• Title, Summary, Keyword: radiography

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Impact of dental radiography awareness on radiation exposure and concern among adults (성인의 구강 방사선 촬영에 대한 인식이 치과방사선 필요 이상 노출 및 걱정에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Hee;Byun, Ah-Ream;Kim, Soo-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.527-537
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the awareness towards dental radiation exposure and concern in the adults. Methods : A self-reported questionnaires was filled out by 470 adults over 19 years old in Seoul from May 16 to July 10, 2013. Results : Fear for dental radiography showed that those who positively thought of radiography had 2.86 folds necessity of radiography than those who did not. Positive responders worried about the hazards of dental radiation 4.64 folds than the negative responders. More worried responders had felt the radiation hazards 1.83 folds than those who worried less. The worried responders also had higher awareness of dental radiation hazards. Conclusions : Frequent use of dental radiography is able to be prevented by protective devices. So it is important to prevent the possible hazards of the dental radiography by personal protective education.

Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals

  • Mohtavipour, Seiedeh Tahereh;Dalili, Zahra;Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.7-10
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Materials and Methods : Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-$15^{\circ}$, 15-$30^{\circ}$, > $30^{\circ}$). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (Fspeed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. Results : There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. Conclusion : The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

Characterization of a Neutron Beam Following Reconfiguration of the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) Core and Addition of New Fuel Elements

  • Craft, Aaron E.;Hilton, Bruce A.;Papaioannou, Glen C.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.200-210
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    • 2016
  • The neutron radiography reactor (NRAD) is a 250 kW Mark-II Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA) reactor at Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA. The East Radiography Station (ERS) is one of two neutron beams at the NRAD used for neutron radiography, which sits beneath a large hot cell and is primarily used for neutron radiography of highly radioactive objects. Additional fuel elements were added to the NRAD core in 2013 to increase the excess reactivity of the reactor, and may have changed some characteristics of the neutron beamline. This report discusses characterization of the neutron beamline following the addition of fuel to the NRAD. This work includes determination of the facility category according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, and also uses an array of gold foils to determine the neutron beam flux and evaluate the neutron beam profile. The NRAD ERS neutron beam is a Category I neutron radiography facility, the highest possible quality level according to the ASTM. Gold foil activation experiments show that the average neutron flux with length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) = 125 is $5.96{\times}10^6n/cm^2/s$ with a $2{\sigma}$ standard error of $2.90{\times}10^5n/cm^2/s$. The neutron beam profile can be considered flat for qualitative neutron radiographic evaluation purposes. However, the neutron beam profile should be taken into account for quantitative evaluation.

A Study on the Scattered Dose in Portable Chest Radiography (portable 흉부촬영시 공간산란선량에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Bong-Seon;Lee, Hwan-Hyung
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to survey the present status of portable radiography and the result of free space scattered dose rate when taking a radiography at the general hospital or the university hospital in Taejon city. The results were as follows; 1. The number of cases using portable radiography for three years increased to averages 16.2%, 7.7% per year from January 1st in 1996 to December 31st in 1998. 2. The average of distance of adjacent patients was 219.1 cm at the ward. 3. For portable chest radiography, the free space scattered dose rate was 10.5 mSv/hr at 50 cm distance, 1.8 mSv/hr at 100 cm distance, and 0.2 mSv/hr at 200 cm distance. Therefore, in case of portable chest radiography at the ward, the average of distance of adjacent patients is 219.1 cm, so it does not have influence on the adjacent patients. But during the portable radiography, a guardian who is close to the patient, doctor, nurse and radiologic technologists has to set up the shield to prevent from the unnecessary radiation or the distance should be as great as possible from the mobile X-ray equipment.

