• Title/Summary/Keyword: rectal dose

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Late Rectal Complication in Patients treated with High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Stage IIB Carcinoma of the Cervix (FIGO병기 IIB 자궁경부암에서 고선량 강내 방사선치료후의 후기 직장 합병증)

  • Chung, Eun-Ji;Kim, Gwi-Eon;Suh, Chang-Ok;Keum, Ki-Chang;Kim, Woo-Cheol
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : This paper reports a dosimetric study of 88 patients treated with a combination of external radiotherapy and high dose rate ICR for FIGO stage IIB carcinoma of the cervix. The purpose is to investigate the correlation between the radiation doses to the rectum, external radiation dose to the whole pelvis, ICR reference volume, TDF BED and the incidence of late rectal complications, retrospectively. Materials and Methods : From November 1989 through December 1992, 88 patients with stage IIB cervical carcinoma received radical radiotherapy at Department of Radiation Oncology in Yonsei University Hospital. Radiotherapy consisted of 44-54 Gy(median 49 Gy) external beam irradiation plus high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy with 5 Gy per fraction twice a week to a total dose of 30 Gy on point A. The maximum dose to the rectum by contrast(r, R) and reference rectal dose by ICRU 38(dr, DR) were calculated. The ICR reference volume was calculated by Gamma Dot 3.11 HDR planning system, retrospectively The time-dose factor(TDF) and the biologically effective dose (BED) were calculated. Results : Twenty seven($30.7\%$) of the 88 patients developed late rectal complications:12 patients($13.6\%$) for grade 1, 12 patients($13.6\%$) for grade 2 and 3 patients($3.4\%$) for grade 3. We found a significant correlation between the external whole pelvis irradiation dose and grade 2, 3 rectal complication. The mean dose to the whole pelvis for the group of patients with grade 2, 3 complication was Higher, $4093.3\pm453.1$ cGy, than that for the patients without complication, $3873.8\pm415.6$ (0.05$7163.0\pm838.5$ cGy, than that for the Patients without rectal complication, $0772.7\pm884.0$ (p<0.05). There was no correlation of the rate of grade 2, 3 rectal complication with the iCR rectal doses(r, dr), ICR reference volume, TDF and BED. Conclusion : This investigation has revealed a significant correlation between the dose calculated at the rectal dose by ICRU 38(DR) or the most anterior rectal dose by contrast(R) dose to the whole pelvis and the incidence of grade 2, 3 late rectal complications in patients with stage IIB cervical cancer undergoing external beam radiotherapy and HOR ICR. Thus these rectal reference points doses and whole pelvis dose appear to be useful Prognostic indicators of late rectal complication in high dose rate ICR treatment in cervical carcinoma.

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The association of rectal equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) to late rectal toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University

  • Tharavichtikul, Ekkasit;Meungwong, Pooriwat;Chitapanarux, Taned;Chakrabandhu, Somvilai;Klunklin, Pitchayaponne;Onchan, Wimrak;Wanwilairat, Somsak;Traisathit, Patrinee;Galalae, Razvan;Chitapanarux, Imjai
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To evaluate association between equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) to rectal point dose and gastrointestinal toxicity from whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study was designed for the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated by radical radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 and were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy. The cumulative doses of WPRT and ICBT to the maximally rectal point were calculated to the EQD2 and evaluated the association of toxicities. Results: Thirty-nine patients were evaluated for late rectal toxicity. The mean cumulative dose in term of EQD2 to rectum was 64.2 Gy. Grade 1 toxicities were the most common findings. According to endoscopic exam, the most common toxicities were congested mucosa (36 patients) and telangiectasia (32 patients). In evaluation between rectal dose in EQD2 and toxicities, no association of cumulative rectal dose to rectal toxicity, except the association of cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy to late effects of normal tissue (LENT-SOMA) scale ${\geq}$ grade 2 (p = 0.022; odds ratio, 5.312; 95% confidence interval, 1.269-22.244). Conclusion: The cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy have association with ${\geq}$ grade 2 LENT-SOMA scale.

