• Title/Summary/Keyword: rigidity

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Conceptual Design of the Three Unit Fixed Partial Denture with Glass Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites (Glass fiber 강화 복합레진을 사용한 3본 고정성 국소의치의 개념 설계 연구)

  • Na, Kyoung-Hee;Lee, Kyu-Bok;Jo, Kwang-Hun
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.145-155
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    • 2002
  • The results of the present feasibility study are summarized as follows, 1. The three unit bridge of knitted material and UD fibre reinforcement has both the rigidity and the strength against a vertical occlusal load of 75N. 2. Stress concentration at the junctional area between the bridge and the abutments, i.e. between the pontic and the knitted caps was observed. In the case of the bridge with reinforcement straps, it was partly shown that the concentration problem could be improved by simply increasing the fillet size at the area. Further refining in the surface of the junctional area will be needed to ensure a further improvement in the stress distribution. This will require some trade off in the level of the stress and the available space. A parametric study will help to decide the appropriate size of the fillet. 3. Design refinement is a must to improve the stress distribution and realize the most favourable shape in terms of fabrication. The current straight bar with a constant cross section area can be redesigned to a tapered shape. The curve from the dental arch should also be placed on the pontic design. In accordance with design refinement, the resistance of the bridge frame to other load cases should be evaluated. 4. Although not included in the present feasibility study, it is estimated that bridges of the anterior teeth can be made strong enough with the knitted material without further reinforcement using unidirectional materials. In this regard, a feasibility study on design concepts and stress analysis for 3, 4, 5 unit bridge is suggested. 5. Two types of bridge were analysed in terms of fatigue. The safe life design concept, i.e. fatigue design concept, looks reasonable for the bridge where if cracks should form and propagate there is virtually nothing a dentist to do. The bridge must be designed so that no crack will be initiated during the life span. In the case of crowns, however, if constructed with composite resin with knitted materials, it might be possible to repair them, which in general is impossible for crowns of PFM or of metal. Therefore for composite resin crowns, a damage tolerance design concept can be applied and reasonably higher operational stresses can be allowed. In this case, of course, a periodic inspection program should be established in parallel. 6. Parts of future works in terms of structural viewpoint which need to be addressed are summarized as the following: 1) To develop processing technology to accommodate design concepts; 2) More realistic modelling of the bridge and analysis-geometry and loading condition. Thickness variation in the knitted material, taper in the pontic, design for anterior tooth bridge, the effect of combined loads, etc, will need to be included; 3) To develop appropriate design concepts and design goals for the fibre composite FPD aiming at taking the best advantage of knitted materials, including the damage tolerance design concept; 4) To develop testing method and perform test such as static ultimate load test, fatigue test, repair test, etc, as necessary.

A Study on the Stiffness of CBA(Corner Block with Anchor Bolt) Joint in Knockdown Type Table Furniture (조립식(組立式) 탁자(卓子)의 CBA접합부(接合部) 강성(剛性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Chung, Woo-Yang;Lee, Phil-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.34-64
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    • 1989
  • Corner block with anchor bolt(CBA) joint method used in knock-down type table furniture manufacturing can reduce the packing and transporting cost. Unfortunately. it also has the disastrous defect to be loosend and unstable during the service life mainly due to fatigue and creep(repeated and prolonged loading). So 22 joint groups constructed were tested to evaluate the effect of some design factors related to the size of side rail(apron). block attachment to side rail. and the number of anchor bolt as well as the effect of the type of corner block(mitered type vs. rectangular type) Usable strength from the stiffness coefficients of each joint group were analysed with SPSS /PC+ and described as the criteria of CBA joint construction. The conclusions were as follows: The height of side rail(50, 75 and 100 mm) and the addition of polyvinyl acetate(PVAc) emulsion in the corner block attactment to side rail had the effect on raising the usable strength of CBA joint with remarkable high significance. And the effect of 2 - anchor bolts was also superior to that of 1 - bolt significantly. However. the thickness of side rail(22 mm vs. 25 mm) had no effect on the strengthening the table joint rigidity. Mitered type corner block joint appeared to he recommendable for CBA jointed table construction rather than the rectangular type one regardless of the method of block attachment to side rail. The best result identified from Duncan's multiple comparison was in the construction with 25 mm thick and 100 mm height of side rail fastened using 2 - anchor bolts in mitered type corner block. But it would be reasonable to use 22 mm thick & 75 mm high side rail and mitered corner block with PVAc emulsion & 2 bolts considering the productivity and production cost down in the MDF furniture manufacturing industries.

