group. The total cholesterol level in liver tissue was increased by feeding of a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, and was significantly reduced when Cheonggukjang powder was present in the diet. The levels of total lipids and triglycerides in adipose tissues were lower in the HFC-SCK group than in the HFC group, whereas no significant differences were evidence when the HFC and the HFC-CCK groups were compared. Fecal weight, moisture level, and total lipid content increased in animals fed Cheonggukjang powder. The activities of HR-LPL and TE-LPL in adipose tissues were increased in the HFC group compared with the Cheonggukjang powder-fed groups. These results indicate that dietary Cheonggukjang may improve lipid metabolism and prevent obesity and hyperlipidemia.

PRESENT SITUATION AND PROSPECT OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY IN KOREA - FOCUSED ON MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES - (한국 소아치과의 현재와 전망 - 치아우식증관리 분야를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Sang-Ho
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.206-225
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    • 2012
  • General status of pediatric dentistry in Korea is to conduct vigorous academic activities and specialized medical care centering the Korean Association of Pediatric Dentistry (KAPD) that has about 1,000 pediatric dentists as members, pediatric dentistry departments of 11 Colleges of Dentistry, numbers of pediatric dentistry training institutions and private clinics specialized in children. From 1996, the accredited pediatric dentists were produced by the KAPD and from 2008, the state began to produce the accredited pediatric dentists. Since then, doctors with expertise in pediatric care had opened private clinics in addition to the university hospitals, it became the basis of a momentum to deepen the specialty of pediatric dentistry. The Dentistry community of Korea is going through rapid and profound changes recently, and the underlying reasons for such changes can be classified largely into a few categories: (1) Decreasing population and structural changes in population (2) Increase in numbers of dentists, (3) Changes in the pattern of dental diseases and (4) Changes in medical environment. In Korea, the children population in the age range of 0 ~ 14 years old had been decreased by 2 million in 2010 compared to that of 2000 due to reduction of birth rate. The current population of children in the age range of 0 ~ 4 years old in 2010 takes up 16.2% of the total population, but it is estimated that such percentage would decrease to 8.0% by 2050. Such percentage is largely behind the estimated mean global population of 19.6% by 2050. On the other hand, the number of dentists had been largely increased from 18,000 in 2000 to 25,000 in 2010. And it is estimated that the number will be increased to 41,000 by 2030. In addition, the specialized personnel of Pediatric dentistry had been shown as increased by 2.5 times during past 10 years. For the changes in the pattern of dental diseases, including dental caries, each df rate of 5 years old children and 12 years old children had been decreased by 21.9% and 16.7% respectively in 2010 compared to 2000. Each df Index also had been decreased by 2.5 teeth and 1.2 teeth respectively. The medical expenditure of Korea is less than that of OECD and more specifically, the expenditure from the National Health Plan is less than OECD but the expenditure covered by households is larger than OECD. These facts indicate that it is considered as requiring the coverage of the national health plan to be reinforced more in the future and as such reinforcement needs continuous promotion. In medical examination pattern of Pediatric dentistry, the preventive and corrective treatment were increased whereas the restorative treatment was decreased. It is considered that such change is caused from decrease of dental caries from activation of the prevention project at national level. For the restorative treatment, the restorations in use of dental amalgam, pre-existing gold crowning and endodontic treatment had been decreased in their proportion while the restorative treatment in use of composite resin had been increased. It is considered that such changes is caused by the change of demands from patients and family or guardians as they desired more aesthetic improvement along with socio-economic growth of Korean society. Due to such changes in dentistry, the pediatric dentistry in Korea also attempts to have changes in the patterns of medical examination as follows; It tends to implement early stage treatment through early diagnosis utilizing various diagnostic tools such as FOTI or QLF. The early stage dental caries so called white spot had been included in the subjects for dental care or management and in order to do so, the medical care guidelines essentially accompanied with remineralization treatment as well as minimally invasive treatment is being generalized gradually. Also, centering the Pediatric dentists, the importance of caries risk assessment is being recognized, in addition that the management of dental caries is being changed from surgical approach to internal medicinal approach. Recently, efforts began to emerge in order to increase the target patients to be managed by dentists and to expand the application scope of Pediatric dentistry along with through such changes. The interest and activities of Pediatric dentists which had been limited to the medical examination room so far, is now being expanded externally, as they put efforts for participating in the preventive policy making process of the community or the state, and to support the political theories. And also opinions are being collected into the direction that the future- oriented strategic political tasks shall be selected and researches as well as presentations on the theoretical rationale of such tasks at the association level.

