• Title, Summary, Keyword: radiography

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Comparison Study of the Pulmonary Function and Serum Carboxyhemoglobin Level Between the Traffic Policmen and Clerk Policemen (교통경찰과 비 교통경찰의 폐기능과 혈중 Carboxyhemoglobin 수치에 대한 비교연구)

  • Kim, Sung Min;Cheon, Gyu Rak;Kim, Young Wook;Kim, Joon Hyung;Lee, Ho Hak;Hong, Soon Chang;Lee, Seung Hee;Park, Sang Joon;Chung, Joon Oh;Kim, Yun Kwon;Kim, So Yon;Kim, Young Jung;Cho, Min Koo;Lee, Gwon Jun;Lee, Kyung In
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.560-569
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    • 2003
  • Background : A large number of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone influence on the body. These pollutants put a burden on the lung and the sequelae resulting from the oxidative stress are thought to contribute to the development of fibrotic lung disease, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. Also, carbon monoxide generated from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds is an important component of air pollution caused by traffic exhaust fumes and has the toxic effect of tissue hypoxia and produce various systemic and neurologic complications. The objective of this study is to compare the difference of pulmonary function and serum carboxyhemoglobin(CO-Hb) level between the traffic policemen and clerk policemen. Method : Three hundred and twenty-nine of traffic policemen, and one hundred and thirty clerk policemen were included between 2001 May and 2002 August. The policemen who took part in this study were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included questions on age, smoking, drinking, years of working, work-related symptoms and past medical history. The serum CO-Hb level was measured by using carboxyoximeter. Pulmonary function test was done by using automated spirometer. Additional tests, such as elecrocardiogram, urinalysis, chest radiography, blood chemistry, and CBC, were also done. Results : $FEV_1(%)$ was $97.1{\pm}0.85%$, and $105.7{\pm}1.21%$(p<0.05). FVC(%) was $94.6{\pm}0.67%$, and $102.1{\pm}1.09%$, respectively(p<0.05). Serum CO-Hb level was $2.4{\pm}0.06%$, and $1.8{\pm}0.08%$(p<0.05). After correction of confounding factors (age, smoking), significant variables were FVC(%), $FEV_1(%)$ and serum CO-Hb level(%)(p<0.05). Conclusion : Long exposure to air pollution may influence the pulmonary function and serum CO-Hb level. But, further prospective cohort study will be needed to elucidate detailed influences of specific pollutants on pulmonary function and serum carboxyhemoglobin level.

Initial Symptoms of Malignant Bone Tumors (악성 골 종양의 초기 증상)

  • Oh, Joo-Han;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Suh, Sung-Wook;Lee, Ho-Kyoo;Kim, Han-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Delay in the diagnosis of the primary malignant bone tumors may critically influence the chance of the patients' survival and the limb sparing, but the primary malignant bone tumors are so rare that most doctors have little experience in these challenging diseases. The purpose of the current study is to examine the initial symptoms of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, and to shorten the delay of diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The data was based on the questionnaires and the medical records from 139 patients whose histological diagnoses were confirmed in the authors' institution. There were 108 patients of osteosarcoma and 31 patients of chondrosarcoma. Eighty-six were male and fifty-three were female. The mean age of the patients was 20.2 years in osteosarcoma, and 42.4 years in chondrosarcoma. Results: The most common symptom that the patient consult the doctor was pain (93.5% of osteosarcoma patients and 61.3% of chondrosarcoma patients). Among them, 76.2% of osteosarcoma and 57.8% of chondrosarcoma patients complained the night pain. The history of trauma was evident in 48.5% of osteosarcoma patients and one patient of chondrosarcoma. At the first medical visit, the malignant bone tumor was suspected in 61.1% of osteosarcoma and 64.5% of chondrosarcoma patients. Fracture was the most common misdiagnosis in osteosarcoma (16.7%), and the osteomyelitis in chondrosarcoma (19.4%). Initial radiographic examination and the adult age were shown to increase the rate of correct diagnosis of both diseases (p<0.05). Patient's delay and doctor's delay were significantly longer in chondrosarcoma patients than in osteosarcoma. Initial radiography led to shorten the doctor's delay, and the axial location of the tumor lengthened the doctor's delay. Trauma and the young age were believed to shorten the patient's delay. Conclusion: Careful history taking, including the night pain and trauma, would be mandatory for the early diagnosis of the primary malignant bone tumors, and the initial radiographic examination and periodic follow-up can increase the rate of correct diagnosis.