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New Technique for the Reconstruction of Both Anteromedial & Posterolateral Bundles of ACL (전방십자인대의 전내측 다발 및 후외측 다발을 각각 재건하는 새로운 수술 수기)

  • Ha Chul-Won;Awe Soo-Ik
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.195-199
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    • 2002
  • This article is to report a new technique for reconstruction of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of anterior cruciate ligament by separate tensioning and fixation of the each bundle. Method : Tibial and femoral tunnels were made with conventional technique of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Tibial tunnel was enlarged $5\~7$ mm in anterior-posterior direction to make oval it in cross section. When preparing the Achilles tendon allograft, bone plug portion was trimmed as the conventional technique. The tendinous portion was trimmed as two separate bundles by dividing the tendinous portion longitudinally, so the graft is shaped like 'Y'. The bone plug portion of allograft was inserted into the femoral tunnel and fixed with absorbable cross pins. Two ligamentous portionss of the distal part of the grafts were tensioned separately at the external orifice. Anteromedial bundle was fastened under maximum tension with the knee flexed 90 degrees by post-tie method. The posterolateral bundle was fixed by the same technique with the knee in full extension. Then, an absorbable interference screw was inserted between the two bundles upto the upper end of the tibial tunnel, to get more initial rigidity of the reconstructed graft as well as to locate the two bundles in more anatomic position.

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Compressive Behavior of Precast Concrete Column with Hollow Corresponding to Hollow Ratio (중공비율에 따른 중공 프리캐스트 철근콘크리트 기둥의 압축거동)

  • Lee, Seung-Jun;Seo, Soo-Yeon;Pei, Wenlong;Kim, Kang-Su
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.441-448
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    • 2014
  • From several researches, recently, it was found that using hollowed precast concrete (HPC) column made more compact concrete casting in joint region possible than using normal solid PC (Precast concrete) column. Therefore, the rigidity of joints can be improved like those of monolithic reinforced concrete (RC). After filling the hollow with grout concrete, however, it is expected that the HPC column behaviors like composite structure since PC element and grout concrete have different materials as well as there is a contact surface between two elements. These may affect the structural behavior and strength of the composite column. A compressive strength test was performed for the HPC column with parameter of hollow ratio for the case with and without grout in the hollow and the result is presented in this paper. The hollow ratios in the test are 35, 50 and 59% of whole section of column. Concentrated axial force was applied to top of the specimens supported as pin connection for both ends. In addition, finite element (FE) analysis was performed to simulate the failure behavior of HPC column for axial compression. As a result, it was found that the hollow ratio did not affect the initial stiffness of HPC filled with grout regardless of the strength difference of HPC and grout. However the strength was increased inversely corresponding to the hollow ratio. The structural capacity of HPC without grout closely related to the hollow size. Especially, the local collapse governs the overall failure when the thickness of HPC is too thin. Based on these effect, a suitable equation was suggested for calculation of the compressive strength of HPC column with or without grout. FE analysis considering the contact surface between HPC and grout produced a good result matched to the test result.

