• Title/Summary/Keyword: respiratory gating system

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Effectiveness of the Respiratory Gating System for Stereotectic Radiosurgery of Lung Cancer (Lung Cancer의 Stereotactic Radiosurgery시 Respiratory Gating system의 유용성에 대한 연구)

  • Song Heung Kwon;Kim Min Su;Yang Oh Nam;Park Cheol Su;Kwon Kyung Tae;Kim Jeong Man
    • 대한방사선치료학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2005
  • Introduction : For stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of a tumor in the region whose movement due to respiration is significant, like Lung lower lobe, the gated therapy, which delivers radiation dose to the selected respiratory phases when tumor motion is small, was peformed using the Respiratory gating system and its clinical effectiveness was evaluated. Methode and Materials : For two SRS patients with a tumor in Lung lower lobe, a marker block (infrared reflector) was attached on the abdomen. While patient' respiratory cycle was monitored with Real-time Position Management (RPM, Varian, USA), 4D CT was performed (10 phases per a cycle). Phases in which tumor motion did not change rapidly were decided as treatment phases. The treatment volume was contoured on the CT images for selected treatment phases using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. In order to verify setup reproducibility and positional variation, 4D CT was repeated. Result : Gross tumor volume (GTV) showed maximum movement in superior-inferior direction. For patient $\#$1, motion of GTV was reduced to 2.6 mm in treatment phases ($30\%\~60\%$), while that was 9.4 mm in full phases ($0\%\~90\%$) and for patient $\#$2, it was reduced to 2.3 mm in treatment phases ($30\%\~70\%$), while it was 11.7 mm in full phases ($0\%\~90\%$). When comparing two sets of CT images, setup errors in all the directions were within 3 mm. Conclusion : Since tumor motion was reduced less than 5 mm, the Respiratory gating system for SRS of Lung lower lobe is useful.

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Consideration of the Accuracy by Variation of Respiration in Real-time Position Management Respiratory Gating System (호흡동조 방사선치료에 사용되고 있는 RPM (Real-time Position Management) Respiratory Gating System의 호흡변화에 따른 정확성에 대한 고찰)

  • Na, Jun Young;Kang, Tae Young;Baek, Geum Mun;Kwon, Gyeong Tae
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) has been carried out using RPM (Real-time Position Management) Respiratory Gating System (version 1.7.5, varian, USA) in Asan Medical Center. This study was to analyze and evaluate the accuracy of Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) according to variation of respiration. Materials and Methods: Making variation of respiration using Motion Phantom:QUASAR Programmable Respiratory Motion Phantom (Moudus Medical Device Inc. CANADA) able to adjust respiration pattern randomly was varying period, amplitude and baseline by analyze 50 patient's respiration of lung and liver cancer. One of the variations of respiration is baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. The other variation of respiration is baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm. Experiments were performed in the same way that is used RPM Respiratory Gating System (phase gating, usually 30~70% gating) in Asan Medical Center. Results: It was all exposed radiation under one of the conditions of baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. Under the other condition of baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm equally radiation was exposed. Conclusion: The variations of baseline shifts didn't accurately reflect on phase gating in RPM Respiratory Gating System. This inexactitude makes serious uncertainty in Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. So, Must be stabilized breathing of patient before conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. also must be monitored breathing of patient in the middle of treatment. If you observe considerable changes of breathing when conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. Stopping treatment immediately and then must be need to recheck treatment site using fluoroscopy. If patient's respiration rechecked using fluoroscopy restabilize, it is possible to restart Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy.

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Effectiveness of the Respiratory Gating System for Stereotectic Radiosurgery of Lung Cancer (폐암 환자의 정위적 방사선 수술 시 Respiratory Gating System의 유용성에 대한 연구)

