• Title/Summary/Keyword: rice N uptake.

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Ammonium and Nitrate Uptake and Utilization Efficiency of Rice varieties as Affected by Different N-Concentrations

  • Choi Kyung-Jin;Swiader John M.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 2005
  • To find out the optimum mixture ratio of ammonium and nitrate on rice plant, 4 rice varieties were examined during 14days after transplanting in hydroponics with the different ratio of ammonium to nitrate(100 : 0, 75: 25,50: 50, 25: 75 and 0: 100). The highest N uptake from solution and the maximum plant dry weight were $60\~70\%$ ammonium and $30\~40\%$ nitrate mixture treatment both in Japonica and Tongil type rice plants. And with the same varieties N-uptake and N use-efficiency were compared between 10.0 mM and 1.0 mM nitrogen using $70\%$ ammonium and $30\%$ nitrate for 24 days after transplanting. Rice plants absorbed more nitrogen$(131\~145\%)$ in 10.0mM than 1.0mM treatment but accumulated N in rice plants were almost the same in both treatment. Among the tested rice cultivars, dry matter production and total accumulative nitrogen in rice plants were much high in Tongil type than japonica type rice cultivars. N-recovery ratios of rice plants from uptake N were $90.8-99.0\%$ in low concentration N solution(1.0 mM), but $69.4-81.7\%$ were observed in high concentration N solution(10.0 mM). It means that suppling low concentration N steadily will be better to prevent loss of N without reducing of growth in rice plants.

Yield and Nitrogen Uptake under Reduced Nitrogen Fertilizer during Early Growth of Rice in the Rice-Barley Double Cropping System

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Cho, Hyeon-Suk;Kim, Chung-Guk;Lee, Jin-Mo;Park, Seong-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2004
  • N fertilizer required by rice could be reduced greatly in the rice-barley double cropping system than in the rice single cropping system. This study was conducted to investigate how much of the N fertilizer during the early stage of rice in the rice-barley double cropping system, could be saved compared to that in the rice single cropping system. This experiment was carried out at the paddy field of the National Crop Experiment Station in Suwon, Korea during three years from 1999 to 2001. Amounts of soil mineral nitrogen (SMN) and SPAD values of rice leaf during rice growing season in the rice-barley double cropping system were higher than those in the rice single cropping system under the same amount of N application during two years. Yield and N uptakes of rice at harvesting time were also higher in the rice-barley double cropping system than in the rice single cropping system during two years. Yield and N uptake of rice in the rice single cropping system were decreased when basal N fertilizer was omitted, but those reductions were not found by either omitting basal N fertilizer or omitting N fertilizer at tillering stage in the rice-barley double cropping system during 2000 and 2001. But yield and N uptakes of rice were decreased by 70 kg/10a and 2kgN/10a by the omission of both N application at basal and tillering stages in the rice-barley double cropping system in 2002. It was concluded that N fertilizer as much as tillering N fertilizer could be saved in the rice-barley double cropping system.

Effects of Rice Straw Amendment and Nitrogen Fertilization on Rice Growth and Soil Properties in Reclaimed Tidal Paddy Field

  • Lee, Sanghun;Bae, Hui-Su;Lee, Soo-Hwan;Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Lee, Geon-Hwi
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2015
  • Farmers with forage barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system at reclaimed tidal lands burn crop residues to facilitate seedbed preparation or remove them for feed stock. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice straw amendment and N fertilization on soil properties and N uptake of rice under forage barely-rice cropping system at reclaimed tidal paddy field. Rice straw was applied at the rates of 0, 2.5 and $5.0ton\;ha^{-1}$ and N was fertilized at 0, 100, 200 and $400kg\;ha^{-1}$. Although there was no significant difference in the growth and yield of rice, fresh and dry weight of forage barely increased with increasing the amount of rice straw. The amount of N uptake of rice at harvesting stage was $65.8-69.2kg\;ha^{-1}$ by the amount of rice straw amendment, but there were no significant differences among rice straw amendment levels. After harvesting the rice, the soil salinity decreased with rice straw amendment compared to the control. After forage barely and rice cultivation, soil organic matter contents increased to $2.6-2.8g\;kg^{-1}$ and $3.2-3.5g\;kg^{-1}$, respectively. The amount of N uptake of rice at harvesting stage increased up to $82kg\;ha^{-1}$ in $400kg\;ha^{-1}$ N applied plots which were $37.8kg\;ha^{-1}$ higher than the control. Nitrogen fertilization decreased N recovery efficiency. The highest yield of rice was observed at $244kg\;ha^{-1}$ N fertilization level, but the optimum N level was estimated at $168kg\;ha^{-1}$ in order to keep the protein content of rice under 6.5%. Further researches on N uptake and application of organic matter according to soil salinity will be necessary to increase N use efficiency at reclaimed tidal paddy field.

