• Title/Summary/Keyword: risk assessment

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Toxicity of Nanomaterials and Strategy of Risk Assessment (나노물질의 독성과 위해성평가 전략)

  • Park, Kwang-Sik
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.259-271
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    • 2005
  • Engineered nanoparticles exhibit a variety of unique and tunable chemical and physical properties. These unique properties make the nanoparticles central components and widespread potential applications in nanoindustry. However, the potential toxicities of nanoparticles have not been fully evaluated. Recently, the impacts of nanoparticles to human and environment became the emerging issue of toxicology. In this article, physicochemical properties and toxicities of carbon nanotube, fullerene, quantum dots, and other types of nanomaterials were reviewed and the strategy of risk assessment were suggested based on the frame of chemical assessment.

Principles of Risk Assessment: Overview of the Risk Assessment Process

  • Doull John
    • 대한예방의학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.402-403
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    • 1994
  • There are three different approaches to chemical risk assessment which will be considered in this paper. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Cancer Risk Assessment includes some of the approaches used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) effort is an evaluated database approach similar to that used in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Criteria Documents and in the documentations prepared by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for the Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and those of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) for the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). A third approach is used by the Committee on Toxicology.

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Fate and Bioaccumulation of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Microcosm (산화아연 나노물질의 미소생태계 내 거동 및 생물축적)

  • Kim, Eunjeong;Lee, Jae-woo;Jo, Eunhye;Sung, Hwa Kyung;Yoo, Sun Kyoung;Kim, Kyung-tae;Shin, Yu-jin;Kim, Ji-eun;Park, Sun-Young;Eom, Ig-chun;Kim, Pilje
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in various commercial products, but they are exposed to the environment and can induce toxicity. In this study, we investigated the environmental fate and bioaccumulation of ZnO NPs in a microcosm. Methods: The microcosm was composed of water, soil (Lufa Soil 2.2) and organisms (Oryzias latipes, Neocaridina denticulata, Semisulcospira libertina). Point five and 5 mg/L of ZnO NPs were exposed in the microcosm for 14 days. Total Zn concentrations were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and intracellular NPs were observed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results: In the initial stages of exposure, the Zn concentrations in water increased in all exposure groups and then decreased, while the Zn concentration in soil increased after three hours for the 5 mg/L solution. Zn concentrations also showed increasing trends in N. denticulata and S. libertina at 0.5 and 5 mg/L, and in O. latipes at 5 mg/L. Accumulation of NPs was found in the livers of O. latipes and hepatopancreas of N. denticulata and S. libertina. Conclusions: In the early stages of exposure, ZnO NPs remained in the water, and then were transported to the soil and test species. Unlike other species, total Zn concentrations in N. denticulata and S. libertina increased for both 0.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L. Therefore, ZnO NPs were more easily accumulated in zoobenthos than in fish.

The Quantitative Risk Assessment for Railroad-tunnel Fire Incidents by using CFD code (CFD code를 이용한 철도터널 화재 위험도 평가)

  • Kim, H.B.;Lee, D.H.;Jang, Y.J.;Jung, W.S.
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.169-172
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    • 2011
  • Recently, railroad long tunnels are increasing and growing longer due to topological feathers like a lot of mountain in Korea. But fire disaster of a long tunnel cause many people to injury and death. For that reason, at the early design stage of a long tunnel, risk assessment and mitigation measure of risk for satisfying tunnel safety are required. According to the railroad facility safety standard (Korean MLTM Announcement No. 2006-395), risk assessment for railroad-tunnel fire should be performed when design stage. Therefore, various methods of risk assessment for tunnel fire have been studied and applied. In the paper, QRA(Quantitative Risk Analysis) for fire risk assessment by using CFD code is presented and the usefulness of CFD is discussed.

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A study on the Research & Analysis of the Health and safety Managing's Understanding on the Applied Construction work site Risk Assessment - Focus on Site manager & manager - (건설업 위험성평가 적용사업장 종사자 안전보건 인식도 조사 연구 -사업장책임자 및 관리감독자를 중심으로-)

  • Choe, Su-Hwan;Bae, Jun-Tae;Lee, Yeon-Su;Kim, Chi-Gyeong
    • Proceedings of the Safety Management and Science Conference
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2012
  • Risk Assessment, a basis of health and safety management system, is an calamity prevention activity which regularly measure the level of a risk to passively improve potential hazard. A problem, the assessment not being improved to be applied to the construction work site where requires diversity and complexity, causes the assessment to be inefficient to bring quality results. A study on the investigates and compares the surveyed degree of recognitions of workers who works in companies executing the risk assessment By the investigation and comparison, it is expected to bring the better solution for early and efficient application for those companies which are not taking the risk assessment.

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Advancing Risk Assessment through the Application of Systems Toxicology

  • Sauer, John Michael;Kleensang, Andre;Peitsch, Manuel C.;Hayes, A. Wallace
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.5-8
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    • 2016
  • Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. Mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. Systems toxicology makes use of advanced analytical and computational tools to integrate classical toxicology and quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Three presentations including two case studies involving both in vitro and in vivo approaches described the current state of systems toxicology and the potential for its future application in chemical risk assessment.

A study on Risk Assessment Procedure for the Structural changes of Navigable Airspaces (공역의 구조적 변경에 따른 위험평가 절차 연구)

  • Kim, Do-Hyun;Kim, W.Y.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 2012
  • 'Navigable airspace' means an airspace at and above the minimum safe flight level, including airspace or flight procedures needed for safe takeoff and landing. Airspace may be established as needed and may be abolished, and in some cases may be limited to airspace management. These are absolutely based on risk assessment. Safety is the state in which the risk of harm to persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management. 'Risk' is the assessed potential for adverse consequences resulting from a hazard and 'Risk assessment' involves consideration of both the frequency and the severity of any adverse consequence. This paper proposed 'risk assessment procedure' for the structural changes of Navigable Airspaces through literature reviews relevant to manuals on airspace management and risk management.

Deriving Ecological Protective Concentration of Cadmium for Korean Soil Environment

  • Lee, Woo-Mi;Nam, Sun-Hwa;An, Youn-Joo
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2013
  • For effective and efficient environmental management, developed countries, such as the Netherlands, UK, Australia, Canada, and United States apply ecological risk assessment, and they have an autonomous risk assessment methodology to protect native receptors. In this study, soil ecological protective concentration (EPC) of cadmium in Korea was derived using Korean ecological risk assessment methodology. The soil EPC of cadmium was calculated using probabilistic ecological risk assessment based on species sensitivity distribution. The soil EPC was calculated according to land use for residential/agricultural and industrial/commercial purposes. The chronic soil EPCs for residential/agricultural and industrial/commercial lands were derived to be 1.58 and 9.60 mg/kg, respectively. These values were similar to soil EPC of European Commission, the Netherlands, UK, and Canada. However, these values were lower than the established Korean soil standard, because the current soil standard was based on human risk. Therefore, the impact on an ecosystem when establishing environmental standard should be considered.