• Title/Summary/Keyword: rigidity

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A Study on the Relationship between the Experience of Sanhujori, the Traditional Postpartal Care in Korea and Present Health Status of Chronic Arthritis Female Patient (만성관절염 여성 환자의 산후조리 경험과 건강상태와의 관계)

  • Yoo, Eun-Kwang;Lee, Sun-Hyae;Kim, Myoung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.217-230
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to define the relationship between the experience of Sanhuujori, Korean traditional non-professional postpartal care after delivery and abortion and present health status of chronic arthritis female patient who visited to outpatient clinic of rheumatic internal medicine at a hospital located in Seoul, Korea. A convenience sample of 64 women who orally agreed to be a participant and data were collected form October 1996 to May, 1997 for sis months by way of interview with semistructured questionnaire. The data were analyzed by the SPSS pc program using t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe test as a post hoc and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The results of the study were as follows ; Mean age of participants was 53.2 years and mean number of children was 3.1. Mean frequency of abortion was 2.1 times per woman. Seventy four percentage of respondents did not have Sanhujori after abortion. The mean period of Sanhujori after delivery was 17.7, 15.2, 13.8 days from the first child to third child and shorter than that of general woman such as 20.0, 19.0, 17.3 days in the previous study. On the subjective evaluation of whether the women did Sanhujori well or not, the rate of 'did Sanhujori wrongly' was the highest rank in each child where as general woman 'did Sanhujori well' at the first child, 'moderate' at the second and third child and 'did Sanhujori wrongly' at the 4th and fifth child. The health status implies both subjective health status women perceived and the rate of complaints of physical symptom distress women are experiencing presently. The respondents of 82.5% perceived them as unhealthy or sick and 68.9% of women complained more than two symptoms. Mean number of physical symptom distress women complained was 2.33. The main sites of physical symptom distress were upper & lower extremities 69.1% including knee and hand, whole body 19.1%, neck 3.7%, waist & shoulders 2.7% respectively. The characteristics of the symptoms were mostly pain 60%, swelling 19.8%, rigidity & deformity 7.9% respectively, sensation of heat 6.8% and weakness 1.7%. Women perceived the etiology of the chronic arthritis as stress 25.8%, 'did Sanhujori wrongly' & overwork 23.4% respectively, genetic 12.9%, malnutrition, 4.8%, and aging process 3.2%. There were significant positive correlation between subjective health status and the period of Sanhujori after delivery of the second child(r=-0.22) and negative correlation with the number of child at the level of 5% of significance statistically(r=0.27). There were significant negative correlation between the rate of complaints of physical symptom distress and the subjective evaluation whether she did Sanhujori well or not at the level of 5% of significance statistically(r=-0.23). And the rate of complaints of physical symptom distress in the group of women who experienced abortion was significantly higher than that of women who did not experience it at the level of 5% significance statistically(t=2.00) In conclusion, this finding reconfirmed the possible relationship between health status of chronic arthritis female patient and the experience of Sanhujori after delivery & abortion. It provides a challenge to the professional care givers to research further on the effects of Sanhujori on the health status, health recovery after abortion or delivery from the various aspects through the crosssectional and longitudinal research for the refinement of the reality of not only as cultural phenomenon but as conceptual model for the appropriateness of intervention and quality of care for desirable health outcomes.

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An Experimental Study on Dynamic Behavior Evaluation of Transitional Track (접속부 궤도의 동적거동분석을 위한 실험적 연구)

  • Cho, Sung-Jung;Choi, Jung-Youl;Chun, Dae-Sung;Kim, Man-Cheol;Park, Yong-Gul
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • 2007.11a
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    • pp.1379-1385
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    • 2007
  • In domestic transitional zone design, there is regulation to prevent generation of irregular substructure behaviors that negatively influence in prevention of plasticity settlement on approach section and contact section as well as relieve overall track rigidity by reducing sectional foundation and track stiffness difference, but design guideline that considers dynamic behavior of transitional track in actual service line is very insignificant. Therefore in this study, characteristics of transitional track dynamic behaviors by substructure stiffness are researched and measured dynamic response of transitional track by substructure stiffness in order to prove correlation between substructure and track and calculate elasticity(stiffness) and track load of transitional track by using measurement and formula to provide basic information for developing design guideline considering dynamic behavior of service line transitional track.