Change of Growth and Nitrogen Uptake of Rice at the Paddy Field with Previous Upland Condition (논.밭윤환 복원논의 벼 생육특성 및 질소흡수량 변화)

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Chung-Keun;Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Chun-Ki;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2010
  • Excess nitrogen (N) uptake of rice, which could cause much lodging, disease and reduction of rice quality, could be occurred at the paddy field with previous upland condition at which much soil N could be mineralized by soil-drying effect. N fertilizers of 0, 3, and 6 kg N $10a^{-1}$ were applied to early-maturity rice, cultivar Joanbyeo at the paddy field of first and second year after upland condition, and rice growth and nitrogen uptake were investigated to know the increase of rice N uptake at the paddy field with previous upland condition for one-year. Total dry matter (DM) and N uptake of rice at the paddy field with previous upland condition increased more than continuous paddy field. Total DM and N uptake of rice at the paddy field with previous upland condition increased linearly to N fertilizer 6 kg $10a^{-1}$ at the paddy field owing to vigorous growth compared to continuous paddy field. Rice N uptake was higher at the paddy field of the first year than the second year after upland condition in considering N uptake at the plot of no N fertilizer. Vigorous growth at the paddy field with previous upland condition resulted in higher rice yield which was related with high panicle and spikelet, but much N fertilizer as much as 6 kg $10a^{-1}$ at the paddy field with previous upland condition resulted in higher lodging and protein content of brown and milled rice. Particularly, protein content of brown and milled rice increased more when the same N fertilizer was applied two times splitly at transplanting and panicle initiation stage than when N fertilizer was applied one time at transplanting as basal N. N application with under 3 kg $10a^{-1}$ as only basal N was recommended at the paddy field with previous upland condition to obtain high quality rice without lodging.

Nitrogen Use Efficiency of High Yielding Japonica Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Influenced by Variable Nitrogen Applications

  • Kang, Shin-Gu;Hassan, Mian Sayeed;Ku, Bon-Il;Sang, Wan-Gyu;Choi, Min-Kyu;Kim, Young-Doo;Park, Hong-Kyu;Chowdhury, M. Khalequzzaman A.;Kim, Bo-Kyeong;Lee, Jeom-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.213-219
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    • 2013
  • A field study was conducted to understand nitrogen use efficiency of high yielding Japonica rice varieties under three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (90, 150 and 210 kg N $ha^{-1}$) in Iksan, Korea. Two high yielding rice varieties, Boramchan and Deuraechan, and an control variety, Dongjin2, were grown in fine silty paddy. Nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE) were 83.3, 56.3, and 41.2 in 90, 150, and 210 kg N $ha^{-1}$ fertilizer level, respectively. Total nitrogen uptake varied significantly among nitrogen levels and varieties. Variety Dongjin2 showed the highest nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE), while Boramchan and Deuraechan showed higher nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE). However, Nitrogen harvest index (NHI) was higher in Boramchan (0.58) than Deuraechan (0.57) and Dongjin2 (0.53). Rough rice yield showed linear relationship with total nitrogen uptake ($R^2$=0.72) within the range of nitrogen treatments. Boramchan produced significantly higher rough rice yield (8546 kg $ha^{-1}$) which mainly due to higher number of panicles per $m^2$ compared to Deuraechan (7714 kg $ha^{-1}$). Deuraechan showed higher number of spikelets per panicle, but showed lower yield due to lower number of panicle per $m^2$. Rice varieties showed different nitrogen uptake ability and NUE at different nitrogen level. Plant breeders and agronomist should take advantage of the significant variations and relationships among grain yield, NUpE, and NUE.