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Clinical Evaluation and Diagnosis of Children with Chest Pain (흉부 통증을 호소한 소아에서의 임상적 고찰 및 검사)

  • Shin, Su A;Kim, Yong Joo;Lee, Jae Whan;Kim, Nam Su;Moon, Soo Ji
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.12
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    • pp.1248-1252
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Chest pain in the pediatric population is not rare and mostly benign. Causes of chest pain are diverse, and differential diagnosis is not easy. Chest pain in children is less likely to be cardiac in origin. Furthermore, chest pain in the pediatric population is rarely associated with life-threatening disease. This study was designed to evaluate children with chest pain and the usefulness of several diagnostic examinations. Methods : Between March 2001 and August 2002, 33 patients(15 boys and 18 girls, aged four to 15 years) presented with chronic chest pain. The records of these patients were reviewed. Chest radiography and electrocardiogram were performed in all patients. Cardiologic and gastrointestinal evaluations were carried out when considered necessary. Results : Chest pain was most common in the age group of 10 to 12 years old, and the four to six years old group. The most common diagnostic findings of chest pain were idiopathic(15 cases, 45.5 %), heart disease(9 cases, 27.3%), upper gastrointestinal disease(6 cases, 18.2%), respiratory disease (2 cases, 6%) and trauma(1 case, 3%). In children with abnormal results of cardiologic evaluation, these findings are not major etiologic categories of chest pain. Through history taking and physical examinations, six cases were evaluated concerning gastrointestinal disease and all of them showed gastrointestinal diseases(esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, nodular gastritis and chronic superficial gastritis). Conclusion : Chest pain is usually benign in children but the possibility of cardiovascular or gastrointestinal disease is considered. Careful history taking, physical examination and proper clinical examinations are usually required to find out the rare life-threatening causes of chest pain.

A STUDY ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE IMPLANT STABILITY USING RESONANCE FREQUENCY ANALYSIS (공진 주파수 분석법에 의한 임플랜트의 안정성 측정에 관한 연구)

  • Park Cheol;Lim Ju-Hwan;Cho In-Ho;Lim Heon-Song
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.182-206
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    • 2003
  • Statement of problem : Successful osseointegration of endosseous threaded implants is dependent on many factors. These may include the surface characteristics and gross geometry of implants, the quality and quantity of bone where implants are placed, and the magnitude and direction of stress in functional occlusion. Therefore clinical quantitative measurement of primary stability at placement and functional state of implant may play a role in prediction of possible clinical symptoms and the renovation of implant geometry, types and surface characteristic according to each patients conditions. Ultimately, it may increase success rate of implants. Purpose : Many available non-invasive techniques used for the clinical measurement of implant stability and osseointegration include percussion, radiography, the $Periotest^{(R)}$, Dental Fine $Tester^{(R)}$ and so on. There is, however, relatively little research undertaken to standardize quantitative measurement of stability of implant and osseointegration due to the various clinical applications performed by each individual operator. Therefore, in order to develop non-invasive experimental method to measure stability of implant quantitatively, the resonance frequency analyzer to measure the natural frequency of specific substance was developed in the procedure of this study. Material & method : To test the stability of the resonance frequency analyzer developed in this study, following methods and materials were used : 1) In-vitro study: the implant was placed in both epoxy resin of which physical properties are similar to the bone stiffness of human and fresh cow rib bone specimen. Then the resonance frequency values of them were measured and analyzed. In an attempt to test the reliability of the data gathered with the resonance frequency analyzer, comparative analysis with the data from the Periotest was conducted. 2) In-vivo study: the implants were inserted into the tibiae of 10 New Zealand rabbits and the resonance frequency value of them with connected abutments at healing time are measured immediately after insertion and gauged every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. Results : Results from these studies were such as follows : The same length implants placed in Hot Melt showed the repetitive resonance frequency values. As the length of abutment increased, the resonance frequency value changed significantly (p<0.01). As the thickness of transducer increased in order of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm, the resonance frequency value significantly increased (p<0.05). The implants placed in PL-2 and epoxy resin with different exposure degree resulted in the increase of resonance frequency value as the exposure degree of implants and the length of abutment decreased. In comparative experiment based on physical properties, as the thickness of transducer increased, the resonance frequency value increased significantly(p<0.01). As the stiffness of substances where implants were placed increased, and the effective length of implants decreased, the resonance frequencies value increased significantly (p<0.05). In the experiment with cow rib bone specimen, the increase of the length of abutment resulted in significant difference between the results from resonance frequency analyzer and the $Periotest^{(R)}$. There was no difference with significant meaning in the comparison based on the direction of measurement between the resonance frequency value and the $Periotest^{(R)}$ value (p<0.05). In-vivo experiment resulted in repetitive patternes of resonance frequency. As the time elapsed, the resonance frequency value increased significantly with the exception of 4th and 8th week (p<0.05). Conclusion : The development of resonance frequency analyzer is an attempt to standardize the quantitative measurement of stability of implant and osseointegration and compensate for the reliability of data from other non-invasive measuring devices It is considered that further research is needed to improve the efficiency of clinical application of resonance frequency analyzer. In addition, further investigation is warranted on the standardized quantitative analysis of the stability of implant.