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The Study of Formation for Dokdo Seamounts at the Northeastern Part of the Ulleung Basin Using Gravity and Magnetic Data (중력 및 자력자료 분석에 의한 울릉분지 북동부 독도 및 주변 해산들의 형성 연구)

  • Kim, Chang-Hwan;Park, Chan-Hong;Ko, Young-Tak;Jung, Eui-Young;Kwak, Jun-Young;Yoo, Sang-Hoon;Min, Kyung-Duck
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.40 no.2 s.183
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    • pp.153-170
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    • 2007
  • Loading time and loading environment of the Dokdo seamounts were studied from flexure model and VGP(Virtual Geomagnetic Pole) determined by gravity and magnetic data. In spite of their similarity in size. a large difference about 50 mGal between gravity anomaly peaks of Dokdo and the Isabu Tablemount suggests different compensation degrees. Flexural modeling results show that the flexural rigidity(effective elastic thickness) of lithosphere for Dokdo is stronger(thicker) than that for the Isabu Tablemount. Also, it implies that the age of lithosphere at the time of loading of the Isabu Tablemount may be younger than that of Dokdo. Magnetic anomalies occur complicated over the Dokdo seamounts. Paleomagnetism was studied from VGP estimated by the least square and the seminorm magnetization methods with 1500 m upward continued magnetic anomalies. Age dating of Dokdo from previous study, flexural modeling, VGP, and geomagnetic polarity time scale suggest that after the cease of spreading in the Ulleung Basin, the Isabu Tablemount was formed first in normal polarity interval and followed by Dokdo. Also, they indicate that the fist large eruption of Dokdo was in normal polarity interval and the second large eruption in reversed polarity interval. The Simheungtaek Tablemount was formed in normal polarity interval between the formations of the Isabu Tablemount and Dokdo. These loading times for the Dokdo seamounts show a good coherence with the compressive stress period after the end of the opening of the East Sea. The Dokdo seamounts probably was caused by volcanism associated with the compressive stress.

Development and Experimental Performance Evaluation of Steel Composite Girder by Turn Over Process (단면회전방법을 적용한 강합성 소수주거더 개발 및 실험적 성능 평가)

  • Kim, Sung Jae;Yi, Na Hyun;Kim, Sung Bae;Kim, Jang-Ho Jay
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.30 no.5A
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    • pp.407-415
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    • 2010
  • In Korea, more than 90% of the total number of steel bridges built for 40~70 m span length is a steel box-girder bridge type. A steel box-girder bridge is suitable for long span or curved bridges with outstanding flexural and torsional rigidity as well as good constructability and safety. However, a steel box-girder bridge is uneconomical, requiring many secondary members and workmanship such as stiffeners and ribs requiring welding attachments to flanges or webs. Therefore, in US and Japan, a plate girder bridge, which is relatively cheap and easy to construct is generally used. One type of the plate girder bridge is the two- or three-main girder plate bridge, which is a composite plate girder bridge that minimizes the number of required main girders by increasing the distance between the adjacent girders. Also, for the simplification of girder section, the stiffener which requires attachment to the web is not required. The two-main steel girder plate bridge is a representative type of plate girder bridges, which is suitable for bridges with 10 m effective width and has been developed in the early 1960s in France. To ensure greater safety of two- or three-main girder plate bridges, a larger steel section is used in the bridge domestically than in Europe or Japan. Also, the total number of two- or three-main girder plate bridge constructed in Korea is significantly less than the steel box girder bridge due to a lack of designers' familiarity with more complex design detailing of the bridge compare to that of a steel box girder bridge design. In this study, a new construction method called Turn Over method is proposed to minimize the steel section size used in a two- or three-main girder plate bridge by applying prestressing force to the member using confining concrete section's weight to reduce construction cost. Also, a full scale 20 m Turn Over girder specimen and a Turn Over girder bridge specimen were tested to evaluate constructability and structural safety of the members constructed using Turn Over process.

Tissue Engineered Cartilage Formation on Various PLGA Scaffolds (PLGA 종류와 담체의 형성 방법에 따른 인간의 조직공학적 연골형성)

  • 김유미;임종옥;정호윤;박태인;백운이
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to evacuate the effect of different types of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds on the formation of human auricular and septal cartilages. All of the scaffolds were formed in a tubular shape for potential application for artificial trachea or esophagus with either 110,000 g/mol PLGA. 220,000 g/mol PLGA. or a combination of both. In order to maintain the tubular shape in vivo, two methods were used. One method was inserting polyethylene tube at the center of scaffolds made of 110,000 g/mol PLGA. The other method involved combination of the two different molecular weight PLGA's. The inner surface of tubular shaped scaffold made with 110,000 g/mol PLGA was coated with 220,000 9/mol PLGA to give more mechanical rigidity. Elastic cartilage was taken from the ear of a patient aged under 20 nears old and hyaline cartilage was taken from the nasal septum. The chondrocytes were then isolated. After second passage, the chondrocytes were seeded on the PLGA scaffolds followed by in vitro culture for one week. The cells-PLGA scaffold complex were implanted subcutaneously on the back of nude mice for 8 weeks. The tissue engineered cartilages were separated from nude mice and examined histologically after staining with the Hematoxylin Eosin. The morphology of the scaffolds were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The pores were well formed and uniformly distributed in the various PLGA scaffolds. After 8 weeks in vivo culture, cartilage was well formed with 110,000 g/mol PLGA. however lumen had collapsed. In contrast. a minimal amount of neocartilage was formed with 220,000 g/mol PLGA, while the architecture of scaffold and lumen were well preserved. Elastic cartilage formed more neocartilage than hyaline. Hyaline and elastic neocartilage were well formed on 110,000 g/mol PLGA with the polyethylene tube, exhibiting mature chondrocytes and preservation of the tubular shape. It was found that 110,000 g/mol PLGA was more appropriate for cartilage formation but higher molecular weight polymer was necessary to maintain the three dimensional shape of the scaffold.