  • Song Heung-Kwon;Kwon Kyung-Tae;Park Cheol-Su;Yang Oh-Nam;Kim Min-Su;Kim Jeong-Man
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : For stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of a tumor in the region whose movement due to respiration is significant, like Lung lower lobe, the gated therapy, which delivers radiation dose to the selected respiratory phases when tumor motion is small, was performed using the Respiratory gating system and its clinical effectiveness was evaluated. Materials and Methods : For two SRS patients with a tumor in Lung lower lobe, a marker block (infrared reflector) was attached on the abdomen. While patient' respiratory cycle was monitored with Real-time Position Management (RPM, Varian, USA), 4D CT was performed (10 phases per a cycle). Phases in which tumor motion did not change rapidly were decided as treatment phases. The treatment volume was contoured on the CT images for selected treatment phases using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. In order to verify setup reproducibility and positional variation, 4D CT was repeated. Results : Gross tumor volume (GTV) showed maximum movement in superior-inferior direction. For patient #1, motion of GTV was reduced to 2.6 mm in treatment phases ($30{\sim}60%$), while that was 9.4 mm in full phases ($0{\sim}90%$) and for patient #2, it was reduced to 2.3 mm in treatment phases ($30{\sim}70%$), while it was 11.7 mm in full phases ($0{\sim}90%$). When comparing two sets of CT images, setup errors in all the directions were within 3 mm. Conclusion : Since tumor motion was reduced less than 5 mm, the Respiratory gating system for SRS of Lung lower lobe is useful.

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Patient Setup Aid with Wireless CCTV System in Radiation Therapy (무선 CCTV 시스템을 이용한 환자 고정 보조기술의 개발)

  • Park, Yang-Kyun;Ha, Sung-Whan;Ye, Sung-Joon;Cho, Woong;Park, Jong-Min;Park, Suk-Won;Huh, Soon-Nyung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.300-308
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    • 2006
  • $\underline{Purpose}$: To develop a wireless CCTV system in semi-beam's eye view (BEV) to monitor daily patient setup in radiation therapy. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: In order to get patient images in semi-BEV, CCTV cameras are installed in a custom-made acrylic applicator below the treatment head of a linear accelerator. The images from the cameras are transmitted via radio frequency signal (${\sim}2.4\;GHz$ and 10 mW RF output). An expected problem with this system is radio frequency interference, which is solved utilizing RF shielding with Cu foils and median filtering software. The images are analyzed by our custom-made software. In the software, three anatomical landmarks in the patient surface are indicated by a user, then automatically the 3 dimensional structures are obtained and registered by utilizing a localization procedure consisting mainly of stereo matching algorithm and Gauss-Newton optimization. This algorithm is applied to phantom images to investigate the setup accuracy. Respiratory gating system is also researched with real-time image processing. A line-laser marker projected on a patient's surface is extracted by binary image processing and the breath pattern is calculated and displayed in real-time. $\underline{Results}$: More than 80% of the camera noises from the linear accelerator are eliminated by wrapping the camera with copper foils. The accuracy of the localization procedure is found to be on the order of $1.5{\pm}0.7\;mm$ with a point phantom and sub-millimeters and degrees with a custom-made head/neck phantom. With line-laser marker, real-time respiratory monitoring is possible in the delay time of ${\sim}0.17\;sec$. $\underline{Conclusion}$: The wireless CCTV camera system is the novel tool which can monitor daily patient setups. The feasibility of respiratory gating system with the wireless CCTV is hopeful.

Combined Electrocardiography- and Respiratory-Triggered CT of the Lung to Reduce Respiratory Misregistration Artifacts between Imaging Slabs in Free-Breathing Children: Initial Experience

  • Goo, Hyun Woo;Allmendinger, Thomas
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.860-866
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts degrade the image quality of lung CT in free-breathing children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory triggering on respiratory misregistration artifacts on lung CT in free-breathing children. Materials and Methods: In total, 15 children (median age 19 months, range 6 months-8 years; 7 boys), who underwent free-breathing ECG-triggered lung CT with and without respiratory-triggering were included. A pressure-sensing belt of a respiratory gating system was used to obtain the respiratory signal. The degree of respiratory misregistration artifacts between imaging slabs was graded on a 4-point scale (1, excellent image quality) on coronal and sagittal images and compared between ECG-triggered lung CT studies with and without respiratory triggering. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Lung CT with combined ECG and respiratory triggering showed significantly less respiratory misregistration artifacts than lung CT with ECG triggering only ($1.1{\pm}0.4$ vs. $2.2{\pm}1.0$, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Additional respiratory-triggering reduces respiratory misregistration artifacts on ECG-triggered lung CT in free-breathing children.