Development of JPEG2000 Viewer for Mobile Image System (이동형 의료영상 장치를 위한 JPEG2000 영상 뷰어 개발)

  • 김새롬;정해조;강원석;이재훈;이상호;신성범;유선국;김희중
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.124-130
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    • 2003
  • Currently, as a consequence of PACS (Picture Archiving Communication System) implementation many hospitals are replacing conventional film-type interpretations of diagnostic medical images with new digital-format interpretations that can also be saved, and retrieve However, the big limitation in PACS is considered to be the lack of mobility. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal communication packet size. This was done by considering the terms occurred in the wireless communication. After encoding medical image using JPGE2000 image compression method, This method embodied auto-error correction technique preventing the loss of packets occurred during wireless communication. A PC class server, with capabilities to load, collect data, save images, and connect with other network, was installed. Image data were compressed using JPEG2000 algorithm which supports the capability of high energy density and compression ratio, to communicate through a wireless network. Image data were also transmitted in block units coeded by JPEG2000 to prevent the loss of the packets in a wireless network. When JPGE2000 image data were decoded in a PUA (Personal Digital Assistant), it was instantaneous for a MR (Magnetic Resonance) head image of 256${\times}$256 pixels, while it took approximately 5 seconds to decode a CR (Computed Radiography) chest image of 800${\times}$790 pixels. In the transmission of the image data using a CDMA 1X module (Code-Division Multiple Access 1st Generation), 256 byte/sec was considered a stable transmission rate, but packets were lost in the intervals at the transmission rate of 1Kbyte/sec. However, even with a transmission rate above 1 Kbyte/sec, packets were not lost in wireless LAN. Current PACS are not compatible with wireless networks. because it does not have an interface between wired and wireless. Thus, the mobile JPEG2000 image viewing system was developed in order to complement mobility-a limitation in PACS. Moreover, the weak-connections of the wireless network was enhanced by re-transmitting image data within a limitations The results of this study are expected to play an interface role between the current wired-networks PACS and the mobile devices.

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The Clinical Results of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Over 40 years Old (40세 이상의 환자에 있어서의 전방 십자 인대 재건술의 임상적 결과)

  • Song, Eun-Kyoo;Seon, Jong-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.196-200
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : To evaluate clinical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in middle-aged patients and determine the factors affecting the outcome. Subjects and Methods : Clinical results obtained from 60 cases (60 patients) older than 40 years of age at the time of surgery and 58 cases (58 patients) younger than 40 years of age who underwent ACL reconstruction between August 1988 to January 2002, return to sports activity, and stress radiographs using Telos instrument were compared. Results : The Lysholm knee score was improved from the preoperative score of 54.0 points to the postoperative score of 92.9 in patients older than 40 years of age and was improved from 56.2 points to 92.2 points in patients younger than 40 years of age. Clinical outcome was excellent in 51 cases $(85\%)$ and good in 9 cases $(15\%)$ in patients olde. than 40 years of age and was excellent in 47 cases $(81.0\%)$ and good in 11 cases $(19.0\%)$ in patients younger than 40 years of age. There was a significant difference in the rate of returning to preoperative sports activity between patients older than 40 years of age ($60\%$, 36 cases) and younger than 40 years ($82.8\%$, 48 cases). According to Telos stress radiography, the preoperative difference of 11.2 mm was decreased to the postoperative difference of 3.1 mm in patients older than 40 years of age and the preoperative difference of 10.7 mm was decreased to the postoperative difference of 2.9 mm in patients younger than 40 years of age. Clinical outcome did not show significant correlation with age, gender, surgery method, the presence of additional injury, and the rate of return to sports activity before receiving injury (p>0.05). Conclusion : Age didn't have a significant influence on the final outcome of ACL reconstruction and good results could be obtained with ACL reconstruction even in middle-aged patients.