Prediction of Late Rectal Complication Following High-dose-rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Cancer of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경부암 환자의 고선량률 강내치료 시행 시 직장합병증의 예측)

  • Lee, Jeung-Eun;Huh, Seung-Jae;Park, Won;Lim, Do-Hoon;Ahn, Yong-Chan
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.276-282
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Although high-dose-rate intracavitary radiotherapy (HDR ICR) has been used in the treatment of cervical cancer, the potential for increased risk of late complication, most commonly in the rectum, is a major concern. We have previously reported on 136 patients treated with HDR brachytherapy between 1995 and 1999. The purpose of this study is to upgrade the previous data and confirm the correlation between late rectal complication and rectal dose in cervix cancer patients treated with HDR ICR. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was peformed for 222 patients with cevix cancer who were treated for curative intent with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and HDR ICR from July 1995 to December 2001. The median dose of EBRT was 50.4 (30.6$\~$56.4) Gy with a daily fraction size 1.8 Gy. A total of six fractions of HDR ICR were given twice weekly with fraction size of 4 (3$\~$5.5) Gy to A point by Iridium-192 source. The rectal dose was calculated at the rectal reference point using the barium contrast criteria. in vivo measurement of the rectal dose was peformed with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during HDR ICR. The median follow-up period was 39 months, ranging from 6 to 90 months. Results: Twenty-one patients (9.5$\%$) experienced late rectal bleeding, from 3 to 44 months (median, 13 months) after the completion of RT. The calculated rectal doses were not different between the patients with rectal bleeding and those without, but the measured rectal doses were higher in the complicated patients. The differences of the measured ICR rectal fractional dose, ICR total rectal dose, and total rectal biologically equivalent dose (BED) were statistically significant. When the measured ICR total rectal dose was beyond 16 Gy, when the ratio of the measured rectal dose to A point dose was beyond 70$\%$, or when the measured rectal BED was over 110 Gy$_{3}$, a high possibility of late rectal complication was found. Conclusion: Late rectal complication was closely correlated with measured rectal dose by in vivo dosimetry using TLD during HDR ICR. If data from in vivo dosimetry shows any possibility of rectal bleeding, efforts should be made to reduce the rectal dose.

Comparisons between the KKU-Model and Conventional Rectal Tubes as Markers for Checking Rectal Doses during Intracavitary Brachytherapy of Cervical Cancer

  • Padoongcharoen, Prawat;Krusun, Srichai;Palusuk, Voranipit;Pesee, Montien;Supaadirek, Chunsri;Thamronganantasakul, Komsan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6115-6120
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    • 2014
  • Background: To compare the KKU-model rectal tube (KKU-tube) and the conventional rectal tube (CRT) for checking rectal doses during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Between February 2010 and January 2011, thirty -two patients with cervical cancer were enrolled and treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The KKU-tube and CRT were applied intrarectally in the same patients at alternate sessions as references for calculation of rectal doses during ICBT. The gold standard references of rectum anatomical markers which are most proximal to radiation sources were anterior rectal walls (ARW) adjacent to the uterine cervix demonstrated by barium sulfate suspension enema. The calculated rectal doses derived from actual anterior rectal walls, CRT and the anterior surfaces of the KKU-tubes were compared by using the paired t-test. The pain caused by insertion of each type of rectal tube was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: The mean dose of CRT was lower than the mean dose of ARW ($Dmean_0-Dmean_1$) by $80.55{\pm}47.33cGy$ (p-value <0.05). The mean dose of the KKU-tube was lower than the mean dose of ARW ($Dmean_0-Dmean_2$) by $30.82{\pm}24.20cGy$ (p-value <0.05). The mean dose difference [($Dmean_0-Dmean_1$)-($Dmean_0-Dmean_2$)] was $49.72{\pm}51.60cGy$, which was statistically significant between 42.32 cGy -57.13 cGy with the t-value of 13.24 (p-value <0.05). The maximum rectal dose by using CRT was higher than the KKU-tube as much as 75.26 cGy and statistically significant with the t-score of 7.55 (p-value <0.05). The mean doses at the anterior rectal wall while using the CRTs and the KKU-tubes were not significantly different (p-value=0.09). The mean pain score during insertion of the CRT was significantly higher than the KKU-tube by a t-score of 6.15 (p-value <0.05) Conclusions: The KKU-model rectal tube was found to be an easily producible, applicable and reliable instrument as a reference for evaluating the rectal dose during ICBT of cervical cancer without negative effects on the patients.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Gangyeong-Tang (康寧湯) on Mice injected LPS in Vagina (강녕탕(康寧湯)의 LPS 질내 주입 생쥐에 미치는 항염증(抗炎症) 효과)