Chemical Structures and Physiological Activities of Plant Growth Substance, Malformin B's (식물생장조절물질 말포민 B동족체의 화학구조 및 생리활성)

  • Kim, K.W.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 1995
  • Six malformin B's produced by Aspergillus niger van Tiegh. were separated by HPLC. Their structures determined by the methods of amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and two-dimensional NMR were revealed as cyclic pentapeptides structurally related to malformin $A_1$. Both the NMR and MS/MS data suggest that the respective structures of separated malformin B's were as follows; cyclo-D-Cys-D-Cys-L-Val-D-Leu-L-allo-Ile for $B_{1a}$, cyclo-D-Cys-D-Cys-L-Val-D-Leu-L-Leu for $B_{1b}$, cyclo-D-Cys-D-Cys-L-Val-D-Val-L-Leu for $B_2$, cyclo-D-Cys-D-Cys-L-Val-D-Ile-L-Leu for $B_3$, cyclo-D-Cys-D-Cys-L-Val-D-Ile-L-Ile for $B_4$, and cyclo-D-Cys-D-Cys-L-Val-D-Val-L-Ile for $B_5$. Among the malformin B's, the structure of $B_{1b}$ was the same as that of malformin $A_3$ or C. All the malformin B's showed physiological activities in the two assay systems using corn(Zea mays L.) roots and mung bean(Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypercotyl segments. The malformin B's with molecular weight 529 were more effective for inducing corn root curvature than those with molecular weight 515. The difference in molecular weight of malformin B's, i.e., the retention time on HPLC, results in the polarity change of the whole malformin molecule which affects the revealation of the malformin activities. In addition, the disulfide form of the malformin B's gives the rigidity of the molecule, whereas the combination of the fourth and the fifth amino acid residues provides the optimal three-dimensional configuration to the malformin receptor of plants. Presumably, these two factors are appeared to be essential for the greatest physiological activity of malformin B's. malformin $B_{1a}$ caused the corn root curvature by 90% at a concentration of $0.25{\mu}M$. However, such differential activities with molecular weight of 529 or 515 of malformin B's were not found in the mung bean hypercotyl segment test. Maximum stimulation of mung bean hypercotyl growth was observed at $0.1{\mu}M$ concentration of malformin B's. The growth of the segments treated with $B_5$ was 154% greater than that of the control.

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A Case of Citrullinemia Type 1 in ASS 1 Mutation (ASS 1 유전자 돌연변이로 확진된 시트룰린혈증 1형 1례)

  • Yim, Dae kyoon;Huh, Rimm;Kwun, Younghee;Lee, Jieun;Cho, Sung Yoon;Park, Hyung Doo;Jin, Dong-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2015
  • Citrullinemia type1 is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle characterized by neonatal or late onset of hyperammonemia caused by a deficiency of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). An ASS1 deficiency demonstrates fatal clinical manifestations that are characterized by the neonatal metabolic coma and early death when untreated. It causes a broad spectrum of effects, ranging from a mild disorder to a severe mental retardation, epilepsy, neurologic deficits. An acute neonatal form is the most common. Infants are normal at birth followed by an acute illness characterized by vomiting, lethargy, seizures and coma. These medical problems are life-threatening in many cases. A later onset form is less frequent and may be milder than the neonatal form. This later-onset form is associated with severe headaches, visual dysfunction, motor dysfunction, and lack of energy. Citrullinemia type1 is caused by mutations in the ASS1 gene located on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes argininosuccinate synthetase, the third enzyme of the urea cycle catalyzing the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid. The enzyme is distributed in tissues including liver and fibroblasts. This mutation leads to hyperammonemia, arginine deficiency and elevated citrulline level. In the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase catalyses the conversion of citrulline and aspartate to argininosuccinate.. Here, we describe a female newborn patient with lethargy, rigidity and hyperammonemia who was diagnosed as citrullinemia type1 with a c.[421-2A>G], c.[1128-6_1188dup] mutation.

