• Title/Summary/Keyword: rectal complication

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Rectal Complication Following Radical Radiotherapy in Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경부암에서 근치적 방사선치료 후의 직장 합병증)

  • Kim Won-Dong;Park Woo-Yoon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2006
  • Puroose: This study evaluated the late rectal complications in cervix cancer patients following treatment with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high dose rate intracavitary radiation (HDR ICR). The factors affecting the risk of developing late rectal complications and its incidence were analyzed and discussed. Materials and Methods: The records of 105 patients with cervix cancer who were treated with radical radiotherapy using HDR ICR between July, 1995 and December, 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The median dose of EBRT was 50.4Gy $(41.4{\sim}56.4 Gy)$ with a daily fraction size of 1.8Gy. A total of $5{\sim}7$ (median: 6) fractions of HDR ICR were given twice weekly with a fraction size of $4{\sim}5 Gy$ (median: 4Gy) to A point using an Ir (Iridium)-192 source. The median dose of ICR was 24 Gy $(20{\sim}35 Gy)$. During HDR ICR, the rectal dose was measured in vivo by a semiconductor dosimeter. The median follow-up period was 32 months, ranging from 5 to 84 months. Results: Of the 105 patients, 12 patients (11%) developed late rectal complications: 7 patients with grade 1 or 2, 4 patients with grade 3 and 1 patient with grade 4. Rectal bleeding was the most frequent chief complaint. The complications usually began to occur $5{\sim}32$ (median: 12) months after the completion of radiotherapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that the measured cumulative rectal BED over 115 Gy3 (Deq over 69 Gy) and the depth (D) of a 5 Gy isodose volume more than 50 mm were the independent predictors for late rectal complications. Conclusion: With evaluating the cumulative rectal BED and the depth of a 5 Gy isodose volume as predictors, we can individualize treatment planning to reduce the probability of late rectal complications.

Results of Radiation Therapy in Stage III Uterine Cervical Cancer (병기 III 자궁경부암의 방사선치료 결과)

  • Moon, Chang-Woo;Shin, Byung-Chul;Yum, Ha-Yong;Jeung, Tae-Sig;Yoo, Myung-Jin
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : The aim of this study is to analyze the survival rate, treatment failure and complication of radiation therapy alone in stage III uterine cervical cancer. Materials and Methods : From January 1980 through December 1985, 227 patients with stage III uterine cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy at Kosin Medical Center were retrospectively studied. Among 227 patients, 72 patients($317{\%}$) were stage IIIa, and 155 patients($68.3{\%}$) were stage IIIb according to FIGO classification. Age distribution was 32-71 years (median: 62 years). Sixty nine patients($95.8{\%}$) in stage IIIa and 150 patient ($96.8{\%}$) in stage IIIb were squamous cell carcinoma. pelvic lymph node metastasis at initial diagnosis was 8 patients($11.1{\%}$) in stage IIIa and 29 patients($18.7{\%}$) in stage IIIb, Among 72 patients with stage IIIa, 36 patients ($50{\%}$) were treated with external radiation therapy alone by conventional technique (180-200 cGy/fr.) and 36 patients($50{\%}$) were treated with external radiation therapy with intracavitary radiotherapy(ICR) with $Cs^{137}$ sources, and among 155 patients with stage IIIb, 80 patients ($51.6{\%}$) were treated with external radiation therapy alone and 75 patients ($48.4{\%}$) were treated with external radiation therapy with ICR. Total radiation doses of stage IIIa and IIIb were 65-105 Gy(median: 78.5 Gy) and 65-125.5 Gy (median 83.5 Gy). Survival rate was calculated by life-table method. Results : Complete response rates were $58.3{\%}$(42 patients) in stage IIIa and $56.1{\%}$(87 patients) in stage IIIb. Overall 5 year survival rates were $57{\%}$ in stage IIIa and $40{\%}$ in stage IIIb. Five year survival rates by radiation technique in stage IIIa and IIIb were $64{\%},\;40{\%}$ in the group treated in combination of external radiation and ICR, and $50\%,\;40\%$ in the group of external radiation therapy alone(P=NS). Five year survival rates by response of radiation therapy in stage IIIa and IIIb were $90\%,\;66\%$ in responder group and $10\%,\;7\%$ in non-responder group (P<0.001) There were statistically no significant differences of 5 year survival rate by total radiation doses and external radiation doses(40 Gy vs 50 Gy) of whole or true pelvis in stage IIIa and IIIb(P=NS). Treatment failures rates were $40.3\%$(29 patients) in stage IIla and $57.4\%$(89 patients) in stage IIIb. 17 patients ($23.6\%$) in stage IIIa and 46 patients ($29.7\%$) in stage IIIb experienced complications. Total radiation doses more than 85 Gy produced serious complication in both stage IIIa($50\%$) and IIIb($50\%$). Serious complication rates were higher in group received external radiation doses of 50 Gy than 40 Gy to whole or true pelvis in stage IIIa and IIIb. Serious rectal complication developed in rectal doses more than 65 Gy, and serious bladder complication developed in bladder doses more than 75 Gy. Major cause of death was cachexia due to locoregional failure in both stage IIIa($34.7\%$) and IIIb($43.9\%$). Conclusion : From this study, we found that external radiation therapy with ICR was found to have a tendency to be superior to external radiation therapy alone in survival rate, local control rate and complication rate but not different in statistics, and external radiation doses of 50 Gy than 40 Gy to whole or true pelvis produced serious rectal and bladder complications in stage III uterine cervical cancer.

