• Title/Summary/Keyword: rigidity

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Tissue Engineered Cartilage Formation on Various PLGA Scaffolds (PLGA 종류와 담체의 형성 방법에 따른 인간의 조직공학적 연골형성)

  • 김유미;임종옥;정호윤;박태인;백운이
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to evacuate the effect of different types of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds on the formation of human auricular and septal cartilages. All of the scaffolds were formed in a tubular shape for potential application for artificial trachea or esophagus with either 110,000 g/mol PLGA. 220,000 g/mol PLGA. or a combination of both. In order to maintain the tubular shape in vivo, two methods were used. One method was inserting polyethylene tube at the center of scaffolds made of 110,000 g/mol PLGA. The other method involved combination of the two different molecular weight PLGA's. The inner surface of tubular shaped scaffold made with 110,000 g/mol PLGA was coated with 220,000 9/mol PLGA to give more mechanical rigidity. Elastic cartilage was taken from the ear of a patient aged under 20 nears old and hyaline cartilage was taken from the nasal septum. The chondrocytes were then isolated. After second passage, the chondrocytes were seeded on the PLGA scaffolds followed by in vitro culture for one week. The cells-PLGA scaffold complex were implanted subcutaneously on the back of nude mice for 8 weeks. The tissue engineered cartilages were separated from nude mice and examined histologically after staining with the Hematoxylin Eosin. The morphology of the scaffolds were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The pores were well formed and uniformly distributed in the various PLGA scaffolds. After 8 weeks in vivo culture, cartilage was well formed with 110,000 g/mol PLGA. however lumen had collapsed. In contrast. a minimal amount of neocartilage was formed with 220,000 g/mol PLGA, while the architecture of scaffold and lumen were well preserved. Elastic cartilage formed more neocartilage than hyaline. Hyaline and elastic neocartilage were well formed on 110,000 g/mol PLGA with the polyethylene tube, exhibiting mature chondrocytes and preservation of the tubular shape. It was found that 110,000 g/mol PLGA was more appropriate for cartilage formation but higher molecular weight polymer was necessary to maintain the three dimensional shape of the scaffold.

Investigation of Post-seismic Sites Using Local Seismic Tomography in the Korean Peninsula (지진 토모그래피를 이용한 한반도의 과거진원지역의 특성 연구)

  • Kim So-Gu;Bae Hyung-Sub
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.111-128
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    • 2006
  • Three dimensional crustal structure and source features of earthquake hypocenters on the Korean peninsula were investigated using P and S-wave travel time tomography. The main goal of this research was to find Vp/Vs anomalies at earthquake hypocenters as well as those of crustal structure of basins and deep tectonic settings. This allowed fer the extrapolation of more detailed seismotectonic force from the Korean peninsula. The earthquake hypocenters were found to have high Vp/Vs ratio discrepancies (VRD) at the vertical sections. High V/p/Vs ratios were also found in the sedimentary basins and beneath the Chugaryong Rift Zone (CRZ), which was due to mantle plume that subsequently solidified with many fractures and faults which were saturated with connate water. The hypocenters of most earthquakes were found in the upper crust for Youngwol (YE), Kyongju (KE), Hongsung (HE), Kaesong (KSE), Daekwan (DKE), and Daehung (DHE) earthquakes, but near the subcrust or the Moho Discontinuity for Mt. Songni (SE), Sariwon (SRE) and Mt. Jiri (JE) earthquakes. Especially, we found hot springs of the Daekwan, Daehung and Unsan regions coincide with high VRD. Also, this cannot rule out the possibility that there are some partial meltings in the subcrust of this region. High VRD might indicate that many faults and fractures with connate water were dehydrated when earthquakes took place, reducing shear modulus in the hypocenter areas. This is can be explained by due to the fact that a point source which is represented by the moment tensor that may involve changes in volume, shear fracture, and rigidity. High Vp/Vs ratio discrepancies (VRD) were also found beneath Mt. Backdu beneath 40 km, indicating that magma chamber existed beneath Mt. Backdu is reducing shear modulus of S-wave velocity.