Multiplex PCR method for environmental monitoring of approved LM cotton events in Korea (국내 승인 LM면화의 자연환경 모니터링을 위한 multiplex PCR 개발)

  • Jo, Beom-Ho;Seol, Min-A;Shin, Su Young;Kim, Il Ryong;Choi, Wonkyun;Eum, Soon-Jae;Song, Hae-Ryong;Lee, Jung Ro
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2016
  • The growth area of living modified (LM) cotton has steadily increased every year, since its first commercialization in 1996. Development of environmental risk assessment tools and techniques for LM cotton is required for ecosystem safety. We therefore developed multiplex PCR assays for simultaneous detection of two (MON15985, MON531) and four (GHB614, LLCOTTON25, MON88913 and MON1445) LM cotton events approved in Korea, with event specific primer pairs. The PCR reactions were optimized by using event specific primers of six LM cottons at various concentrations. The reactions allows amplification of estimated amplicons of MON15985 (214 bp), MON531 (270 bp), GHB614 (119 bp), LLCOTTON25 (164 bp), MON88913 (276 bp), and MON1445 (389 bp) from multiplex PCR reactions. The multiplex PCR assay developed allowed that two annealing steps (15 cycles at $55^{\circ}C$ and 25 cycles at $60^{\circ}C$) were performed for amplification of distinguished two LM cottons, and only one annealing step (50 cycles at $60^{\circ}C$) was necessary for tetraplex PCR. Primer extension step of all PCR reactions was skipped for time-effective amplification. Our methods suggest that two multiplex PCR assays can be cost-effective and a rapid diagnostic tool for environmental LMO monitoring of six LM cottons.

Development of multiplex PCR-based detection method for five approved LM canola events in Korea (Multiplex PCR 방법을 이용한 국내 승인 5개 LM 유채의 검출법 개발)

  • Jo, Beom-Ho;Lee, Jung Ro;Choi, Wonkyun;Moon, Jeong Chan;Shin, Su Young;Eum, Soon-Jae;Seol, Min-A;Kim, Il Ryong;Song, Hae-Ryong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 2015
  • Canola is a crop globally used for production of oil and biofuel. Cultivation area and import volume of living modified (LM) canola have been increasing every year. As canola import dependence has reached 100% in Korea, efforts have been made for safety management of LM canola and ecological risk assessment. We developed a set of multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of 5 LM canola events (Topas 19/2, Rf3, Ms8, RT73 and T45) approved in Korea. The multiplex PCR assay developed allows amplification of estimated products of 5 LM canolas from event specific primer sets. Primer extension time was skipped for a time-consuming process and two annealing steps (20 cycles at $55^{\circ}C$ and 20 cycles at $60^{\circ}C$) were performed for yielding the best result which was sufficient to distinguish five LM canolas. Our results suggest that multiplex PCR method provides a cost and time-effective approach for LM canola detection.