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Rectal Bleeding and Its Management after Irradiation for Cervix Cancer (자궁경부암 환자에서 방사선치료 후에 발생한 직장출혈과 치료)

  • Chun Mison;Kang Seunghee;Kil Hoon-Jong;Oh Young-Taek;Sohn Jeong-Hye;Jung Hye-Young;Ryu Hee Suk;Lee Kwang-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.343-352
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Radiotherapy is the main treatment modality for uterine cervix cancer. Since the rectum is in the radiation target volume, rectal bleeding is a common late side effect. This study evaluates the risk factors of radiation induced rectal bleeding and discusses its optimal management. Materials and Methods : total of 213 patients who completed external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and intracavitary radiation (ICR) between September 1994 and December 1999 were included in this study. No patient had undergone concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Ninety patients received radiotherapy according to a modified hyperfractionated schedule. A midline block was placed at a pelvic dose of between 30.6 Gy to 39.6 Gy. The total parametrial dose from the EBRT was 51 to 59 Gy depending on the extent of their disease. The Point A dose from the HDR brachytherapy was 28 Gy to 30 Gy $(4\;Gy\times7,\;or\;5\;Gy\times6)$. The rectal point dose was calculated either by the ICRU 38 guideline, or by anterior rectal wall point seen on radiographs, with barium contrast. Rectal bleeding was scored by the LENT/SOMA criteria. For the management of rectal bleeding, we opted for observation, sucralfate enema or coagulation based on the frequency or amount of bleeding. The median follow-up period was 39 months $(12\~86\;months)$. Results : The incidence of rectal bleeding was $12.7\%$ (27/213); graded as 1 in 9 patients, grade 2 in 16 and grade 3 in 2. The overall moderate and severe rectal complication rate was $8.5\%$. Most complications $(92.6\%)$ developed within 2 years following completion of radiotherapy (median 16 months). No patient progressed to rectal fistula or obstruction during the follow-up period. In the univariate analysis, three factors correlated with a high incidence of bleeding an icruCRBED greater than 100 Gy $(19.7\%\;vs.\;4.2\%)$, an EBRT dose to the parametrium over 55 Gy $(22.1\%\;vs.\;5.1\%)$ and higher stages of III and IV $(31.8\%\;vs.\;10.5\%)$. In the multivariate analysis, the icruCRBED was the only significant factor (p>0.0432). The total parametrial dose from the EBRT had borderline significance (p=0.0546). Grade 1 bleeding was controlled without further management (3 patients), or with sucralfate enema 1 to 2 months after treatment. For grade 2 bleeding, sucralfate enema for 1 to 2 months reduced the frequency or amount of bleeding but for residual bleeding, additional coagulation was peformed, where immediate cessation of bleeding was achieved (symptom duration of 3 to 10 months). Grade 3 bleeding lasted for 1 year even with multiple transfusions and coagulations. Conclusion : Moderate and several rectal bleeding occurred in $8.5\%$ of patients, which is comparable with other reports. The most significant risk factor for rectal bleeding was the accumulated dose to the rectum (icruCRBED), which corrected with consideration to biological equivalence. Prompt management of rectal bleeding, with a combination of sucralfate enema and coagulation, reduced the duration of the symptom, and minimized the anxiety/discomfort of patients.