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THE CURRENT STATUS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING IN THE USA

  • Webster, John G.
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1992 no.05
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    • pp.27-47
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    • 1992
  • Engineers have developed new instruments that aid in diagnosis and therapy Ultrasonic imaging has provided a nondamaging method of imaging internal organs. A complex transducer emits ultrasonic waves at many angles and reconstructs a map of internal anatomy and also velocities of blood in vessels. Fast computed tomography permits reconstruction of the 3-dimensional anatomy and perfusion of the heart at 20-Hz rates. Positron emission tomography uses certain isotopes that produce positrons that react with electrons to simultaneously emit two gamma rays in opposite directions. It locates the region of origin by using a ring of discrete scintillation detectors, each in electronic coincidence with an opposing detector. In magnetic resonance imaging, the patient is placed in a very strong magnetic field. The precessing of the hydrogen atoms is perturbed by an interrogating field to yield two-dimensional images of soft tissue having exceptional clarity. As an alternative to radiology image processing, film archiving, and retrieval, picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are being implemented. Images from computed radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, and ultrasound are digitized, transmitted, and stored in computers for retrieval at distributed work stations. In electrical impedance tomography, electrodes are placed around the thorax. 50-kHz current is injected between two electrodes and voltages are measured on all other electrodes. A computer processes the data to yield an image of the resistivity of a 2-dimensional slice of the thorax. During fetal monitoring, a corkscrew electrode is screwed into the fetal scalp to measure the fetal electrocardiogram. Correlations with uterine contractions yield information on the status of the fetus during delivery To measure cardiac output by thermodilution, cold saline is injected into the right atrium. A thermistor in the right pulmonary artery yields temperature measurements, from which we can calculate cardiac output. In impedance cardiography, we measure the changes in electrical impedance as the heart ejects blood into the arteries. Motion artifacts are large, so signal averaging is useful during monitoring. An intraarterial blood gas monitoring system permits monitoring in real time. Light is sent down optical fibers inserted into the radial artery, where it is absorbed by dyes, which reemit the light at a different wavelength. The emitted light travels up optical fibers where an external instrument determines O2, CO2, and pH. Therapeutic devices include the electrosurgical unit. A high-frequency electric arc is drawn between the knife and the tissue. The arc cuts and the heat coagulates, thus preventing blood loss. Hyperthermia has demonstrated antitumor effects in patients in whom all conventional modes of therapy have failed. Methods of raising tumor temperature include focused ultrasound, radio-frequency power through needles, or microwaves. When the heart stops pumping, we use the defibrillator to restore normal pumping. A brief, high-current pulse through the heart synchronizes all cardiac fibers to restore normal rhythm. When the cardiac rhythm is too slow, we implant the cardiac pacemaker. An electrode within the heart stimulates the cardiac muscle to contract at the normal rate. When the cardiac valves are narrowed or leak, we implant an artificial valve. Silicone rubber and Teflon are used for biocompatibility. Artificial hearts powered by pneumatic hoses have been implanted in humans. However, the quality of life gradually degrades, and death ensues. When kidney stones develop, lithotripsy is used. A spark creates a pressure wave, which is focused on the stone and fragments it. The pieces pass out normally. When kidneys fail, the blood is cleansed during hemodialysis. Urea passes through a porous membrane to a dialysate bath to lower its concentration in the blood. The blind are able to read by scanning the Optacon with their fingertips. A camera scans letters and converts them to an array of vibrating pins. The deaf are able to hear using a cochlear implant. A microphone detects sound and divides it into frequency bands. 22 electrodes within the cochlea stimulate the acoustic the acoustic nerve to provide sound patterns. For those who have lost muscle function in the limbs, researchers are implanting electrodes to stimulate the muscle. Sensors in the legs and arms feed back signals to a computer that coordinates the stimulators to provide limb motion. For those with high spinal cord injury, a puff and sip switch can control a computer and permit the disabled person operate the computer and communicate with the outside world.