Nitrogen Translocation and Dry Matter Accumulation of Direct Seeded Rice in No Tillage Rice-Vetch Cropping

  • Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Byung-Jin;Choe, Zhin-Ryong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.44-48
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    • 1999
  • Uptake, assimilation and translocation of nitrogen and dry matter assimilation and translocation in ten rice cultivars were observed in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping system. There was a large degree of variation in N-uptake, grain yield, nitrogen translocation efficiency and dry matter assimilation and translocation in tested rice cultivars. Forty kg N/ha base, as compound fertilizer (21-17-21% of N-P-K) three weeks after sowing and 30 kg N/ha top-dressed at panicle initiation stage as in the form of (NH$_4$)$_2$$CO_2$ was applied. ‘Newbounet’, ‘Daesanbyeo’, and ‘Hwayeongbyeo’ showed higher translocation efficiency. The contribution of pre-heading dry matter assimilates to grain ranged from 33% to 99% of dry grain weight. Dry matter of ‘Calrose 76’ was lower than Newbounet but N content was higher in Calrose 76 than Newbonnet. By maturity, N content in vegetative parts declined considerably more than dry matter, vegetative and reproductive parts, N translocation efficiency, and N harvest index. Nitrogen translocation efficiency was greater in ‘Nonganbyeo’, Daesanbyeo, and Newbounet. Grain N concentration was positively correlated with N concentration or N content of the vegetative parts at heading in Nonganbyeo, ‘Dasanbyeo’, ‘Dongjinbyeo’, and Newbonnet. These results indicated that the greater amount of dry matter and N accumulated before heading stage, the higher translocation rates of dry matter to grain and the greater net losses at maturity.

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Effect of Elevated TEX>$CO_2$ and Temperature on Nitrogen Responses in Rice (수도의 질소반응에 미치는 고$CO_2$농도 및 온도의 영향)

  • 김한용
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.119-123
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    • 1998
  • Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on nitrogen (N) uptake , leaf N concentration, N partitioning , N use efficiency (NUE) and grain yield of pot and field grown rice (Oryza sativa. L.cv. Chukwangbyeo) under canopy-like conditions were studied over three years. Rice plants were grown in pots and in the field in temperature gradient chambers containing either ambient(350ppm) or elevated CO2 concentrations (690 or 650ppm) in conbination with either four or seven temperature regimes ranging form ambient temperature(AT) to AT plus 3$^{\circ}C$. There were three N supplies 94g or 6g m-2 to 20g or 48g m-2.Elevated CO2 increased N uptake in field-grown rice ; the magnitude of this effect was thelargest (+15%) at the highest N level. However, in pot-grown rice, N uptake was suppressed with the effect was the largest at high N levels. Leaf N concentration declined at elevated CO2 mainly due to a decrease in N partitiioning to the leaf blades. Air temperature had little effect on the N parameters mentioned previously, wherease NUE for spikelet production declined rapidly with increased temperature irrespective of CO2 concentration. The response of the biomass to elevated CO2 varied with N level, with the greatest response at 20g N m-2 (+30%) . At AT, where high temperature-induced sterility was generally not observed, elevated CO2 increased yield. However, the magnitude of this effect varied greatly (2-39%) with N level, and was mainly dependent on the magnitude of the increase in spikelet number.

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Managing Within-Field Spatial Yield Variation of Rice by Site-Specific Prescription of Panicle Nitrogen Fertilizer

  • Ahn Nguyen Tuan;Shin Jin Chul;Lee Byun-Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.238-246
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    • 2005
  • Rice yield and protein content have been shown to be highly variable across paddy fields. In order to characterize this spatial variability of rice within a field, two-year experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 in a large-scale rice field of $6,600m^2$ In year 2004, an experiment was conducted to know if variable rate treatment (VRT) of N fertilizer, that was prescribed for site-specific management at panicle initiation stage, could reduce spatial variation in yield and protein content of rice while increasing yield compared to conventional uniform N topdressing (UN, 33kg N/ha at PIS) method. VRT nitrogen prescription for each grid was calculated based on the nitrogen (N) uptake (from panicle initiation to harvest) required for target rice protein content of $6.8\%$, natural soil N supply, and recovery of top-dressed N fertilizer. The required N uptake for target rice protein content was calculated from the equations to predict rice yield and protein content from plant growth parameters at panicle initiation stage (PIS) and N uptake from PIS to harvest. This model· equations were developed from the data obtained from the previous two-year experiments. The plant growth parameters for the calculation of the required N were predicted non-destructively by canopy reflectance measurement. Soil N supply for each grid was obtained from the experiment of year 2003, and N recovery was assumed to be $60\%$ according to the previous reports. The prescribed VRT N ranged from 0 to 110kg N/ha with an average of 57kg/ha that was higher than 33 kg/ha of UN. The results showed that VRT application successfully worked not only to reduce spatial variability of rice yield and protein content but also to increase rough rice yield by 960kg/ha. The coefficient of variation (CV) for rice yield and protein content was reduced significantly to $8.1\%$ and $7.1\%$ in VRT from $14.6\%$ and $13.0\%$ in UN, respectively. And also the average protein content of milled rice in VRT showed very similar value of target protein content of $6.8\%$. In conclusion the procedure used in this paper was believed to be reliable and promising method for reducing within-field spatial variability of rice yield and protein content. However, inexpensive, reliable, and fast estimation methods of natural N supply and plant growth and nutrition status should be prepared before this method could be practically used for site-specific crop management in large-scale rice field.