  • Lee Tae-Hee;Yoon Jung-Moon;Lim Eun-Mee;Kim Yoon-Sang;Cho Hyun-Ju
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.95-108
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    • 2004
  • Objective: We made the genital organs inflammatory mice model by vaginal injection of Lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and we intended to make study about anti-inflammatory effects of Gangyeong-Tang, among oral and rectal medication and Herbal-Acupuncture treatment. Method: The female ICR(20-30g) mice were used, the temperature was controlled within $22{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ and water and food was not limited. The environment was manipulated to simulate 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night. After LPS injection into vagina, we confirmed on-set of inflammation. 2 days before LPS injection, we started to medicate Gangyeong-Tang in Oral and Rectal and Aqua-acupucture treatment. After 3days from LPS injection, we mesured the White Blood Cell(WBC), Interrleukin-6(IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-${\alpha}$(TNF-${\alpha}$) in blood which was collected from the Retro-orbital Plexus. Results: 1. We made the genital organs inflammatory mice model by vaginal injection of LPS successfully. 2. The number of WBC was decreased significantly as we medicated Gangyeong- Tang in Oral 1g/kg dose, 3g/kg dose and Rectal 1g/kg dose, rectal 3g/kg dose. 3. The concentration of IL-6 was decreased significantly as we medicated Gangyeong-Tang in all group of the Oral, Rectal, Herbal-Acupuncture treatment. 4. The concentration of TNF-${\alpha}$ was decreased significantly as we medicated Gangyeong-Tang in Oral 3g/kg dose and Rectal 1g/kg dose, Rectal 3g/kg dose group. Herbal-Acupuncture treatment group datas showed reductive tendency. Conclusion: As a result of this experiment, we made the genital organs inflammatory mice model by vaginal injection of LPS successfully and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect of Gangyeong-Tang.

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Rectal Injuries after Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경암(子宮頸癌) 방사선치료(放射線治療)에 의한 직장손상(直腸損傷))

  • Kim, Jung Jin
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 1983
  • 47 out of 56 cases of intact uterine cervix cancer treated by radiation at the Hanyang University Hospital were followed 18 months or more after treatment. (7 patients died before 18 months, 2 cases lost to follow-up). Age distribution reveal 5 cases in 30's, 18 cases in 40's, 17 cases in 50's, 7 cases in 60's. Histologically, all cases were squamous cell type except one case of adenocarcinoma. 1. 45 cases were treated by combined external Co-60 irradiation and intracavitary irradiation by Cs-137 small sources. 1 case was treated by external irradiation only, and 1 case by intracavitary only. 2. Rectal injuries were observed in 13 cased (27.6%), 4 cases in Grade 1, 8 cased in Grade 2 and 1 cases in Grade 3 which needed surgical management. 3. Average intervals of rectal injury following treatment was 9.2 months varying from 5 to 15 months. 4. Relation between rectal injury and point A dose reveal 6 cases between 7000-7999 rad and 6 cases between 8000-8999 rad and 1 case above 9000 rad. Even though there is no direct relation between point A dose and rectal injury, it is expected that rectal injury increases as point A dose increase. 5. In the normal condition, rectal injury can't be attributed to one major cause. Radiation dose, small source distribution, general condition of patients, local anatomy of the individual patient, history of PID and previous surgery, all play complex roles.

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Analysis of Dose Distribution of Rectal IORT Cone (Rectal IORT cone의 선량분포에 관한 연구)

  • 김성규;신세원;김명세
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 1992
  • Authors started IORT for stomach cancer patient on 1988 and rectal cancer on 1991. We devloped various sized. shaped IORT cones for better clinical application and homogeneous surface and depth dose distribution. Authors obtained results as following. 1. The acryl cover fixed on the end for rectal IORT cone not only improvement of surface dose but also flattness of dose distribution. 2. Dose distribution of elliptical cone were shown almost 100% at inner field. 3. The output with acryl cone size were similar output of made electron cone.