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The Effects of Autologous Blood Pleurodesis in the Pneumothorax with Persistent Air Leak (지속성 기흉에서 자가혈액을 이용한 흉막유착술의 효과)

  • Yoon, Su-Mi;Shin, Sung-Joon;Kim, Young-Chan;Shon, Jang-Won;Yang, Seok-Chul;Yoon, Ho-Joo;Shin, Dong-Ho;Chung, Won-Sang;Park, Sung-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.724-732
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    • 2000
  • Background : In patients with severe chronic lung diseases even a small pneumothorax can result in life-threatening respiratory distress. It is important to treat the attack by chest tube drainage until the lung expands. Pneumothorax with a persistent air leak that does not resolve under prolonged tube thoracostomy suction is usually treated by open operation to excise or oversew a bulla or cluster of blebs to stop the air leak. Pleurodesis by the instillation of chemical agents is used for the patient who has persistent air leak and is not good candidate for surgical treatment. When the primary trial of pleurodesis with common agent fails, it is uncertain which agent should be used f or stopping the air leak by pleurodesis. It is well known that inappropriate drainage of hemothorax results in severe pleural adhesion and thickening. Based on this idea, some reports described a successful treatment with autologous blood instillation for pneumothorax patients with or without residual pleural space. We tried pleurodesis with autologous bood for pneumothorax with persistent air leak and then we evaluated the efficacy and safety. Methods : Fifteen patients who had persistent air leak in the pneumothorax complicated from the severe chronic lung disease were enrolled. They were not good candidates for surgical treatment and doxycycline pleurodesis failed to stop up their air leaks. We used a mixture of autologous blood and 50% dextrose for pleurodesis. Effect and complications were assessed by clinical out∞me, chest radiography and pulmonary function tests. Results : The mean duration of air leak was 18.4${\pm}$6.16 days before ABP (autologous blood and dextrose pleurodesis) and $5.2{\pm}1.68$ days after ABP. The mean severity of pain was $2.3{\pm}0.70$ for DP(doxycycline pleurodesis) and $1.7{\pm}0.59$ for ABDP (p<0.05). There was no other complication except mild fever. Pleural adhesion grade was a mean of $0.6{\pm}0.63$. The mean dyspnea scale was $1.7{\pm}0.46$ before pneumothrax and $2.0{\pm}0.59$ after ABDP (p>0.05). The mean $FEV_1$ was $1.47{\pm}1.01$ before pneumothorax and $1.44{\pm}1.00$ after ABDP (p>0.05). Except in 1 patient, 14 patients had no recurrent pneumothorax. Conclusion : Autologous blood pleurodesis (ABP) was successful for treatment of persistent air leak in the pneumothorax. It was easy and inexpensive and involved less pain than doxycycline pleurodesis. It did not cause complications and severe pleural adhesion. We report that ABP can be considered as a useful treatment for persistent air leak in the pneumothorax complicated from the severe chronic lung disease.