SPATIAL YIELD VARIABILITY AND SITE-SPECIFIC NITROGEN PRESCRIPTION FOR THE IMPROVED YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF RICE

  • Lee Byun-Woo;Nguyen Tuan Ahn
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.57-74
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    • 2005
  • Rice yield and protein content have been shown to be highly variable across paddy fields. In order to characterize this spatial variability of rice within a field, the two-year experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 in a large-scale rice field of $6,600m^2$ In year 2004, an experiment was conducted to know if prescribed N for site-specific fertilizer management at panicle initiation stage (VRT) could reduce spatial variation in yield and protein content of rice while increasing yield compared to conventional uniform N topdressing (UN, ,33 kg N/ha at PIS) method. The trial field was subdivided into two parts and each part was subjected to UN and VRT treatment. Each part was schematically divided in $10\times10m$ grids for growth and yield measurement or VRT treatment. VRT nitrogen prescription for each grid was calculated based on the nitrogen (N) uptake (from panicle initiation to harvest) required for target rice protein content of $6.8\%$, natural soil N supply, and recovery of top-dressed N fertilizer. The required N uptake for target rice protein content was calculated from the equations to predict rice yield and protein content from plant growth parameters at panicle initiation stage (PIS) and N uptake from PIS to harvest. This model equations were developed from the data obtained from the previous two-year experiments. The plant growth parameters for this calculation were predicted non-destructively by canopy reflectance measurement. Soil N supply for each grid was obtained from the experiment of year 2003, and N recovery was assumed to be $60\%$ according to the previous reports. The prescribed VRT N ranged from 0 to 110kg N/ha with average of 57kg/ha that was higher than 33kg/ha of UN. The results showed that VRT application successfully worked not only to reduce spatial variability of rice yield and protein content but also to increase rough rice yield by 960kg/ha. The coefficient of variation (CV) for rice yield and protein content was reduced significantly to $8.1\%\;and\;7.1\%$ in VRT from $14.6\%\;and\;13.0\%$ in UN, respectively. And also the average protein content of milled rice in VRT showed very similar value of target protein content of $6.8\%$. Although N use efficiency of VRT compared to UN was not quantified due to lack of no N control treatment, the procedure used in this paper for VRT estimation was believed to be reliable and promising method for managing within-field spatial variability of yield and protein content. The method should be received further study before it could be practically used for site-specific crop management in large-scale rice field.

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Impacts of Planting Density on Nutrients Uptake by System of Rice Intensification under No-tillage Paddy in Korea

  • Meas, Vannak;Shon, Daniel;Lee, Young-Han
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.98-103
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    • 2011
  • The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a new concept of increasing the yield of rice produced in farming. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of planting density on nutrient uptake as affected by SRI under no-till cropping system. The field was prepared as a randomized complete block design with three treatments: $10{\times}10$ cm, $20{\times}20$ cm and $30{\times}30$ cm planting densities. The root dry mass was significantly increased in the wider planting densities (p<0.05%). The highest grain yield was obtained in $20{\times}20$ cm planting density plot (p<0.05%) due to higher plant density per unit area and spikelets number per panicle. The total uptake amounts by rice plant were significantly higher in $20{\times}$20 cm planting density plot as 94.8 kg $ha^{-1}$ for T-N and 29.9 kg $ha^{-1}$ for P than other planting densities plots, but K and Mg uptake were significantly higher in $10{\times}10$ cm planting density plot (p<0.05%). In this study, our findings suggest that SRI should be considered as a new practice for the rice productivity.