Investigation of Post-seismic Sites Using Local Seismic Tomography in the Korean Peninsula (지진 토모그래피를 이용한 한반도의 과거진원지역의 특성 연구)

  • Kim So-Gu;Bae Hyung-Sub
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.2 s.177
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    • pp.111-128
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    • 2006
  • Three dimensional crustal structure and source features of earthquake hypocenters on the Korean peninsula were investigated using P and S-wave travel time tomography. The main goal of this research was to find Vp/Vs anomalies at earthquake hypocenters as well as those of crustal structure of basins and deep tectonic settings. This allowed fer the extrapolation of more detailed seismotectonic force from the Korean peninsula. The earthquake hypocenters were found to have high Vp/Vs ratio discrepancies (VRD) at the vertical sections. High V/p/Vs ratios were also found in the sedimentary basins and beneath the Chugaryong Rift Zone (CRZ), which was due to mantle plume that subsequently solidified with many fractures and faults which were saturated with connate water. The hypocenters of most earthquakes were found in the upper crust for Youngwol (YE), Kyongju (KE), Hongsung (HE), Kaesong (KSE), Daekwan (DKE), and Daehung (DHE) earthquakes, but near the subcrust or the Moho Discontinuity for Mt. Songni (SE), Sariwon (SRE) and Mt. Jiri (JE) earthquakes. Especially, we found hot springs of the Daekwan, Daehung and Unsan regions coincide with high VRD. Also, this cannot rule out the possibility that there are some partial meltings in the subcrust of this region. High VRD might indicate that many faults and fractures with connate water were dehydrated when earthquakes took place, reducing shear modulus in the hypocenter areas. This is can be explained by due to the fact that a point source which is represented by the moment tensor that may involve changes in volume, shear fracture, and rigidity. High Vp/Vs ratio discrepancies (VRD) were also found beneath Mt. Backdu beneath 40 km, indicating that magma chamber existed beneath Mt. Backdu is reducing shear modulus of S-wave velocity.

Design and Implementation of the SSL Component based on CBD (CBD에 기반한 SSL 컴포넌트의 설계 및 구현)

  • Cho Eun-Ae;Moon Chang-Joo;Baik Doo-Kwon
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.192-207
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    • 2006
  • Today, the SSL protocol has been used as core part in various computing environments or security systems. But, the SSL protocol has several problems, because of the rigidity on operating. First, SSL protocol brings considerable burden to the CPU utilization so that performance of the security service in encryption transaction is lowered because it encrypts all data which is transferred between a server and a client. Second, SSL protocol can be vulnerable for cryptanalysis due to the key in fixed algorithm being used. Third, it is difficult to add and use another new cryptography algorithms. Finally. it is difficult for developers to learn use cryptography API(Application Program Interface) for the SSL protocol. Hence, we need to cover these problems, and, at the same time, we need the secure and comfortable method to operate the SSL protocol and to handle the efficient data. In this paper, we propose the SSL component which is designed and implemented using CBD(Component Based Development) concept to satisfy these requirements. The SSL component provides not only data encryption services like the SSL protocol but also convenient APIs for the developer unfamiliar with security. Further, the SSL component can improve the productivity and give reduce development cost. Because the SSL component can be reused. Also, in case of that new algorithms are added or algorithms are changed, it Is compatible and easy to interlock. SSL Component works the SSL protocol service in application layer. First of all, we take out the requirements, and then, we design and implement the SSL Component, confidentiality and integrity component, which support the SSL component, dependently. These all mentioned components are implemented by EJB, it can provide the efficient data handling when data is encrypted/decrypted by choosing the data. Also, it improves the usability by choosing data and mechanism as user intend. In conclusion, as we test and evaluate these component, SSL component is more usable and efficient than existing SSL protocol, because the increase rate of processing time for SSL component is lower that SSL protocol's.

