• Title/Summary/Keyword: rectal complication

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Late Rectal Complication in Patients treated with High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Stage IIB Carcinoma of the Cervix (FIGO병기 IIB 자궁경부암에서 고선량 강내 방사선치료후의 후기 직장 합병증)

  • Chung, Eun-Ji;Kim, Gwi-Eon;Suh, Chang-Ok;Keum, Ki-Chang;Kim, Woo-Cheol
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : This paper reports a dosimetric study of 88 patients treated with a combination of external radiotherapy and high dose rate ICR for FIGO stage IIB carcinoma of the cervix. The purpose is to investigate the correlation between the radiation doses to the rectum, external radiation dose to the whole pelvis, ICR reference volume, TDF BED and the incidence of late rectal complications, retrospectively. Materials and Methods : From November 1989 through December 1992, 88 patients with stage IIB cervical carcinoma received radical radiotherapy at Department of Radiation Oncology in Yonsei University Hospital. Radiotherapy consisted of 44-54 Gy(median 49 Gy) external beam irradiation plus high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy with 5 Gy per fraction twice a week to a total dose of 30 Gy on point A. The maximum dose to the rectum by contrast(r, R) and reference rectal dose by ICRU 38(dr, DR) were calculated. The ICR reference volume was calculated by Gamma Dot 3.11 HDR planning system, retrospectively The time-dose factor(TDF) and the biologically effective dose (BED) were calculated. Results : Twenty seven($30.7\%$) of the 88 patients developed late rectal complications:12 patients($13.6\%$) for grade 1, 12 patients($13.6\%$) for grade 2 and 3 patients($3.4\%$) for grade 3. We found a significant correlation between the external whole pelvis irradiation dose and grade 2, 3 rectal complication. The mean dose to the whole pelvis for the group of patients with grade 2, 3 complication was Higher, $4093.3\pm453.1$ cGy, than that for the patients without complication, $3873.8\pm415.6$ (0.05$7163.0\pm838.5$ cGy, than that for the Patients without rectal complication, $0772.7\pm884.0$ (p<0.05). There was no correlation of the rate of grade 2, 3 rectal complication with the iCR rectal doses(r, dr), ICR reference volume, TDF and BED. Conclusion : This investigation has revealed a significant correlation between the dose calculated at the rectal dose by ICRU 38(DR) or the most anterior rectal dose by contrast(R) dose to the whole pelvis and the incidence of grade 2, 3 late rectal complications in patients with stage IIB cervical cancer undergoing external beam radiotherapy and HOR ICR. Thus these rectal reference points doses and whole pelvis dose appear to be useful Prognostic indicators of late rectal complication in high dose rate ICR treatment in cervical carcinoma.

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Application of Modified Mupit for the Recurrent Vulva Cancer in Brachytherapy

  • Kim, Jong-Sik;Jung, Chun-Young;Oh, Dong-Gyoon;Song, Ki-Won;Park, Young-Hwan
    • 대한방사선치료학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 2005
  • Introduction: To evaluate whether modified MUPIT applicator can effectively eradicate recurrent tumor in uterine cervix cancer and reduce rectal complication after complete radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Modified MUPIT applicator basically consists of an acrylic cylinder with flexible brain applicator , an acrylic template with a predrilled array of holes that serve as guides for interstitial needles and interstitial needles. CT scan was performed to determine tumor volume and the position of interstitial needles. Modified MUPIT applicator was applied to patient in operation room and the accuracy for position of interstitial needles in tumor volume was confirmed by CTscan. Brachytherapy was delivered using modified MUPIT applicator and RALS (192-Ir HDR) after calculated computer planning by orthogonal film. The daily dose was 600cGy and the total dose was delivered 3000cGy in tumor volume by BID. Rectal dose was measured by TLD at 5 points so that evaluated the risk of rectal complication. Result: The application of modified MUPIT applicator improved dramatically dose distributions in tumor volume and follow-up of 3 month for this patient was clinically partial response without normal tissue complication, Rectal dose was measured 34.1cGy, 57.1cGy, 103.8cGy, 162.7cGy, 165.7cGy at each points, especially the rectal dose including previous EBRT and ICR was 34.1cGy, 57.1cGy Conclusion: Patients with locally recurrent tumor in uterine cervix cancer treated with modified MIUPIT applicator can expect reasonable rates of local control. The advantages of the system are the fixed geometry Provided by the template and cylinders, and improved dose distributions in irregular tumor volume without rectal complication