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Endoscopic findings of rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: correlation of rectal mucosal damage with radiation dose and clinical symptoms

  • Kim, Tae Gyu;Huh, Seung Jae;Park, Won
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To describe chronic rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer and correlate these findings with clinical symptoms and radiation dose. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients who underwent pelvic RT were diagnosed with radiation-induced proctitis based on endoscopy findings. The median follow-up period was 35 months after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR). The Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was used to describe the endoscopic findings and compared to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) morbidity score and the dosimetric parameters of RT (the ratio of rectal dose calculated at the rectal point [RP] to the prescribed dose, biologically effective dose [BED] at the RP in the ICR and EBRT plans, ${\alpha}/{\beta}$ = 3). Results: Rectal symptoms were noted in 28 patients (rectal bleeding in 21 patients, bowel habit changes in 6, mucosal stools in 1), and 4 patients had no symptoms. Endoscopic findings included telangiectasia in 18 patients, congested mucosa in 20, ulceration in 5, and stricture in 1. The RP ratio, $BED_{ICR}$, $BED_{ICR+EBRT}$ was significantly associated with the VRS (RP ratio, median 76.5%; $BED_{ICR}$, median 37.1 $Gy_3$; $BED_{ICR+EBRT}$, median 102.5 $Gy_3$; p < 0.001). The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score (p = 0.038). Conclusion: The most prevalent endoscopic findings of RT-induced proctitis were telangiectasia and congested mucosa. The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score and RP radiation dose.

Application of Modified Mupit for the Recurrent Vulva Cancer in Brachytherapy

  • Kim, Jong-Sik;Jung, Chun-Young;Oh, Dong-Gyoon;Song, Ki-Won;Park, Young-Hwan
    • 대한방사선치료학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 2005
  • Introduction: To evaluate whether modified MUPIT applicator can effectively eradicate recurrent tumor in uterine cervix cancer and reduce rectal complication after complete radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Modified MUPIT applicator basically consists of an acrylic cylinder with flexible brain applicator , an acrylic template with a predrilled array of holes that serve as guides for interstitial needles and interstitial needles. CT scan was performed to determine tumor volume and the position of interstitial needles. Modified MUPIT applicator was applied to patient in operation room and the accuracy for position of interstitial needles in tumor volume was confirmed by CTscan. Brachytherapy was delivered using modified MUPIT applicator and RALS (192-Ir HDR) after calculated computer planning by orthogonal film. The daily dose was 600cGy and the total dose was delivered 3000cGy in tumor volume by BID. Rectal dose was measured by TLD at 5 points so that evaluated the risk of rectal complication. Result: The application of modified MUPIT applicator improved dramatically dose distributions in tumor volume and follow-up of 3 month for this patient was clinically partial response without normal tissue complication, Rectal dose was measured 34.1cGy, 57.1cGy, 103.8cGy, 162.7cGy, 165.7cGy at each points, especially the rectal dose including previous EBRT and ICR was 34.1cGy, 57.1cGy Conclusion: Patients with locally recurrent tumor in uterine cervix cancer treated with modified MIUPIT applicator can expect reasonable rates of local control. The advantages of the system are the fixed geometry Provided by the template and cylinders, and improved dose distributions in irregular tumor volume without rectal complication

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Damage of Ibuprofen Suppository on Rectal Mucosa of Rats (이부프로펜 좌제의 흰쥐 직장점막 자극성 시험)

  • Lee, Sung-Hack;Kim, Moon-Kyoung;Han, Yong-Hae;Shim, Chang-Koo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.115-129
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    • 1994
  • In the present study, quantitative and qualitative histology was used to assess the effects of ibuprofen suppositories with various treatments on the rectal mucosa of rats. Two suppositories were prepared with Witepsol W35 and compared with two commercial ibuprofen suppositories Reference I (Showa Pharm.ind., Tokyo, Japan), Reference II (P.Pharm., Seoul, Korea). Single and multiple dose(dosing interval 4 hr, n=4) studies were conducted. All suppositories significantly increased epithelial cell loss, but the extent of rectal irritation was variable. These studies showed that the incorporation of ibuprofen into the suppository bases increases the morphological change in rectal tissue both for the single and multiple administrations of suppositories, but which was significantly recovered within 24 hr although the interanimal variability in scores was very substantial. Multiple administration of ibuprofen suppositories caused significant damage to rectal mucosa, but it must be considered that these were under the severe condition, that is, interval of administration (4 hr) was three times shorter than normal interval of administration and dose was fifteen times larger than usual human dose. Aluminum oxide $(Al_2O_3)$, a dispersing agent, slightly increased the irritation of rectal mucosa in rats at 5 hr and 24 hr after multiple administration, but it was possible to ignore the difference of irritation in the data at 5hr and 24hr after single administration. Finally, it was concluded that Witepsol W35 and ibuprofen had a slight rectal mucosa-irritating effect on the usual human dose, and ibuprofen suppositories prepared with Witepsol W35 or Witepsol W35, $Al_2O_3$ showed almost similar extent of rectal irritation with commercial ibuprofen products.

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