Grotesque Aesthetics with a Focus on Animations of Lee, ae-rim Director (카니발 그로테스크 미학과 이애림 감독의 애니메이션)

  • Oh, Jin-hee
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • s.47
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    • pp.81-101
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    • 2017
  • The present study argues that film director Lee Ae-rim animation works depict the world of the grotesque and not only are important sociocultural phenomena but also hold the significance of humor and subversion. The grotesque exhibits the intriguing characteristics of expressing a perspective critical of the existing society through the sensibilities of minorities and is used broadly as a term not only in the aesthetic sense but also designating sociocultural phenomena. Although discussed separately in terms of Mikhail Bakhtin's carnival grotesque and Mary Russo's uncanny grotesque, the grotesque fundamentally rejects existing order and conventions and is externalized through unique expressions, thus opening up a rich possibility for rejection, humor, satire, transformation, and deconstruction of and regarding the authority of the mainstream. Although they constitute a fictional medium, animation films are social products as well so that they are affected by society, culture, and history and stand as important texts that must be interpreted in terms of the relationships between humans' instinctive desires and society and between the overall culture and artistic media. However, the rarity of grotesque portrayals in South Korean animation films also proves that it is a society where even problems that are in themselves sensitive must be manifested ingeniously on a conventional level. South Korean society has a unique history of colonialism and national division and is simultaneously in the unique situation of a society that has undergone growth at a nearly unprecedented rate. Consequently, the society exhibits closed yet dynamic particularity where everyday tension and rigidity, wariness of others and extreme competition are intertwined in a complex manner. Intensively analyzed in the present discussions, director Lee's animation films and are characterized mainly by grotesque images, nonlinear narratives, and vivid depictions. In such a context, these works not only are artistic products of South Korean society but also rejections of a rigid society and share the significance of the aesthetics of the carnival grotesque, which consists of subversive expressions directed at a new world.

Analysis on the Influence of Moment Distribution Shape on the Effective Moment of Inertia of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beams (철근콘크리트 단순보의 유효 단면2차모멘트에 대한 모멘트 분포 형상의 영향 분석)

  • Park, Mi-Young;Kim, Sang-Sik;Lee, Seung-Bae;Kim, Chang-Hyuk;Kim, Kang-Su
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.93-103
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    • 2009
  • The concept of the effective moment of inertia has been generally used for the deflection estimation of reinforced concrete flexural members. The KCI design code adopted Branson's equation for simple calculation of deflection, in which a representative value of the effective moment of inertia is used for the whole length of a member. However, the code equation for the effective moment of inertia was formulated based on the results of beam tests subjected to uniformly distributed loads, which may not effectively account for those of members under different loading conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to verify the influences of moment shapes resulting from different loading patterns by experiments. Six beams were fabricated and tested in this study, where primary variables were concrete compressive strengths and loading distances from supports, and test results were compared to the code equation and other existing approaches. A method utilizing variational analysis for the deflection estimation has been also proposed, which accounts for the influences of moment shapes to the effective moment of inertia. The test results indicated that the effective moment of inertia was somewhat influenced by the moment shape, and that this influence of moment shape to the effective moment of inertia was not captured by the code equation. Compared to the code equation, the proposed method had smaller variation in the ratios of the test results to the estimated values of beam deflections. Therefore, the proposed method is considered to be a good approach to take into account the influence of moment shape for the estimation of beam deflection, however, the differences between test results and estimated deflections show that more researches are still required to improve its accuracy by modifying the shape function of deflection.

Rheological properties of dental resin cements during polymerization (치과용 레진 시멘트의 유변학적 성질)

  • Lee, Jae-Rim;Lee, Jai-Bong;Han, Jung-Suk;Kim, Sung-Hun;Yeo, In-Sung;Ha, Seung-Ryong;Kim, Hee-Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.82-89
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to observe the change of viscoelastic properties of dental resin cements during polymerization. Materials and methods: Six commercially available resin cement materials (Clearfil SA luting, Panavia F 2.0, Zirconite, Variolink N, RelyX Unicem clicker, RelyX U200) were investigated in this study. A dynamic oscillation-time sweep test was performed with AR1500 stress controlled rheometer at $32^{\circ}C$. The changes in shear storage modulus (G'), shear loss modulus (G"), loss tangent (tan ${\delta}$) and displacement were measured for twenty minutes and repeated three times for each material. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (${\alpha}$=0.05). Results: After mixing, all materials demonstrated an increase in G' with time, reaching the plateau in the end. RelyX U200 demonstrated the highest G' value, while RelyX Unicem (clicker type) and Variolink N demonstrated the lowest G' value at the end of experimental time. Tan ${\delta}$was maintained at some level and reached the zero at the starting point where G' began to increase. The tan ${\delta}$and displacement of the tested materials showed similar pattern in the graph within change of time. The displacement of all 6 materials approached to zero within 6 minutes. Conclusion: Compared to other resin cements used in this study, RelyX U200 maintained plastic property for a longer period of time. When it completed the curing process, RelyX U200 had the highest stiffness. It is convenient for clinicians to cement multiple units of dental prostheses simultaneously.