• Title/Summary/Keyword: progression

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Review on Molecular and Chemopreventive Potential of Nimbolide in Cancer

  • Elumalai, Perumal;Arunakaran, Jagadeesan
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.156-164
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    • 2014
  • Cancer is the most dreaded disease in human and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high occurrence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The existing cancer therapy based on allopathic medicine is expensive, exhibits side effects; and may also alter the normal functioning of genes. Thus, a non-toxic and effective mode of treatment is needed to control cancer development and progression. Some medicinal plants offer a safe, effective and affordable remedy to control the cancer progression. Nimbolide, a limnoid derived from the neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and flowers of neem, is widely used in traditional medical practices for treating various human diseases. Nimbolide exhibits several pharmacological effects among which its anticancer activity is the most promising. The previous studies carried out over the decades have shown that nimbolide inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. This review highlights the current knowledge on the molecular targets that contribute to the observed anticancer activity of nimbolide related to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest; and inhibition of signaling pathways related to cancer progression.

Administration Progression and Adverse Event Report of Er-Xian Decoction for Menopausal Hot Flushes: Case Report and Review of Literature (폐경기 안면홍조 증상에 대한 한약처방 이선탕의 투여경과 및 이상반응 보고 : 증례보고 및 문헌고찰)

  • Kim, Bo-min;Jo, Hee-geun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 2019
  • Objective: We report on the administration progression and adverse event of Er-Xian decoction for menopausal hot flushes. A hot flush is a rapid and intense heat-dissipation reaction that involves considerable sweating, enlargement of the peripheral blood vessels, and internal body heat. Er-Xian decoction is a prescription for treating menopausal hot flush symptoms in postmenopausal women. We report administration progression and adverse event of Er-Xian decoction for menopausal hot flush. Methods: We used the Menopause Rating Scale and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire to evaluate the progression of hot flushes, and we conducted a literature review to determine the effective dosage of Er-Xian decoction. Result: In all cases, Facial hot flushes and evaluation variables were improved by the administration of EXD. However, in Case 1, a rise of liver function indexes which may be related to EXD administration was observed. Conclusion: Considering that menopausal flushing usually lasts for several years, The resluts are meaningful that the short-term administration of EXD led to improvement of symptoms. In order to further use EXD in the future, it will be necessary to conduct follow-up studies on the subject of safety verification, such as repeated dose toxicity studies.

Dose Intensity of Oxaliplatin in 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin Regimens in Pretreated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (5-Fluorouracil, Leucovorin과 병용 투여된 Oxaliplatin의 Dose Intensity가 재발된 전이성 대장암 치료에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Kyong-Ju;Choi, Seung-Ki;Oh, Jung-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2004
  • Studies of oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer showed that oxaliplatin dose intensity is important prognostic factor for objective response rates and progression-free-survival (PFS). To evaluate response rates, PFS and toxicity according to oxaliplatin dose intensity, we retrospectively analyzed data from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer received oxaliplatin,5-fluorouracil, leucovorin regimens. Sixty-three patients were reviewed in this study, 42 patients received low dose intensity oxaliplatin (LDI: $\leq85\;mg/m^2/2wks$) and 21 patients high dose intensity oxaliplatin (HDI: $>85\;mg/m^2/2wks$). Objective responses occurred in 10 $(47.7\%)$ HDI patients and 9 $(21.4\%)$ LDI patients (p = 0.014). Median PFS was 24.7 weeks in HDI group, with $45.1\%$ of HDI patients progression free at 6 months, and 20.5 weeks in LDI group, with $33.5\%$ of LDI patients progression free at 6 months (p = 0.344). Increased oxaliplatin dose intensity was not associated with neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, neuropathy, nausea and vomiting. This study showed that oxaliplatin dose intensification significantly improves objective response rate in pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer without increasing severe toxicity.

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Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Development and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Zaid, Khaled Waleed;Chantiri, Mansour;Bassit, Ghassan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.927-932
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    • 2016
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-${\beta}$ superfamily, regulate many cellular activities including cell migration, differentiation, adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in oral and maxillofacial surgery has seen a tremendous increase. Due to its role in many cellular pathways, the influence of this protein on carcinogenesis in different organs has been intensively studied over the past decade. BMPs also have been detected to have a role in the development and progression of many tumors, particularly disease-specific bone metastasis. In oral squamous cell carcinoma - the tumor type accounting for more than 90% of head and neck malignancies- aberrations of both BMP expression and associated signaling pathways have a certain relation with the development and progression of the disease by regulating a range of biological functions in the altered cells. In the current review, we discuss the influence of BMPs -especially rhBMP-2- in the development and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Damage progression study in fibre reinforced concrete using acoustic emission technique