Reproducibility Evaluation of Deep inspiration breath-hold(DIBH) technique by respiration data and heart position analysis during radiation therapy for Left Breast cancer patients (좌측 유방암 환자의 방사선치료 중 환자의 호흡과 심장 위치 분석을 통한 Deep inspiration breath-hold(DIBH) 기법의 재현성 평가)

  • Jo, Jae Young;Bae, Sun Myung;Yoon, In Ha;Lee, Ho Yeon;Kang, Tae Young;Baek, Geum Mun;Bae, Jae Beom
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.297-303
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is reproducibility evaluation of deep inspiration breath-hold(DIBH) technique by respiration data and heart position analysis in radiation therapy for Left Breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods : Free breathing(FB) Computed Tomography(CT) images and DIBH CT images of three left breast cancer patients were used to evaluate the heart volume and dose during treatment planing system( Eclipse version 10.0, Varian, USA ). The signal of RPM (Real-time Position Management) Respiratory Gating System (version 1.7.5, Varian, USA) was used to evaluate respiration stability of DIBH during breast radiation therapy. The images for measurement of heart position were acquired by the Electronic portal imaging device(EPID) cine acquisition mode. The distance of heart at the three measuring points(A, B, C) on each image was measured by Offline Review (ARIA 10, Varian, USA). Results : Significant differences were found between the FB and DIBH plans for mean heart dose (6.82 vs. 1.91 Gy), heart $V_{30}$ (68.57 vs. $8.26cm^3$), $V_{20}$ (76.43 vs. $11.34cm^3$). The standard deviation of DIBH signal of each patient was ${\pm}0.07cm$, ${\pm}0.04cm$, ${\pm}0.13cm$, respectively. The Maximum and Minimum heart distance on EPID images were measured as 0.32 cm and 0.00 cm. Conclusion : Consequently, using the DIBH technique with radiation therapy for left breast cancer patients is very useful to establish the treatment plan and to reduce the heart dose. In addition, it is beneficial to using the Cine acquisition mode of EPID for the reproducibility evaluation of DIBH.

Quality Verification for Respiratory Gated Proton Therapy (호흡동조 양성자치료의 Quality Verification)

  • Kim, Eun Sook;Jang, Yo Jong;Park, Ji Yeon;Kang, Dong Yun;Yeom, Doo Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To verify accuracy of respiratory gated proton therapy by measuring and analyzing proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy is being performed in our institute. Materials and Methods: The plan data of 3 patients who took respiratory gated proton therapy were used to deliver proton beam from proton therapy system. The manufactured moving phantom was used to apply respiratory gating system to reproduce proton beam which was partially irradiated. The key characteristics of proton beam, range, spreat-out Bragg peak (SOBP) and output factor were measured 5 times and the same categories were measured in the continuous proton beam which was not performed with respiratory gating system. Multi-layer ionization chamber was used to measure range and SOBP, and Scanditronix Wellhofer and farmer chamber was used to measure output factor. Results: The average ranges of 3 patients (A, B, C), who had taken respiratory gated proton therapy or not, were (A) 7.226, 7.230, (B) 12.216, 12.220 and (C) 19.918, 19.920 $g/cm^2$ and average SOBP were (A) 4.950, 4.940, (B) 6.496, 6.512 and (C) 8.486, 8.490 $g/cm^2$. And average output factor were (A) 0.985, 0.984 (B) 1.026, 1.027 and (C) 1.138, 1.136 cGy/MU. The differences of average range were -0.004, -0.004, -0.002 $g/cm^2$, that of SOBP were 0.010, -0.016, -0.004 $g/cm^2$ and that of output factor were 0.001, -0.001, 0.002 cGy/MU. Conclusion: It is observed that the range, SOBP and output factor of proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy is being performed have the same beam quality with no significant difference compared to the proton beam which was continuously irradiated. Therefore, this study verified the quality of proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy and confirmed the accuracy of proton therapy using this.