Investigation of Microbial Contamination Levels of Leafy Greens and Its Distributing Conditions at Different Time - Focused on Perilla leaf and Lettuce - (시기별 엽채류의 미생물 오염도와 유통 조건 조사 - 들깻잎과 상추를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Won-Il;Jung, Hyang-Mi;Kim, Se-Ri;Park, Kyeong-Hun;Kim, Byung-Seok;Yun, Jong-Chul;Ryu, Kyoung-Yul
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate microbial contamination levels of leafy greens (perilla leaf and lettuce) and its distributing conditions at different seasons (Feb, May, Aug, and Nov of the year 2011) in order to provide insight into any potential health hazards associated with consumption of these commodities. Leafy greens were collected from a farm located in Geumsan, Chungnam and wholesale markets (WM) and traditional markets (TM) located in Suwon. At the same time, temperature and relative humidity fluctuations experienced by the leafy greens during distribution from the farm to the distribution center were measured by a data logger. The contamination levels of perilla leaf and lettuce were determined by analyzing total plate count. Coliform groups, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. The contamination levels of total aerobic bacteria, coliform groups and B. cereus in both vegetables sampled during May and August found to be higher than those sampled during February and November. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes were not detected in the vegetables analyzed in this study. There were no significant trends between samples at WM and TM in the contamination levels. Relative humidity of vegetables distributed from the farm to the distribution center showed over 90% during distribution regardless of measured seasons. In the case of background microflora on leafy greens, the density was significantly increased at 20, 30 and $37^{\circ}C$ during storage of 24h. E. coli O157:H7 and B. cereus inoculated on the leaves also showed similar increases in the storage tests. The microbial contamination levels determined in this study may be used as the fundamental data for microbial risk assessment.

Improvement of Analytical Method for Total Polysaccharides in Aloe vera Gel (알로에 베라(Aloe vera) 겔 중 총 다당체 시험법 개선)

  • Lee, Young-Joo;Kim, Yun-Je;Leem, Dong-Gil;Yoon, Tae-Hyung;Shin, Ji-Eun;Yoon, Chang-Yong;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Park, Mi-Sun;Kang, Tae-Seok;Jeong, Ja-Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2012
  • This study intented to standardize the method for total polysaccharide, which is a functional marker for aloe vera gel in Korea. We used four lyophilized raw materials and commercial aloe gel products, certified as Health Functional Food by Korea Food and Drug Administration, including powder, solution, jelly, tablet and capsule, to optimize the analytical condition of dialysis and phenol-sulfuric acid reaction in polysaccharide analysis. The optimal conditions for polysaccharide analysis included 1 L water for dialysis and change 3 times for 24hr against 25 mL prepared sample solution. Validation test showed lower than 5% of coefficient of variation(CV) in intra-, interday validation in lyophilized raw materials and 4 types of commercial products. In inter-person and inter-laboratory validation with 4 persons from 4 different laboratories, CV(%) were 5.50 and 6.64 respectively. The linearity of polysaccharide analysis was assessed using 5 serial concentration of lyophilized raw materials(0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5%(w/v)). The results showed $R^2{\geq}0.995$ of high linearity. In the commercial aloe vera gel products, the results of reproductivity showed lower than 7.08% and revealed that the standardized method from this study ensured high precision for polysaccharide analysis.

Association between picky eating behaviors and growth in preschool children (유아기 까다로운 식습관과 성장상태 간의 연관성)

  • Shim, Jae Eun;Yoon, Ji Hyun;Kim, Kijoon;Paik, Hee Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.418-426
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the association between picky eating behaviors of preschool children and growth outcomes. In this study, picky eating behaviors were defined as containing four constructs of 'eating a small amount (ES),' 'neophoic behavior (NB),' 'refusal of specific food groups (RF),' and 'preference for specific food-preparation methods (PP).' A 7-point scale was used for the multi-item questionnaire, which consisted of 21 items (three items for ES, two items for NB, nine items for RF, and seven items for PP), in order to evaluate picky eating behaviors of children. Subjects were recruited among visitors at a medical clinic in Seoul. A total of 150 self-administered survey responses from parents of preschool children were analyzed in order to investigate the association between picky eating behaviors of preschool children and growth outcomes. Height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH) z-scores were used for assessment of preschool children's growth. The prevalence of ES, NB, RF, and PP was 44%, 57%, 73%, and 53%, respectively. Children with ES had lower HFA (p < 0.05) and WFH (p < 0.0001) than those without ES, while children with NB, RF, or PP had HFA and WFH were similar to their counterparts. The mean HFA z-score of children with ES was less than 0 (p < 0.05) and the mean WFH z-scores of children with ES, NB, RF, or PP were less than 0 (p < 0.05). According to the study results, related growth outcome differed depending on constructs of picky eating behaviors. In particular, picky eating of ES showed a risk of faltering height growth in preschool children. Further comprehensive studies on the reason for ES and intervention approach is warranted.