Cardiopulmonary Effects of Enflurane Combined with Propofol in Dogs (개에서 Enflurane과 Propofol의 병용이 심폐기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Chae, Hyung-gyu;Jang, Kwang-ho;Jang, In-ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to evaluate cardiopulmonary depressant effects of enflurane (1.0 vol%) combined with propofol(0.25 mg/kg/min) compared with enflurane inhalation, and propofol infusion, respectively, in 18 healthy dogs premedicated with acepromazine and atropine. After bolus injection of propofol 5 mg/kg for induction and tracheal intubation, they were randomly assigned to 3 groups: propofol 0.5 mg/kg/min infusion (Group I, n=6), enflurane 2.5 vol% (Group II, n=6) and enflurane 1.0 vol% combined with propofol 0.25 mg/kg/min (Group III, n=6). Mean arterial Pressure (MAP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were depressed significantly in all groups, especially in Group II. MAP, SAP and DAP values of Group IIIwere higher than those of Group II, but lower than those of Group I. The changes of PaO$_2$, Pa$CO_2$and pHa were similar in all groups. Respiration rates were decreased in all groups 5 minutes after induction but maintained in normal range. Those of Group I were less depressant than those of Group II and Group III. Concentrations of $Na^+ and Cl^-$ were increased and those of $K^+$ were decreased in all groups, but their values were quitely similar. Heart rate was changed in small range and the value of Group I was higher than those of Group II and Group III. Body temperature was decreased significantly in all groups. Adverse effects like as muscle rigidity, nausea or vomiting and shivering were not appeared and apnea at induction was occured 6 dogs. From the these results, enflurane 1.0 vol% combined with propofol 0.25 mg/kg/min also could be applied for anesthesia in dogs.

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Comparison between Propofol/Remifentanil and Ketamine/Remifentanil for TIVA in Beagle Dogs (비글견에서 Propofol/Remifentanil과 Ketamine/Remifentanil을 사용한 완전 정맥 내 마취법의 비교)

  • Choi, Woo-Shik;Jang, Hwan-Soo;Park, Jai-Soon;Yun, Sung-Ho;Kwon, Young-Sam;Jang, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.479-485
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    • 2011
  • The cardiopulmonary responses during total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) between remifentanil/propofol infusion and remifentanil/ketamine infusion in dogs were compared. Fourteen healthy adult beagle dogs were premedicated with acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg, SC) and medetomidine (20 ${\mu}g$/kg, IV), and anesthetized for 3 hr with remifentanil (0.5 ${\mu}g$/kg/min)/propofol (loading dose: 1 mg/kg, CRI: 0.3 mg/kg/min) CRI (group 'P') or remifentanil/ ketamine (loading dose : 5 mg/kg, CRI: 0.1 mg/kg/min) CRI (group 'K'), respectively. Hemodynamics, blood gas analysis and behavioral changes during recovery were measured. The level of anesthesia was determined by toe-web clamping test. The level of surgical anesthesia was maintained throughout the experiment in both groups. Systolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, $PaO_2$ and $SpO_2$ in group 'K' were significantly higher than in group 'P', and were maintained near the normal ranges. In addition, $PaO_2$ in group 'K' was significantly lower than in group 'P'. However, diastolic arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were not significantly differed. Mean extubation time from the end of infusion was significantly reduced in group 'K', but mean sitting time was significantly reduced in group 'P'. Mean head-up time and mean walking time were not significantly differed. In group 'K', brief muscle rigidity, head waving and licking during recovery were observed. In conclusion, infusion rate of ketamine (0.1 mg/ kg/min) with remifentanil (0.5 ${\mu}g$/kg/min) is an appropriate for obtaining the surgical plane of anesthesia. These results showed that group 'K' had better cardiopulmonary function than group 'P'. That is, remifentanil/ketamine CRI is better TIVA protocol than remifentanil/propofol CRI for 3 hr surgery.

A Comparative Study of the Handicaps in and Satisfaction with the Ordinary Life before and after the Plastic Operation for Artificial Joint Replacement-Centering around Those Who suffer from Joint Diseases (인공관절 전치환 성형 수술 전후의 일상활동 장애정도 및 삶의 만족도 비교연구 - 관절 질환 환자를 중심으로 -)