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Prediction of Late Rectal Complication Following High-dose-rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Cancer of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경부암 환자의 고선량률 강내치료 시행 시 직장합병증의 예측)

  • Lee, Jeung-Eun;Huh, Seung-Jae;Park, Won;Lim, Do-Hoon;Ahn, Yong-Chan
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.276-282
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Although high-dose-rate intracavitary radiotherapy (HDR ICR) has been used in the treatment of cervical cancer, the potential for increased risk of late complication, most commonly in the rectum, is a major concern. We have previously reported on 136 patients treated with HDR brachytherapy between 1995 and 1999. The purpose of this study is to upgrade the previous data and confirm the correlation between late rectal complication and rectal dose in cervix cancer patients treated with HDR ICR. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was peformed for 222 patients with cevix cancer who were treated for curative intent with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and HDR ICR from July 1995 to December 2001. The median dose of EBRT was 50.4 (30.6$\~$56.4) Gy with a daily fraction size 1.8 Gy. A total of six fractions of HDR ICR were given twice weekly with fraction size of 4 (3$\~$5.5) Gy to A point by Iridium-192 source. The rectal dose was calculated at the rectal reference point using the barium contrast criteria. in vivo measurement of the rectal dose was peformed with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during HDR ICR. The median follow-up period was 39 months, ranging from 6 to 90 months. Results: Twenty-one patients (9.5$\%$) experienced late rectal bleeding, from 3 to 44 months (median, 13 months) after the completion of RT. The calculated rectal doses were not different between the patients with rectal bleeding and those without, but the measured rectal doses were higher in the complicated patients. The differences of the measured ICR rectal fractional dose, ICR total rectal dose, and total rectal biologically equivalent dose (BED) were statistically significant. When the measured ICR total rectal dose was beyond 16 Gy, when the ratio of the measured rectal dose to A point dose was beyond 70$\%$, or when the measured rectal BED was over 110 Gy$_{3}$, a high possibility of late rectal complication was found. Conclusion: Late rectal complication was closely correlated with measured rectal dose by in vivo dosimetry using TLD during HDR ICR. If data from in vivo dosimetry shows any possibility of rectal bleeding, efforts should be made to reduce the rectal dose.

Radiotherapy of Uterine Cervical Cancer Using Fletcher-Suit-Delclos Cesium Applicator (Fletcher-Suit-Delclos Cesium Applicator를 이용한 자궁경부암의 방사선치료)

  • Sohn, Seung-Chang;Yoon, Jong-Chul;Suh, Hyun-Suk
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 1986
  • From Nov. 1983 through Feb. 1986, 35 patients of uterine cervical cancer were treated by external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiation therapy using Fletcher-Suit-Delclos applicator. Age of the patients ranged from 32 to 70 years (median age: 53 years). All patients had follow up from 9 to 34 months and median follow up of 20 months.4 patients were in stage I, 25 were in stage II, 5 were in stage III and 1 was in stage IV. Overall regression rate was $80\%$ and uncorrected actuarial 2 year survival rate was $88\%$. The incindence of rectal complications were analyzed. There was no rectal complication in the patients who received less than 7000 rad maximal rectal dose, but 2 out of 17 patients who received more than 7000 rad developed moderate degree (grade 2) of rectal complication. In viewing of our results, Fletcher-Suit-Delclos applicator (3M) seemed to be an appropriate instrument for intracaviary radiation therapy in the patients of uterine cervical cancer.