Assessment of Visual satisfaction & Visual Function with Prescription Swimming goggles In-air and Underwater (도수 수경 착용시 실내와 수중에서의 시각적 만족도 및 시력 평가)

  • Chu, Byoung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.357-363
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To investigate the visual function with prescription swimming goggles. Methods: 15 university students (mean age: $22{\pm}1.54$ years) participated, with a mean distance refractive error of RE: S-1.67 D/C-0.40 D, LE: S-1.70D/C-0.37 D. Inclusion criteria were no ocular pathology, able to wear soft contact lenses to correct their refractive error to emmetropia and able to swim. Participants were fitted with contact lenses to correct all ametropia. Subjective evaluation for satisfaction of visual acuity, asthenopia and balance were also measured using a questionnaire while wearing swimming goggles with cylinder (C+1.50 D, Ax $90^{\circ}$) compared with plano sphere outside the swimming pool area. Visual acuity was assessed using the same ETDRS chart. The prescription swimming goggles powers were assessed in random order and ranged in power from S+3.00 D to S-3.00 D in 0.50 D steps. Results: Subjective evaluation was significantly worse for the swimming goggles with cylinder than for the plano powered goggles for all 3 questions, visual acuity, asthenopia and balance. Visual acuity were significantly affected by the different power of the swimming goggles (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the in-air in-clinic and underwater in-swimming pool measures (p=0.173). However, visual acuity measured in the clinic was significantly better than underwater for some swimming goggle powers (+3.00, +1.00, +0.50, 0, -1.00 and -2.00 D). Conclusions: Wearing swimming goggles underwater may degrade the visual acuity compared to within air but as the difference is less than 1 line of Snellen acuity, and it is unlikely to result in significant real-life effects. Having an incorrect cylinder correction was found to be detrimental resulting in lower score of satisfaction. Considering slippery floor of swimming pool area, it can be a potential risk factor. Therefore, it is important to correct any refractive error in addition to astigmatism for swimming goggle.

Monitoring of pesticide residues in commercial agricultural products in the northern area of Seoul, Korea (서울 북부지역 유통 농산물의 농약 잔류실태)

  • Han, Sung-Hee;Park, Sung-Kyu;Kim, Ouk-Hee;Choi, Young-Hee;Seoung, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Young-Ju;Jung, Jung-Hee;Kim, Yun-Hee;Yu, In-Sil;Kim, Yoo-Kyung;Han, Ki-Young;Chae, Young-Zoo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.109-120
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to monitor 284 pesticides residue level in 2,914 commercial agricultural products in the northern area of Seoul in 2011 by the multi class pesticide multiresidue analysis methods in Korea Food Code using GC, HPLC, GC-MSD and, LC-MSD. The detection rate of pesticide residues were 14.8% (431/2,914). The order of agricultural products in which the pesticide residues were detected was perilla leaves 40.0% (28/70), chamnamul 35.5% (11/31), amaranth 30.0% (3/10) and spinach 27.7% (38/137) etc. The percentage of products that exceeded the MRLs (maximum residue limits) were 1.0% (31/431). Those products that exceeded MRLs were ginseng (6), perilla leaves (4), leek (4), welsh onion (3) and sedeum (3) etc. The 59 kinds of the pesticides were detected on this study, 21 pesticides of them were detected over MRLs. Detection rate of fungicides (56.4%) was higher than that of insecticides (42.1%). And procymidone was detected with considerable high frequency. Additionally, residual residual violates pesticides were in the order of tolclofos-methyl, endosulfan, dimethomorph, diniconazole and fludioxonil. According to the agricultural marketing channels, detection and excess rate of them were monitored. Detection and excess rate of samples circulated in agricultural traditional market were highest. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of the pesticides were compared to personal acceptable daily intakes (PADI) in order to risk assessment by food consumption. Diazinon in Korean cabbage showed the highest %ADI, 2.9901 and others showed below 3.0 %ADI. Overall, these results indicate that residue levels of pesticides detected were evaluated as safe.