• Title, Summary, Keyword: real-time RT-PCR

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Quantitative Analysis of Feline Calicivirus Inactivation using Real-time RT-PCR (Real-time RT-PCR을 이용한 Feline Calicivirus 불활성화의 정량적 분석)

  • Jeong, Hye Mi;Kim, Kwang Yup
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2014
  • Norovirus causes acute gastroenteritis in all age groups and its food poisoning outbreaks are rapidly increasing in Korea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is most widely used for the rapid detection of foodborne viruses due to high sensitivity. However, the false positive results of RT-PCR obtained against already inactivated viruses could be a serious drawbacks in food safety area. In this study, we investigated a method to yield true positive RT-PCR results only with alive viruses. To decompose the RNA genes from dead viruses, the enzymatic treatments composed of proteinse K and Ribonuclease A were applied to the sanitized and inactivated virus particles. Another aim of this study was to quantify the efficiencies of several major sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR. Feline calicivirus (FCV) that belongs to the same Caliciviridae family with norovirus was used as a surrogate model for norovirus. The initial level of virus in control suspension was approximately $10^4$ PFU/mL. Most of inactivated viruses treated with the enzymatic treatment for 30 min at $37^{\circ}C$ were not detected in RT-PCR, Quantification results to verify the inactivation efficiencies of sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR showed no false positive in most cases. We could successfully develope a numerical quantification process for the inactivated viruses after major sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR. The results obtained in this study could provide a novel basis of rapid virus quantification in food safety area.

Real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Total RNA Extracted from Nasopharyngeal Aspirates for Detection of Pneumococcal Carriage in Children (소아에서 폐렴구균 집락률 측정을 위해 비인두 흡인 물의 총 RNA를 이용한 실시간 중합효소 연쇄반응법)

  • Kim, Young Kwang;Lee, Kyoung Hoon;Yun, Ki Wook;Lee, Mi Kyung;Lim, In Seok
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Monitoring pneumococcal carriage rates is important. We developed and evaluated the accuracy of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods: In October 2014, 157 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients aged <18 years admitted to Chung-Ang University Hospital. We developed and evaluated a real-time PCR method for detecting S. pneumoniae by comparing culture findings with the results of the real-time PCR using genomic DNA (gDNA). Of 157 samples, 20 specimens were analyzed in order to compare the results of cultures, real-time PCR, and real-time RT-PCR. Results: The concordance rate between culture findings and the results of real-time PCR was 0.922 (P<0.01, Fisher exact test). The 133 culture-negative samples were confirmed to be negative for S. pneumoniae using real-time PCR. Of the remaining 24 culture-positive samples, 21 were identified as S. pneumonia -positive using real-time PCR. The results of real-time RT-PCR and real-time PCR from 20 specimens were consistent with culture findings for all S. pneumoniae -positive samples except one. Culture and real-time RT-PCR required 26.5 and 4.5 hours to perform, respectively. Conclusions: This study established a real-time RT-PCR method for the detection of pneumococcal carriage in the nasopharynx. Real-time RT-PCR is an accurate, convenient, and time-saving method; therefore, it may be useful for collecting epidemiologic data regarding pneumococcal carriage in children.

Comparison of the Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (NASBA) Assay, Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Virus Isolation for the Detection of Enterovirus RNA. (엔테로바이러스 검출을 위한 real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) 및 바이러스 배양법의 비교)

  • Na, Young-Ran;Joe, Hyeon-Cheol;Lee, Young-Suk;Bin, Jae-Hun;Cheigh, Hong-Sik;Min, Sang-Kee
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.374-380
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    • 2008
  • Rapid detection of enterovirus (EVs) is important in the management of aseptic meningitis. We examined the relative efficiency and specificity of the real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) comparing with the established reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture method which were used for the detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical specimens. Of the total 292 samples, 145 were found to be positive to enterovirus RNA by real-time NASBA, 101 were positive by viral culture, and 86 were positive by RT-PCR. 147 samples and 46 samples were determined to be negative and positive by all methods respectively, but 4 samples were positive only by real-time NASBA. To compare the specificity of each method, various clinical samples which were diagnosed for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, adenovirus, mumps, and rhinovirus were applied. Except one rhinovirus sample which was false positive to enterovirus RNA by RT-PCR, the other different samples were negative to all three methods. The real-time NASBA procedure can be completed within 5 hours in contrast with 9 hours for the RT-PCR and 3-14 days for the viral culture. From this study, it was suggested that the real-time NASBA assay could be a standardized, rapid, specific, and sensitive procedure for the detection of enterovirus RNA.