  • Kang, Shin-Hwa
    • Journal of muscle and joint health
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.37-49
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    • 1996
  • The joint diseases threaten modern people's healthy life. They bring about a long pain, an anasarca, loss of joint function or even deformation and rigidity of joint, limiting people's ordinary activities much. The chronic joint patients may be subject to some hypochondria caused by anxiety for their life, social isolation, financial problem and physical disability. Therefore, this population should continue to be duely taken care of by medical personnels. In particular, nurses should adequately help these people to recover and improve their health through suitable adaptations. With such basic conceptions in mind, this study was aimed at reviewing these patients' conditions in their ordinary life before and after a plastic operation for artificial joint replacement as well as their satisfaction with their life. For this purpose, those patients who underwent some plastic operations for artificial joint replacement at university hospitals in Seoul from January 2, 1993 to June 30, 1995 were selected as the population of this study. Among them, 87 people were randomly sampled to answer a questionnaire designed specially. For the surveying tools, Jette's (1980) scale was applied to address the sample people's inconveniences experienced and supports received in their ordinary life, while the scale of Wood, Wylie & Sheafer was used to measure their satisfaction with their life. The collected data were analyzed for percentiles, means, SD, t-test and Pearson's correlations. The results of survey can be summarized as follows ; As a result of t-test the frequencies of other people's support before and after the plastic operation, it was disclosed that those who underwent the operation were supported less frequently. In addition, as a result of t-testing their satisfaction with life before and after the operation, it was found that the operation increased their satisfaction with life significantly. Meanwhile, as a result of t-test inconveniences, frequencies of supports and life satisfaction before and after the plastic operation for artificial knee replacement, it was disclosed that only the inconveniences were significantly reduced after the operation. In contrast, the t-test the variables before and after the plastic operation for artificial hip replacement, it was found that only the frequencies of other people's supports were significant reduced after the operation. Furthermore, the differences 6 months, one year and two years after the plastic operation for artificial joint replacement were t-tested on the variables. As a result, it was disclosed that people's inconvenience, frequencies of supports and life satisfaction were not improved 6 months after the operation but their frequencies of supports decreased significantly one year after, while their inconveniences and life satisfaction were significantly improved two years after. As a result of analyzing the variables with Pearson's correlations, inconveniences and frequency of supports were negatively correlated significantly with the life satisfaction. In conclusion, the plastic operation for artificial joint replacement significantly improved people's living inconveniences, reduced their frequency of other people's support and enhanced their satisfaction with life. To break don the plastic operation for artificial knee replacement improved patients' inconveniences, while the plastic operation for artificial hip replacement not only improved patients' inconveniences but reduced the frequencies of other people's support also. Finally, the finding that the plastic operation for artificial joint replacement brought about the improvement two years after suggests that this period is needed for the patients to adapt themselves to the post-operation conditions.

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FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MAXILLARY CENTRAL INCISORS RESTORED WITH VARIOUS POST-AND-CORE APPLICATIONS (여러가지 post-and-core로 수복된 상악 중절치의 유한요소법적 연구)

  • Seo, Min-Seock;Shon, Won-Jun;Lee, Woo-Cheol;Yoo, Hyun-Mi;Cho, Byeong-Hoon;Baek, Seung-Ho
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.324-332
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rigidity of post core systems on stress distribution by the theoretical technique, finite element stress-analysis method. Three-dimensional finite element models simulating an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with a zirconia ceramic crown were prepared and 1.5 mm ferrule height was provided. Each model contained cortical bone, trabecular bone, periodontal ligament, 4 mm apical root canal filling, and post-and-core. Six combinations of three parallel type post (zirconia ceramic, glass fiber, and stainless steel) and two core (Paracore and Tetric ceram) materials were evaluated, respectively. A 50 N static occlusal load was applied to the palatal surface of the crown with a $60^{\circ}$angle to the long axis of the tooth. The differences in stress transfer characteristics of the models were analyzed. von Mises stresses were chosen for presentation of results and maximum displacement and hydrostatic pressure were also calculated. An increase of the elastic modulus of the post material increased the stress, but shifted the maximum stress location from the dentin surface to the post material. Buccal side of cervical region (junction of core and crown) of the glass fiber post restored tooth was subjected to the highest stress concentration. Maximum von Mises stress in the remaining radicular tooth structure for low elastic modulus resin core (29.21 MPa) was slightly higher than that for high elastic modulus resin core (29.14 MPa) in case of glass fiber post. Maximum displacement of glass fiber post restored tooth was higher than that of zirconia ceramic or stainless steel post restored tooth.