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EQUIVALENT DOSE, EFFECTIVE DOSE AND RISK ASSESSMENT FROM CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY TO CRITICAL ORGANS (두부규격방사선사진 촬영시 주요 장기의 등가선량, 유효선량 및 위험도)

  • Kang Seong-Sook;Cho Bong-Hae;Kim Hyun-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 1995
  • In head and neck region, the critical organ and tissue doses were determined, and the risks were estimated from lateral, posteroanterial and basilar cephalometric radiography. For each cephalometric radiography, 31 TLDs were placed in selected sites(18 internal and 13 external sites) in a tissue-equivalent phantom and exposed, then read-out in the TLD reader. The results were as follows: 1. From lateral cephalometric radiography, the highest effective dose recorded was that delivered to the salivary gland(3.6pSv) and the next highest dose was that received by the bone marrow(3pSv). 2. From posteroanterial cephalometric radiography, the highest effective dose recorded was that delivered to the salivary gland(2pSv) and the next highest dose was that received by the bone marrow(1.8pSv). 3. From basilar cephalometric radiography, the highest effective dose recorded was that delivered to the thyroid gland(31A p Sv) and the next highest dose was that received by the salivary gland(13.3 p Sv). 4. The probabilities of stochastic effect from lateral, posteroanterial and basilar cephalometric radiography were $0.72{\times}10^{-6}$, $0.49{\times}10^{-6}$ and $3.51{\times}10^{-6}$, respectively

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A Quality Assurance on Digital Chest Radiography in Medical Institution for Pneumoconiosis : Compared with Analog Radiography (진폐요양기관의 흉부 디지털촬영과 아날로그촬영의 정도관리 비교)

  • Lee, Won-Jeong;Ko, Kyung-Sun;Park, Jai-Soung;Kim, Sung-Jin;Chu, Sang-Deok;Park, So-Young;Choi, Byung-Soon
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2010
  • Digital radiography has been replacing rapidly the analog radiography for diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The purpose of this study is to compare quality control of digital radiography (DR) and analog radiography (AR) for chest radiography in medical institution for pneumoconiosis (MIP) For the first time, we visited MIP to evaluate the chest radiography which is used for patients with pneumoconiosis, including equipment, technical parameters and reading environment. There were 33 institutions. DR and AR were installed in 24 and 9 institutions, respectively. Between DR and AR, we compared the radiological technique (RT), image quality (IQ) and reading environment (RE) to use the guideline published by Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI). The image quality was rated by two experienced chest radiologists for pneumoconiosis with certified from OSHRI. The chest radiography equipment was not significantly difference between AR and DR, but there were significantly difference in tube voltage and grid ratio used for chest radiography except to tube current, exposure time. Statistically, DR is significantly higher in RT(70.3 vs. 43.8, p = 0.009), RE(77.7 vs. 33.3, p = 0.004) than AR, but it's not significantly difference in IQ (65.6 vs. 52.8, p = 0.050). AR and DR in RT were passed 33.3%, 75.0% respectively (p = 0.044) and 44.4%, 79.2% (p = 0.090) in IQ and 44.4%, 91.7% (p = 0.009) in RE. In MIP, DR needs to replace AR in diagnosis of pneumoconiosis.

Plain Abdominal Radiography in Infants and Children (영유아 및 소아의 단순복부 X-선 사진)

  • Lee, Hee-Jung
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2011
  • Plain X-ray radiographs are the first line of investigation taken in the diagnosis of abdominal pathology and are considered an important diagnostic tool to provide guidelines for further imaging studies and comprehensive therapeutic management. Although most abdominal pathology demonstrates non-specific radiologic findings, the plain abdominal radiography is very useful in specific diseases, including certain gastrointestinal anomalies. This review provides image findings of normal plain abdominal radiography and some common abdominal pathology in infants and children.