Real Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR to Detect Viable Enterobacteriaceae in Milk

  • Choi, Suk-Ho;Lee, Seung-Bae
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.851-857
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to develop a real time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) method for the detection of viable Enterobacteriaceae in milk using primers based on the genes of ribosomal proteins S11 and S13 and to determine effects of heating and subsequent treatments on the threshold cycle (Ct) of the real time RT-PCR. Total RNA was isolated from 17 strains of bacteria including 11 strains of Enterobacteriaceae suspended in milk using a modified Tri reagent method. SYBR Green Master Mix was added to the RNA and the mixture was subjected to the real time RT-PCR. The Cts of eleven type strains of the Enterobacteriaceae in milk ($10^7$ cells) in the real time RT-PCR ranged from 21.5 to 24.6. However, the Cts of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and three gram-positive bacteria were more than 40. The real time RT-PCR detected as low as $10^3$ cells in agarose gel electrophoresis. The Cts increased from 22.0 to 34.2 when milk samples contaminated with Escherichia coli ($10^7$ cells/mL) were heated at $65^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. In addition, subsequent incubation at $37^{\circ}C$ for 6 and 24 h increased the Cts further up to 36.2 and 37.2, respectively. Addition of RNase A to the bacterial suspension obtained from the heated milk and subsequent incubation at $37^{\circ}C$ for 1 h increased the Cts to more than 40. The results of this study suggests that pretreatment of bacterial cells heated in milk with RNase A before RNA extraction might enhance the ability to differentiate between viable and dead bacteria using real time RT-PCR.

Real-Time RT-PCR for Quantitative Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus during Manufacture of Biologics (생물의약품 제조공정에서 Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus 정량 검출을 위한 Real-Time RT-PCR)

  • Cho, Hang-Mee;Lee, Dong-Hyuck;Kim, Hyun-Mi;Kim, In-Seop
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2008
  • Bovine blood, cell, tissue, and organ are used as raw materials for manufacturing biologics such as biopharmaceuticals, tissue engineered products, and cell therapy. Manufacturing processes for the biologics using bovine materials have the risk of viral contamination. Therefore viral validation is essential in ensuring the safety of the products. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is the most common bovine pathogen and has widely been known as a contaminant of biologics. In order to establish the validation system for the BVDV safety of biologics, a real-time RT-PCR method was developed for quantitative detection of BVDV contamination in raw materials, manufacturing processes, and final products. Specific primers for amplification of BVDV RNA was selected, and BVDV RNA was quantified by use of SYBR Green I. The sensitivity of the assay was calculated to be 1 $TCID_{50}/mL$. The rent-time RT-PCR method was validated to be reproducible and very specific to BVDV. The established real-time RT-PCR assay was successfully applied to the validation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell artificially infected with BVDV. BVDV RNA could be quantified in CHO cell as well as culture supernatant. Also the real-time RT-PCR assay could detect $10TCID_{50}/mL$ of BVDV artificially contaminated in bovine collagen.

Evaluation of Various Real-Time Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Assays for Norovirus Detection

  • Yoo, Ju Eun;Lee, Cheonghoon;Park, SungJun;Ko, GwangPyo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.816-824
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    • 2017
  • Human noroviruses are widespread and contagious viruses causing nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (real-time RT-qPCR) is currently the gold standard for the sensitive and accurate detection of these pathogens and serves as a critical tool in outbreak prevention and control. Different surveillance teams, however, may use different assays, and variability in specimen conditions may lead to disagreement in results. Furthermore, the norovirus genome is highly variable and continuously evolving. These issues necessitate the re-examination of the real-time RT-qPCR's robustness in the context of accurate detection as well as the investigation of practical strategies to enhance assay performance. Four widely referenced real-time RT-qPCR assays (Assays A-D) were simultaneously performed to evaluate characteristics such as PCR efficiency, detection limit, and sensitivity and specificity with RT-PCR, and to assess the most accurate method for detecting norovirus genogroups I and II. Overall, Assay D was evaluated to be the most precise and accurate assay in this study. A ZEN internal quencher, which decreases nonspecific fluorescence during the PCR, was added to Assay D's probe, which further improved the assay performance. This study compared several detection assays for noroviruses, and an improvement strategy based on such comparisons provided useful characterizations of a highly optimized real-time RT-qPCR assay for norovirus detection.