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Application of Modified Mupit for the Recurrent Vulva Cancer in Brachytherapy (재발한 Vulvar 종양의 근접치료 시 Modified Mupit Applicator의 적용)

  • Kim, Jong-Sik;Jung, Chun-Young;Oh, Dong-Gyoon;Song, Ki-Won;Park, Young-Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: To evaluate whether modified MUPIT applicator can effectively eradicate recurrent tumor in uterine cervix cancer and reduce rectal complication after complete radiation treatment. Materials and Methods: Modified MUPIT applicator basically consists of an acrylic cylinder with flexible brain applicator, an acrylic template with a predrilled array of holes that serve as guides for interstitial needles and interstitial needles. CT scan was peformed to determine tumor volume and the position of interstitial needles. Modified MUPIT applicator was applied to patient in operation room and the accuracy for position of interstitial needles in tumor volume was confirmed by CTscan. Brachytherapy was delivered using modified MUPIT applicator and RALS(192-lr HDR) after calculated computer planning by orthogonal film. The daily dose was 600cGy and the total dose was delivered 3,000 cGy in tumor volume by BID. Rectal dose was measured by TLD at 5 points so that evaluated the risk of rectal complication. Results: The application of modified MUPIT applicator improved dramatically dose distributions in tumor volume and follow-up of 3 month for this patient was clinically partial response without normal tissue complication, Rectal dose was measured 34.1 cGy, 57.1 cGy, 103.8 cGy, 162.7 cGy, 165.7 cGy at each points, especially the rectal dose including previous EBRT and ICR was 34.1 cGy, 57.1 cGy. Conclusion: Patients with locally recurrent tumor in uterine cervix cancel treated with modified MUPIT applicator can expect reasonable rates of local control. The advantages of the system are the fixed geometry provided by the template and cylinders. and improved dose distributions in irregular tumor volume without rectal complication.

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Optimum Dose Combination of External Radiation and High Dose Rate ICR in FIGO IB Uterine Cervical Cancer (병기 IB 자궁경부암의 방사선치료에서 외부방사선치료와 고선량율 강내치료의 최적선량 배합)

  • Lee Sang Wook;Suh Chang Ok;Chung Eun Ji;Kim Woo Cheol;Chang Sei Kyung;Keum Ki Chang;Kim Gwi Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : To assess the efficacy of high dose rate - intracavitary radio-therapy (HDR-ICR) in the radiotherapy of FIGO stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix and to determine the optimum dose combination scheme of external radiotherapy and ICR to achieve acceptable local control without severe complication. Materials and Methods : One hundred and sixty two patients with FIGO stage Ib squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix who received definitive radiotherapy between May 1979 and December 1990 were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients received external radiotherapy combined with HDR-ICR. External dose of 40-46 Gy in 4.5-5 weeks was given to whole pelvis(median 45 Gy) and ICR dose of 30-39 Gy in 10-13 times was given to the point A. Midline shielding was done after 20-45 Gy of external radiotherapy(median 40 Gy) Summation of external dose Plus ICR dose to the point A range were 64.20-95.00 Gy. and mean was 83.94 Gy. We analyzed the local control rate, survival rate, and late complication rate. Rusults : Initial complete response rate was $99.4\%$ for all patients. Overall 5-year survival rate was $91.1\%$ and 5-year disease free survival rate was $90.9\%$. Local failure rate was $4.9\%$ and distant failure rate was $4.3\%$. Tumor size was the only significant prognostic factor. When tumor size greater than 3cm, 5-rear survival rate was $92.6\%$ and less than 3cm, that was $79.6\%$. Late complication rate was $23.5\%$ with $18.5\%$ of rectal complication and $4.9\%$ of bladder complication. Mean rectal dose summation of external midline dose plus ICR rectal point dose was lower in the patients without rectal complication(74.88 Gr) than those with rectal complication (78.87 Gy). Complication rate was increased with low rate of improvement of survival rate when summation of external midline dose plus point A or point R dose by ICR was greater than 70-75 Gy. Conclusion : The definitive radiation therapy using high dose rate ICR in FIGO stage IB uterine cervical cancer is effective treatment modality with good local control and survival rate without severe complication.