  • Banjara, Nawal Kishor;Sasmal, Saptarshi;Srinivas, V.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.173-184
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    • 2019
  • The main objective of this study is to evaluate the true fracture energy and monitor the damage progression in steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) specimens using acoustic emission (AE) features. Four point bending test is carried out using pre-notched plain and fibre reinforced (0.5% and 1% volume fraction) - concrete under monotonic loading. AE sensors are affixed at different locations of the specimens and AE parameters such as rise time, AE energy, hits, counts, amplitude and duration etc. are obtained. Using the captured and processed AE event data, fracture process zone is identified and the true fracture energy is evaluated. The AE data is also employed for tracing the damage progression in plain and fibre reinforced concrete, using both parametric- and signal- based techniques. Hilbert - Huang transform (HHT) is used in signal based processing for evaluating instantaneous frequency of the acoustic events. It is found that the appropriately processed and carefully analyzed acoustic data is capable of providing vital information on progression of damage on different types of concrete.

Can Recurrence and Progression be Predicted by HYAL-1 Expression in Primary T1 Bladder Cancer?

  • Mammadov, Elnur;Aslan, Guven;Tuna, Burcin;Bozkurt, Ozan;Yorukoglu, Kutsal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10401-10405
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    • 2015
  • Background: Molecular prognostic markers have been under investigation for the last decade and no validated marker to date has been proven to be used in daily clinical practice for urinary bladder cancers. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the significance of HYAL-1 expression in prediction of recurrence and progression in pT1 urothelial carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Eighty-nine urothelial carcinoma cases staged as T1 according to 2004 WHO classification were studied. Representative sections from every case were stained immunohistochemically for HYAL-1 and scored between 0 and +3, according to staining density, and graded as low and high for the scores 0-1 and 2-3, respectively. Results: Of the 89 pT1 bladder cancer patients, HYAL-1 expression was high in 92.1% (82 patients; 72 patients +3 and 10 patients +2) and low in 7.9% (only 7 patients; 6 patients +1 and 1 patient 0) of the cases. Of the 89 patients, 38 (42.7%) had recurrence and 22 (24.7%) showed progression. HYAL-1 staining did not show significant characteristics for tumor grade, accompanying CIS, multiplicity, tumor size, age and sex. HYAL-1 expression did not have any prognostic value in estimating recurrence or progression. Conclusions: HYAL-1 expression was found to be high, but did not have any prognostic importance in T1 bladder urothelial carcinomas.

Unpolished Thai Rice Prevents ACF Formation and Dysplastic Progression in AOM-Induced Rats and Induces Apoptosis Through Redox Alteration in CaCo-2 Cells

  • Tammasakchai, Achiraya;Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat;Riengrojpitak, Suda;Suwannalert, Prasit
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2827-2832
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    • 2015
  • Oxidative stress is associated with colon carcinogenesis including aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and it plays an important role in pathophysiological changes in cancer cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of dietary unpolished Thai rice (UTR) on ACF formation and dysplastic progression in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. Anti-cancer efficacy of UTR regarding apoptotic induction and oxidative redox status in human colon cancer (CaCo-2) cells was also investigated. Rats given 20% and 70% of UTR in the diet showed significantly and dose-dependently decreased total number of ACF. UTR treatment also was strongly associated with the low percentage of dysplastic progression and mucin depletion. In addition, we found that UTR significantly induced cancer cell apoptosis, increased cellular oxidants, and decreased the level of GSH/GSSG ratio in CaCo-2 cells. Our study suggests that UTR supplementation may be a useful strategy for CRC prevention with the inhibition of precancerous progression, with induction of cancer cell apoptosis through redox alteration.

Association of serum carotenoid, retinol, and tocopherol concentrations with the progression of Parkinson's Disease