Assessment of Korean Paddy Soil Microbial Community Structure by Use of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays (한국의 논 토양 미생물 다양성 분석을 위한 Quantitative Real-time PCR의 응용)

  • Choe, Myeong-Eun;Lee, In-Jung;Shin, Jae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.367-376
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: In order to develop effective assessment method for Korean paddy soil microbial community structure, reliable genomic DNA extraction method from paddy soil and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method are needed to establish METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of six conventional soil genomic DNA extraction methods, anion exchange resin purification method was turn to be the most reliable. Various PCR primers for distinguishing five bacterial phylum (${\alpha}$-Proteobacteria, ${\beta}$-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes), all bacteria, and all fungi were tested. Various qRT-PCR temperature conditions were also tested by repeating experiment. Finally, both genomic DNA extraction and qRT-PCR methods for paddy soil were well established. CONCLUSION: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method to assess paddy soil microbial community was established.

Development of TaqMan Probe Real-Time RT-PCR for Quantitative Detection of Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus During the Manufacture of Biopharmaceuticals (생물의약품 제조 공정에서 Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus 정량 검출을 위한 TaqMan Probe Real-Time RT-PCR 개발)

  • Lee, Jae Il;Han, Sang Eun;Kim, In Seop
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.267-274
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    • 2015
  • Biopharmaceuticals and the cell substrates used for their manufacture are currently tested for porcine adventitious viruses due to the widespread use of porcine trypsin in cell culture. Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (PTGV) is one of the major adventitious porcine viruses causing contaminated during the manufacture of biopharmaceuticals. Therefore, rapid and sensitive detection of PTGV is essential in ensuring the safety of biopharmaceuticals. A TaqMan probe real-time RT-PCR method was developed for the quantitative detection of PTGV contamination in cell substrates, raw materials, manufacturing processes, and final products, as well as PTGV clearance validation. Specific primers for the amplification of PTGV RNA were selected, and PTGV RNA was quantified by use of a specific TaqMan probe. Specificity, limit of detection (LOD), and robustness of the method was validated according to international guidelines on the validation of nucleic acid amplification tests. The sensitivity of the assay was calculated to be 1.10 × 100 TCID50/ml. The real-time RT-PCR method was validated to be reproducible, very specific to PTGV, and robust. The established real-time RT-PCR assay was successfully applied to the validation of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cells artificially infected with PTGV.

Characterization of Differentiation of the Supernumerary Dental Pulp Stem Cells toward the Odontoblast by Application Period of Additives (과잉치 치수유래 줄기세포의 분화제 처리 기간에 따른 상아모세포 발현 특성)

  • Kim, Jongsoo
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.312-318
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of the supernumerary teeth for the stem cell source in dentistry. The Real Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (Real Time qRT-PCR) method was used to evaluate the differentiation toward the odontoblast of the supernumerary dental pulp stem cells (sDPSCs). Supernumerary dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 3 children (2 males and 1 female, age 7 to 9) diagnosed that the eruption of permanent teeth was disturbed by supernumerary teeth. The common genes for odontoblasts are alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), osteonectin (ON), dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP-1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). The sDPSCs were treated for 0 days, 8 days and 14 days with additives and then Real Time qRT-PCR was performed in intervals of 0 days, 8 days and 14 days. The alizarin-red solution staining was performed to visualize the stained color for the degree of calcification at 7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days after treating additives to the sDPSCs. From the result of the Real Time qRT-PCR, the manifestation exhibit maximum value at 8 days after additive treatment and shifted to a decrease trend at 14 days. Alizarin-red solution staining exhibit light results at 7 days after staining and generalized dark result at 14 days. Consequently, in studies with sDPSCs, appropriate treatment time of additives for Real Time qRT-PCR is 8 days. Also, a suitable period of Alizarin-red solution staining is 14 days.

Validation of a Real-Time RT-PCR Method to Quantify Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Titer and Comparison with Other Quantifiable Methods

  • Jang, Juno;Hong, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Ik-Hwan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.100-108
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    • 2011
  • A method for the rapid detection and quantification of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) produced in an animal cell culture-based production system was developed to enhance the speed of the NDV vaccine manufacturing process. A SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR was designed with a conventional, inexpensive RT-PCR kit targeting the F gene of the NDV LaSota strain. The method developed in this study was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and robustness. The validation results satisfied the predetermined acceptance criteria. The validated method was used to quantify virus samples produced in an animal cell culture-based production system. The method was able to quantify the NDV samples from mid- or late-production phases, but not effective on samples from the early-production phase. For comparison with other quantifiable methods, immunoblotting, plaque assay, and tissue culture infectious dose 50 ($TCID_{50}$) assay were also performed with the NDV samples. The results demonstrated that the real-time RT-PCR method is suitable for the rapid quantification of virus particles produced in an animal cell-culture-based production system irrespective of viral infectivity.