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Permanent Brachytherapy of Localized Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Results (국소 전립선암의 영구적 근접치료: 조기 결과)

  • Park, Hye-Li;Chang, Sei-Kyung;Kim, Ja-Young;Lee, Bo-Mi;Ko, Seong-Young;Kim, Sung-Joon;Shin, Hyun-Soo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical control rate and the rate of side effects after performing permanent brachytherapy of localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: 67 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy between April 2007 and December 2008. Of these, 43 patients who were followed up and did not receive external radiotherapy were evaluated for the change in prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and the occurrence of side effects. In total, 18 patients were classified as low risk, 19 patients as intermediate risk, and 6 patients as high risk. The prescription dose was 145 Gy. Results: A PSA increase greater than 2 ng/mL occurred in 2 patients (4.7%). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1 and 2 acute urologic complications (UC) occurred in 40 and 3 patients, respectively. Further, 5 patients had RTOG grade 1 acute rectal complication (RC). The numbers of RTOG grade 1, 2, and 3 chronic UC were 1, 4, and 1, respectively. The numbers of RTOG grade 1, 2, and 4 chronic RC were 5, 10, and 3, respectively. The statistically significant risk factors (RF) of acute RC were the minimal dose in the most irradiated 0.1 cc volume ($D_{0.1cc}$, p=0.041) and absolute volume receiving 150% of the prescribed dose ($V_{150cc}$, p=0.038) in the entire rectum (ER). The percentage ($V_{100%}$, p=0.019) and absolute volume ($V_{100cc}$, p=0.047) in the involved rectum (IR) were also statistically significant. The RF of chronic RC were $V_{100%}$ (p=0.011) in the ER and the $D_{0.1cc}$ (p=0.049), $V_{100cc}$ (p=0.023) in the IR. The number of used seeds were related with acute UC (p=0.028). Conclusion: Permanent brachytherpy of localized prostate cancer showed a favorable short term biochemical control rate. As such, selective intermediate and high risk patients can be managed with permanent brachytherapy. The effort to reduce rectal complication is also necessary.

High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer : The Results of Different Fractionation Regimen (자궁경부암의 고선량률 근접치료 : 분할선량에 따른 결과 비교)

  • Yoon, Won-Sup;Kim, Tae-Hyun;Yang, Dae-Sik;Choi, Myung-Sun;Kim, Chul-Yong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Although high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy regimens have been practiced with a variety of modalities and various degrees of success, few studies on the subject have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of local control and late complication rate according to different HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens in uterine cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials : From November 1992 to March 1998, 224 patients with uterine conical cancer were treated with external beam irradiation and HDR brachytherapy. In external pelvic radiation therapy, the radiation dose was $45\~54\;Gy$ (median dose 54 Gy) with daily fraction size 1.8 Gy, five times per week. In HDR brachytherapy, 122 patients (Group A) were treated with three times weekly with 3 Gy to line-A (isodose line of 2 cm radius from source) and 102 patients (Group B) underwent the HDR brachytherapy twice weekly with 4 or 4.5 Gy to line-A after external beam irradiation. Iridium-192 was used as the source of HDR brachytherapy. Late complication was assessed from grade 1 to 5 using the RTOG morbidity grading system. Results : The local control rate (LCR) at 5 years was $80\%$ in group A and $84\%$ in group B (p=0.4523). In the patients treated with radiation therapy alone, LCR at 5 years was $60.9\%$ in group A and $76.9\%$ in group B (p=0.2557). In post-operative radiation therapy patients, LCR at 5 years was $92.6\%$ In group A and $91.6\%$ in group B (p=0.8867). The incidence of late complication was $18\%$ (22 patients) and $29.4\%$ (30 patients), of bladder complication was $9.8\%$ (12 patients) and $14.7\%$ (15 patients), and of rectal complication was $9.8\%$ (12 patients) and $21.6\%$ (22 patients), in group A and B, respectively. Lower fraction sized HDR brachytherapy was associated with decrease in late complication (p=0.0405) (rectal complication, p=0.0147; bladder complication, p=0.115). The same result was observed in postoperative radiation therapy patients (p=0.0860) and radiation only treated patients (0=0.0370). Conclusion : For radiation only treated patients, a greater number of itemized studies on the proper fraction size of HDR brachytherapy, with consideration for stages and prognostic factors, are required. In postoperative radiation therapy, the fraction size of HDR brachytherapy did not have much effect on local control, yet the incidence of late complication increased with the elevation in fraction size. We suggest that HDR brachytherapy three times weekly with 3 Gy could be an alternative method of therapy.