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Study of the Respiratory Monitoring System by Using the MEMS Acceleration Sensor (MEMS 가속도 센서를 이용한 환자 호흡동작 모니터링 체계 연구)

  • Sung, Jiwon;Yoon, Myonggeun;Chung, Weon Kuu;Kim, Dong Wook;Shin, Dong Oh
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we developed and evaluated the patient respiration training method which can help to avoid the problems for the limitation of RGRT applicable patient cases. By using the MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-system) acceleration sensor, we measured movement of motion phantom. We had compared the response of MEMS with commercially introduced real time patient monitoring (RPM) system. We measured the response of the MEMS with 1 dimensional motion phantom movement for 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 second of period and the 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 cm of the amplitudes. The measured period error of the MEMS system was 0.6~6.0% compared with measured period using RPM system. We found that the shape of MEMS signals were similar with RPM system. From this study, we found the possibility of MEMS as patient training system.

Accuracy Evaluation of Tumor Therapy during Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (호흡동조방사선 치료 시 종양 치료의 정확도 평가)

  • Jang, Eun-Sung;Kang, Soo-Man;Lee, Chol-Soo;Kang, Se-Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.113-122
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a target position at static and dynamic state by using Dynamic phantom for the difference between tumor's actual movement during respiratory gated radiation therapy and skin movement measured by RPM (Real-time Position Management). Materials and Methods: It self-produced Dynamic phantom that moves two-dimensionally to measure a tumor moved by breath. After putting marker block on dynamic phantom, it analyzed the amplitude and status change depending on respiratory time setup in advance by using RPM. It places marker block on dynamic phantom based on this result, inserts Gafchromic EBT film into the target, and investigates 5 Gy respectively at static and dynamic state. And it scanned investigated Gafchromic EBT film and analyzed dose distribution by using automatic calculation. Results: As a result of an analysis of Gafchromic EBT film's radiation amount at static and dynamic state, it could be known that dose distribution involving 90% is distributed within margin of error of 3 mm. Conclusion: As a result of an analysis of dose distribution's change depending on patient's respiratory cycle during respiratory gated radiation therapy, it is expected that the treatment would be possible within recommended margin of error at ICRP 60.

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The Research of Comparison Evaluation on the Decline in Artifact Using Respiratory Gating System in PET-CT (PET-CT 검사 시 호흡동조 시스템을 이용한 인공물 감소에 대한 비교 평가)

  • Kim, Jin-Young;Lee, Seung Jae;jung, Suk;Park, Min-Soo;Kang, Chun-Goo;Im, Han-Sang;Kim, Jae-Sam
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2015
  • Purpose Among various causes that influence image quality degradation, various methods for decrease in Artifact occurred by respiration of patients are being used. Among them, this study intended to evaluate CTAC Shift correction method and additional scan compare to the Scan(Q static scan) using respiratory gated system. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on 10 patients, and used PET-CT Discovery 710 (GE Healthcare, MI, USA) and Varian's RPM system. 5.18 Mbq per kg of $^{18}F$-FDG was injected on patients, asked them to take a rest for 1 hour in the bed, and conducted test after urination. Images were visualized through Q static scan, CTAC Shift correction method, Additional scan based on the Whole body scan(WBS) with Artifact. Decrease in Artifact was compared in each image, conducted Gross Evalution, and measured changes of SUVmax. Results For image obtained through the CTAC Shift correction method through WBS with Artifact, 12~56%, Q static scan image showed 17~54% of change rate and Additional Scan showed -27~46% of change rate. In Blind Test, the CTAC Shift correction image showed the highest point with 4 points, Q static scan image showed 3.5 points, and Additional scan image showed 3.4 points. The standardized WBS scan through Oneway ANOVA and three types of Scan method showed significant difference(p<0.05), and did not show significant difference between the three Scan methods(p>0.05). However, the three Scan methods showed significant difference in Blind test. Conclusion Additional scan and Q static scan require more time than the CTAC Shift correction method, there is concern about excessive exposure to patients by CT rescan and Q static scan is difficult to apply on patients with inconsistent respiration or irregular respiration cycle due to pain. For CTAC Shift correction method, limited correction is possible and the range is limited as well. It is considered as a useful method of improving diagnostic value when hospitals use the system appropriately and develop various advantageous factors of each method.

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