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Clinical Findings of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia under 3 Year-Old Children (3세 이하 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 폐렴환자의 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee, Sung-Soo;Youn, Kyung-Lim;Kang, Hyeon-Ho;Cho, Byoung-Soo;Cha, Sung-Ho
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.78-85
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia has been to be developed frequently in school age children and adolescence and hard to see under 3 year-old children. But it seems to be increased in number of patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia under 3-year old in clinical practice in these days. We have aimed to examine the characteristics of clinical findings of Mycoplasma pneumonia under 3 year-old children. Methods : We had performed retrospective review of medical records of 30 patients with Mycoplasmal pneumonia under 3-year old children who admitted to Department of Pediatrics, Kyunghee University Hospital from Jan. 1994 to Dec. 1997. The diagnostic criteriae was Cold agglutinin titer>1:64 or Mycoplasma antibody titer>1:80. Results : Mycoplasmal pneumonia was 30 out of 235 cases(12.7%) of total pneumonia under 3 year old children. Male female ratio was 1.3 : 1 and age distributions were 0~1y : 0, 1~2y : 8, 2~3y : 22 cases. Clinical symptoms and signs were cough(100.0%), sputum(83.3%), fever(80.0%) rhinorrhea(33.3%), vomiting(33.3%), moist rale(86.7%), decreased breathing sound(26.7%), wheezing(20.0%), and pharyngeal injection(30.0%). Thirteen out of 30 cases(43.3%) had unilateral infiltration, 10 cases(33.4%) had bilateral infiltration, 1 case(3.3%) had pleural effusion, and 6 cases(20.0%) had negative findings on chest radiography and there was no cases of atelectasis. On laboratory findings, 6 out of 30 cases(20.0%) had leukocytosis, 1 case(3.3%) had neutrophilia, 10 cases(30.0%) had eosinophilia, 17 cases(56.7%) had increased ESR, and 18 cases(60.6%) had positive CRP. Positive cold agglutinin titers(>1 : 64) were 19 cases(63.3%), and positive mycoplasma antibody(M-ab) titers(>1 : 80) were 27 cases(93.3%). Mycoplasma antibody test was more valuable than cold agglutinin test for the diagnosis of Mycoplasmal pneumonia and there was no correlation between cold agglutinin titer and mycoplasma antibody titer. Mycoplasma-polymerase chain reaction(M-PCR) was done with 13 cases, 12 out of 13 cases(92.3%) were positive. M-PCR test was valuable to the diagnosis of Mycoplasmal pneumonia but it will be needed to further study for their clinical application. Among 30 cases, 5 cases(16.7%) had complications, 3 cases(10.0%) had skin rash, 1 case(3.3%) had pleural effusion, 1 case(3.3%) had arthralgia, but all complications were mild and recovered without residual sequelae. Conclusion : The occurrence of Mycoplasmal pneumonia under 3 year-old children was not rare from this study. Clinical characteristics of Mycoplasmal pneumonia under 3-year old were normal radiologic findings in many cases, low complication rate, mild clinical course, and tend to rapid recovery compared with general manifestations of Mycoplasmal infectionsin children and adolescence. There were likely to be missed patients with Mycoplasmal pneumonia which did not diagnose by conventional serologic tests that had low sensitivity and specificity. We have to pay attention to the Mycoplasmal infection of the young children with pneumonia during epidemic periods of Mycoplasmal infection.

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Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Taste Disorders (미각 장애 환자의 임상적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Jin;Park, Won-Kyu;Nam, Jin-Woo;Yun, Jong-Il;Kho, Hong-Seop
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.341-351
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    • 2009
  • There is tremendous variability in the ways patients present with taste problems. Because of complex and multifactorial etiological background, it is not simple to evaluate patients with taste disorders. Accurate assessment of patients' status by prudent, thorough history taking and symptom analysis is the most essential for exact diagnosis of taste disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with taste problems as a primary complaint. Consecutive series of 50 patients (12 males and 38 females, mean age $53.6\;{\pm}\;14.7$ years) were included for the present study. All subjects were requested to complete a comprehensive questionnaire. Clinical evaluation procedures included oral examination, interview, questionnaire analysis, panoramic radiography, blood test and measurement of salivary flow rate. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Among the patients, 36 patients (72%) complained of oral mucosal pain or burning sensation. Of these patients, 18 patients (36%) were diagnosed as burning mouth syndrome. 2. Nineteen patients (38%) complained of subjective oral dryness. The flow rate of unstimulated whole saliva was less than 0.1 mL/min in 14 patients (28%) and 17 (34%) had a stimulated whole salivary flow rate of less than 0.5 mL/min. 3. Among the types of taste disorders, hypogeusia, the most frequently reported, was found in 25 patients (50%), dysgeusia in 18 patients (36%), phantogeusia in 15 patients (30%), hypergeusia in 10 patients (20%), and ageusia in 5 patients (10%). Nineteen patients (38%) reported more than one type of taste disorder and the most frequent combination was dysgeusia + hypogeusia (n=6, 12%). 4. Based on data from the medical and dental histories and examinations, the patients were assigned to 12 probable causal categories. Taste disorders due to oral mucosal diseases and idiopathic taste disorder were the most frequent (n=9; 18%, each), followed by psychogenic taste disorder (n=8; 16%), drug-induced taste disorder (n=7; 14%), and taste disorder due to dry mouth (n=6; 12%). These 5 categories of taste disorder accounted for 78% of all cases in this study.