Survival and Complication Rate of Radiation Therapy in Stage I and II Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix (병기 I, II 자궁 경부암에서 방사선치료 후 생존율 및 합병증 분석)

  • Ma, Sun-Young;Cho, Heung-Lea;Sohn, Seung-Chang
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.349-357
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : To analyze survival rate and late rectal and bladder complication for patients with stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy Materials and Methods : Between November 1984 and December 1993, 127 patients with stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by radiation alone or combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy. Retrospective analysis for survival rate was carried out on eligible 107 patients and review for complication was possible in 91 patients. The median follow-up was 47 months (range 3-118) and the median age of patiens was 56 years (range 31-76). 26 patients were stage IB by FIGO classification, 40 were stage IIA and 41 were stage IIB. 86 cases were treated by radiation alone and 21 were treated by radiation and chemotherapy. 101 patients were treated with intracavitary radiation therapy (ICRT), of these, 80 were received low dose rate (LDR) ICRT and 21 were received high dose rate (HDR) ICRT. Of the patients who received LDR ICRT, 63 were treated by 1 intracavitary insertion and 17 were underwent 2 insertions And we evaluated the external radiation dose and midline shield. Results : Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was $92{\%}$ for stage IB, $75{\%}$ for stage IIA, $53{\%}$ for stage IIB and $69{\%}$ in all patients Grade 1 rectal complications were developed in 20 cases ($22{\%}$), grade 2 were in 22 cases ($24{\%}$). 22 cases ($24{\%}$) of grade 1 urinary complications and 17 cases ($19{\%}$) of grade 2 urinary complications were observed But no patient had severe complications that needed surgical management or admission care. Maximum bladder dose for the group of patients with urinary complications was higher than that for the patients without urinary complications (7608 cGy v 6960cGy. p<0.01) Maximum rectal dose for the group of patients with rectal complications was higher than that for the patients without rectal complications (7041cGy v 6269cGy, p<0.01). While there was no significant difference for survival rate or bladder complication incidence as a function of dose to whole pelvis, Grade 2 rectal complication incidence was significantly lower for the patients receiving less than 4500cGy ($6.3{\%}$ v $25.5{\%}$, p<0.05). There was no significant differance between HDR ICRT group and LDR ICRT group for survival rate according to stage, on the other hand complication incidence was higher in the HDR group than LDR group, This was maybe due to different prescription doses between HDR group and LDR group. Midline shield neither improved survival rate nor decreased complication rate. The number of insertion in LDR ICRT group did not affect on survival and compication rate. Conclusion : In stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix there was no significant differance for 5 year survival rate by radiation therapy technique. Rectal complication incidence was as a function of dose to whole pelvis and there were positive correlations of maximum dose of rectum and bladder and each complication incidence. So we recommand whole pelvis dose less than 4500cGy and maximum dose of rectum and bladder as low as possible.

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Bowel Complication after Radiotherpy of Uterine Cervix Carcinoma (자궁경부암의 방사선치료후 대장 및 직장합병증에 대한 분석)

  • Ha, Sung-Whan;Chung, Woong-Ki;Kim, Jong-Hoon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 1992
  • Five hundred and fifty patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital from 1979 to 1986, were analyzed retrospectively for late rectal complications. Of them, 468 patients received primary radiotherapy for the cervix cancer in intact uterus, and the other eighty two patients were treated postoperatively. The cumulative incidence of radiation induced rectal complication of grade 2 or 3 was 6.7% at five years. The mean rectal dose for the group of patients with complication was higher than the group without complication, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). But relationship between mean rectal dose and severity of complication was not found. The frequency of complication (grade 1, 2, 3) increased as a function of radiation dose to rectum; from 16.1% for patients with rectal dose less than 6,000 cGy to 71.2% for patients with rectal dose higher than 8,000 cGy. Among various factors analyzed, history of diabetes mellitus, number of intracavitary irradiation, size of ovoid, retroflexion of uterus and the total dose delivered to rectum turned out to have significant effect on the complication.

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