National Data Analysis of General Radiography Projection Method in Medical Imaging (영상의학검사 일반촬영 분야의 촬영기법에 대한 분석)

  • Kim, Jung-Su;Kim, Jung-Min;Lee, Young-Han;Seo, Deok-Nam;Choi, In-Seok;Nam, So-Ra;Yoon, Yong-Su;Kim, Hyun-Ji;Min, Hye-Lim;Her, Jea;Han, Seong-Gyu
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2014
  • According to database of medical institutions of health insurance review & assessment service in 2013, 1118 hospitals and clinics have department of radiology in Korea. And there are CT, fluoroscopic and general radiographic equipment in those hospitals. Above all, general radiographic equipment is the most commonly used in the radiology department. And most of the general radiographic equipment are changing the digital radiography system from the film-screen types of the radiography system nowadays. However, most of the digital radiography department are used the film-screen types of the radiography system. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed present conditions of technical items for general radiography used in hospital and research on general radiographic techniques in domestic medical institutions. We analyzed 26 radiography projection method including chest, skull, spine and pelvis which are generally used in the radiography department.

Absorbed and effective dose for periapical radiography using portable and wall type dental X-ray machines (이동형 구내방사선촬영기와 벽걸이 구내방사선촬영기로 촬영한 치근단 방사선촬영에서 환자의 흡수선량과 유효선량 평가)

  • Han, Won-Jeong
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.184-190
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose and to calculate the effective dose for one periapical radiography using the portable and wall type dental X-ray machines. Materials and methods: Thermoluminescent chips were placed at 25 sites throughout the layers of the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull phantom. The man phantom was exposed with the portable and wall type dental X-ray machines. For one periapical radiography taken by portable dental X-ray machine, the exposure setting was 60 kVp, 2 mA and 0.2 seconds, while for one periapical radiography taken by wall type dental X-ray machine, exposure setting was 70 kVp, 8 mA and 0.074 seconds. Absorbed dose measurements were performed and equivalent doses to individual organs were summed using ICRP 103 to calculate effective dose. Results: In the upper anterior periapical radiography using portable dental X-ray machine and in the lower posterior periapical radiography using both machines, the highest absorbed dose was recorded at the mandible body. The effective dose in upper anterior periapical radiography using portable and wall type dental X-ray machines was $4{\mu}Sv$, $2{\mu}Sv$, respectively. In the lower posterior periapical radiography, the effective dose for each portable and wall type dental X-ray machines was $6{\mu}Sv$, $2{\mu}Sv$. Conclusion: It was recommended that the operator use prudently potable dental X-ray machine because that the effective dose in the periapical radiography using wall type dental X-ray machine was lower than that in the periapical radiography using portable dental X-ray machine.

The Clinical Value about Pulmonary Tuberculosis of Indirect Chest Radiography in Physical Examination for Conscription (징병 신체 검사시 집단 흉부 간접 방사선 촬영의 폐결핵 관련한 진단적 유용성)

  • Park, Sung Bin;Choi, Byeong-Kyoo;Ha, Keun Woo;Seo, Joon Beom
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.356-360
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    • 2005
  • Background : This study examined the clinical utility of using indirect chest radiography during a physical examination of new conscripts for determine the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods : Over an eight-month period, this study examined 25386 people who underwent a physical examination after conscription. The abnormal findings on mass miniature radiography were followed-up using direct chest radiography. The positive predictive value of mass miniature radiography and direct chest radiography was compared. The incidence, degree of infiltration and clinical outcome of active pulmonary tuberculosis were also evaluated during a follow-up examination. Results : The positive rate of mass miniature radiography was 1.19% (n=302). Various lesions were identified: Parenchymal lesions (n=109), mediastinal lesions (n=6), cardiovascular lesions (n=45), pleural lesions (n=49), bony lesions (n=90) and miscellaneous lesions (n=7). The incidence of active pulmonary tuberculosis by mass miniature radiography was 0.26% (n=67). The first diagnosis was made in 50 people; active pulmonary tuberculosis (n=42), pneumonia (n=1), a mediastinal mass (n=1), a rib fracture (n=2) and a pneumothorax (n=4). Most cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis were mildly infiltrated and either improved or were cured by the follow-up examination. Conclusion : Although mass miniature radiography in a physical examination after conscription has limitations, but it is a useful means for detecting the presence of early disease, particularly in active pulmonary tuberculosis.