  • Kim, Ji Hyun;Hwang, Jinah;Shim, Eugene;Chung, Eun-Jung;Jang, Sung Hee;Koh, Seong-Beom
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.114-120
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A pivotal role of oxidative stress has been emphasized in the pathogenesis as well as in the disease progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed at investigating serum levels of antioxidant vitamins and elucidating whether they could be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of PD. MATERIALS/METHODS: Serum levels of retinol, ${\alpha}$- and ${\gamma}$-tocopherols, ${\alpha}$- and ${\beta}$-carotenes, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin and ${\beta}$-cryptoxanthin were measured and compared between 104 patients with idiopathic PD and 52 healthy controls matched for age and gender. In order to examine the relationship between antioxidant vitamins and the disease progression, multiple group comparisons were performed among the early PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage I and II, N = 47), advanced PD (stage III and IV, N = 57) and control groups. Separate correlation analyses were performed between the measured antioxidant vitamins and clinical variables, such as Hoehn and Yahr stage and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. RESULTS: Compared to controls, PD patients had lower levels of ${\alpha}$- and ${\beta}$-carotenes and lycopene. ${\alpha}$-carotene, ${\beta}$-carotene and lycopene levels were significantly reduced in advanced PD patients relative to early PD patients and were negatively correlated with Hoehn and Yahr stage and UPDRS motor score in PD patients. No significant differences were found in serum levels of retinol, ${\alpha}$- and ${\gamma}$-tocopherols, and other carotenoids between PD patients and controls. No significant correlations were found between these vitamin levels and clinical variables in PD patients. CONCLUSTIONS: We found that serum levels of some carotenoids, ${\alpha}$-carotene, ${\beta}$-carotene and lycopene, were lower in PD patients, and that these carotenoids inversely correlated with clinical variables representing disease progression. Our findings suggest that decreases in serum ${\alpha}$-carotene, ${\beta}$-carotene and lycopene may be associated with the pathogenesis as well as progression of PD.

Exploring Topic-Specific PCK Progression for Elementary Teachers Instruction of Astronomy: Focusing on the Topic of Planet Size and Distance in Solar System (천문 수업에 대한 초등 교사의 주제-특이적 PCK 발달과정 탐색 -태양계 행성의 크기와 거리 주제를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Kiyoung;Lee, Jeong-A
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.629-641
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    • 2016
  • Understanding of how teachers change instruction can help predict what kind of educational materials is supportive or appropriate. On the basis of this idea, we explored elementary teachers' PCK progression on specific topics of astronomy: planet size and distance in solar system. To identify the development of PCK over time, we utilized learning progression (LP) as a conceptual framework. The progression of teacher PCK can also be illustrated as the hypothetical pathway from novice to expert like LP. Eight 5th grade elementary teachers participated in this study. We observed participating teachers' astronomy classes with the same topic. In order to document topic-specific PCK of participating teachers, we developed an analytic protocol consisting of four categories: knowledge of curriculum, knowledge of teaching strategies, knowledge of assessment, and astronomical thinking practice. In addition, we monitored the changes in the four participating teachers' PCK for two years in order to validate the evidences of the PCK progression. Participating teachers in this study took some intervention by attending a four-week pre-meeting with the researchers to profile an adaptive instruction. Through this research, we profiled four and five different levels of PCK progressions in three knowledge components (curriculum, teaching strategies, student assessment) and one astronomical thinking practice (systems thinking), respectively. Participating teachers demonstrated various levels and pathways in each component of PCK. This study released the empirical evidences in fostering instructional scaffolding, which is appropriate to the level of PCK of science teachers on specific topic.

The Integrins Involved in Soybean Agglutinin-Induced Cell Cycle Alterations in IPEC-J2

  • Pan, Li;Zhao, Yuan;Yuan, Zhijie;Farouk, Mohammed Hamdy;Zhang, Shiyao;Bao, Nan;Qin, Guixin
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2017
  • Soybean agglutinin (SBA) is an anti-nutritional factor of soybean, affecting cell proliferation and inducing cytotoxicity. Integrins are transmembrane receptors, mediating a variety of cell biological processes. This research aims to study the effects of SBA on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of the intestinal epithelial cell line from piglets (IPEC-J2), to identify the integrin subunits especially expressed in IPEC-J2s, and to analyze the functions of these integrins on IPEC-J2 cell cycle progression and SBA-induced IPEC-J2 cell cycle alteration. The results showed that SBA lowered cell proliferation rate as the cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase (P < 0.05) was inhibited. Moreover, SBA lowered mRNA expression of cell cycle-related gene CDK4, Cyclin E and Cyclin D1 (P < 0.05). We successfully identified integrins ${\alpha}2$, ${\alpha}3$, ${\alpha}6$, ${\beta}1$, and ${\beta}4$ in IPEC-J2s. These five subunits were crucial to maintain normal cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in IPEC-J2s. Restrain of either these five subunits by their inhibitors, lowered cell proliferation rate, and arrested the cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle (P < 0.05). Further analysis indicated that integrin ${\alpha}2$, ${\alpha}6$, and ${\beta}1$ were involved in the blocking of G0/G1 phase induced by SBA. In conclusion, these results suggested that SBA lowered the IPEC-J2 cell proliferation rate through the perturbation of cell cycle progression. Furthermore, integrins were important for IPEC-J2 cell cycle progression, and they were involved in the process of SBA-induced cell cycle progression alteration, which provide a basis for further revealing SBA anti-proliferation and anti-nutritional mechanism.